Paxilline enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioma cells via modulation of c-FLIP, survivin and DR5.
ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells while sparing normal cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. Here, we report that paxilline, an indole alkaloid from Penicillium paxilli, can sensitize various glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. While treatment with TRAIL alone caused partial processing of caspase-3 to its p20 intermediate in TRAIL-resistant glioma cell lines, co-treatment with TRAIL and subtoxic doses of paxilline caused complete processing of caspase-3 into its active subunits. Paxilline treatment markedly upregulated DR5, a receptor of TRAIL, through a CHOP/GADD153-mediated process. In addition, paxilline treatment markedly downregulated the protein levels of the short form of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPs) and the caspase inhibitor, survivin, through proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results show that paxilline effectively sensitizes glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by modulating multiple components of the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway. Interestingly, paxilline/TRAIL co-treatment did not induce apoptosis in normal astrocytes, nor did it affect the protein levels of CHOP, DR5 or survivin in these cells. Thus, combined treatment regimens involving paxilline and TRAIL may offer an attractive strategy for safely treating resistant gliomas.
Project description:Amiodarone is a widely used anti-arrhythmic drug that inhibits diverse ion channels, including the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), L-type Ca(2+) channels, and Na(+) channels. Here, we report that subtoxic doses of amiodarone and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) synergistically induced apoptosis of various glioma cells. Treatment of U251MG glioma cells with amiodarone increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and enhanced the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). This upregulation of CHOP was followed by marked upregulation of the TRAIL receptor, DR5. Suppression of DR5 expression by small interfering (si) RNAs almost completely blocked amiodarone/TRAIL-induced apoptosis in U251MG glioma cells, demonstrating that DR5 is critical to this cell death. siRNA-mediated CHOP suppression reduced amiodarone-induced DR5 upregulation and attenuated the cell death induced by amiodarone plus TRAIL. In addition, omitting Ca(2+) from the external medium using ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid markedly inhibited this cell death, reducing the protein levels of CHOP and DR5. These results suggest that amiodarone-induced influx of Ca(2+) plays an important role in sensitizing U251MG cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through CHOP-mediated DR5 upregulation. Furthermore, subtoxic doses of bepridil and cibenzoline, two other anti-arrhythmic drugs with NCX-inhibitor activity, also sensitized glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, via the upregulation of both CHOP and DR5. Notably, amiodarone/TRAIL cotreatment did not induce cell death in astrocytes, nor did it affect the expression of CHOP or DR5 in these cells. These results collectively suggest that a combined regimen of amiodarone plus TRAIL may offer an effective therapeutic strategy for safely and selectively treating resistant gliomas.
Project description:A major problem in clinical trials of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as cancer therapy is the development of resistance to TRAIL. Therefore, agents that can overcome TRAIL resistance have great therapeutic potential. In this study, we evaluated capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, for its ability to sensitize human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Capsazepine potentiated the effect of TRAIL, as shown by its effect on intracellular esterase activity; activation of caspase-8,-9, and -3; and colony-formation assay. Capsazepine induced death receptors (DRs) DR5 and DR4, but not decoy receptors, at the transcriptional level and in a non-cell-type-specific manner. DR induction was dependent on CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), as shown by (a) the induction of CHOP by capsazepine and (b) the abolition of DR- and potentiation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by CHOP gene silencing. CHOP induction was also reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent, as shown by capsazepine's ability to induce ROS and by the quenching of ROS by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione, which prevented induction of CHOP and DR5 and consequent sensitization to TRAIL. Capsazepine's effects appeared to be mediated via JNK, as shown by capsazepine's ability to induce JNK and by the suppression of both CHOP and DR5 activation by inhibition of JNK. Furthermore, ROS sequestration abrogated the activation of JNK. Finally, capsazepine downregulated the expression of various antiapoptotic proteins (e.g., cFLIP and survivin) and increased the expression of proapoptotic proteins (e.g., Bax and p53). Together, our results indicate that capsazepine potentiates the apoptotic effects of TRAIL through downregulation of cell survival proteins and upregulation of death receptors via the ROS-JNK-CHOP-mediated pathway.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumour in humans and is highly resistant to current treatment modalities. We have explored the combined treatment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agent 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL WT) or the DR5-specific TRAIL D269H/E195R variant as a potential new strategy to eradicate GBM cells using TRAIL-resistant and -sensitive GBM cells. GBM cell lines were investigated for their sensitivity to TRAIL, DMC and combination of both agents. Cell viability was measured by MTS assay and apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V/PI and acridine orange staining. Caspase activation and protein expression levels were analysed with Western blotting. Death Receptor (DR) cell surface expression levels were quantified by flow cytometry. DR5 expression was increased in U87 cells by ectopic expression using a retroviral plasmid and survivin expression was silenced using specific siRNAs. We demonstrate that A172 expresses mainly DR5 on the cell surface and that these cells show increased sensitivity for the DR5-specific rhTRAIL D269H/E195R variant. In contrast, U87 cells show low DR cell surface levels and is insensitive via both DR4 and DR5. We determined that DMC treatment displays a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability against a number of GBM cells, associated with ER stress induction, as shown by the up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in A172 and U87 cells. The dramatic decrease in cell viability is not accompanied by a correspondent increase in Annexin V/PI or caspase activation typically seen in apoptotic or/and necrotic cells within 24h of treatment. Although DMC did not affect DR5 expression in the GBM cells, it increased TRAIL-induced caspase-8 activation in both TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant cells, indicating that DMC potentiates initiator caspase activation in these cells. In A172 cells, sub-toxic concentrations of DMC greatly potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, DMC strongly reduced survivin expression in A172 and U87 cells and silencing of this anti-apoptotic protein partially sensitized cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our findings corroborate that DMC is a promising agent against GBM, and uncovers a potential synergistic cooperation with TRAIL in this highly malignant cancer.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by hepatic steatosis, elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor 5 (DR5) is significantly elevated in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and steatotic hepatocytes demonstrate increased sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Nonetheless, a role for TRAIL and/or DR5 in mediating lipoapoptotic pathways is unexplored. Here, we examined the contribution of DR5 death signaling to lipoapoptosis by free fatty acids. The toxic saturated free fatty acid palmitate induces an increase in DR5 mRNA and protein expression in Huh-7 human hepatoma cells leading to DR5 localization into lipid rafts, cell surface receptor clustering with subsequent recruitment of the initiator caspase-8, and ultimately cellular demise. Lipoapoptosis by palmitate was not inhibited by a soluble human recombinant DR5-Fc chimera protein suggesting that DR5 cytotoxic signaling is ligand-independent. Hepatocytes from murine TRAIL receptor knock-out mice (DR(-/-)) displayed reduced palmitate-mediated lipotoxicity. Likewise, knockdown of DR5 or caspase-8 expression by shRNA technology attenuated palmitate-induced Bax activation and apoptosis in Huh-7 cells, without altering induction of ER stress markers. Similar observations were verified in other cell models. Finally, knockdown of CHOP, an ER stress-mediated transcription factor, reduced DR5 up-regulation and DR5-mediated caspase-8 activation upon palmitate treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that ER stress-induced CHOP activation by palmitate transcriptionally up-regulates DR5, likely resulting in ligand-independent cytotoxic signaling by this death receptor.
Project description:Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has shown efficacy in a phase 2 clinical trial, development of resistance to TRAIL by tumor cells is a major roadblock. We investigated whether quercetin, a flavonoid, can sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL. Results indicate that quercetin sensitized cancer cells to TRAIL. The quercetin induced expression of death receptor DR5 but did not affect expression of DR4 in cancer cells. The induction of DR5 was mediated through activation of JNK and through upregulation of a transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP); as silencing of these signaling molecules abrogated the effect of quercetin. Upregulation of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS scavengers reduced the effect of quercetin on JNK activation, CHOP upregulation, DR induction, TRAIL sensitization, downregulated the expression of cell survival proteins and upregulated the proapoptotic proteins. Furthermore, quercetin enhances TRAIL mediated inhibition of tumor growth of human SKOV-3 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, CHOP and DR5. Overall, our data suggest that quercetin enhances apoptotic death of ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL through upregulation of CHOP-induced DR5 expression following ROS mediated endoplasmic reticulum-stress.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Forced expression of CHOP, one of the key downstream transcription factors during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, upregulates the death receptor 5 (DR5) levels and promotes oxidative stress and cell death. In this study, we show that ER stress mediated by thapsigargin promoted CHOP and DR5 synthesis thus sensitizing TRAIL treatment, which induced ESCC cells apoptosis. These effects were reversed by DR5 siRNA in vitro and CHOP siRNA both in vitro and in vivo. Besides, chemically inhibition of AMPK by Compound C and AMPK siRNA weakened the anti-cancer effect of thapsigargin and TRAIL co-treatment. Therefore, our findings suggest ER stress effectively sensitizes human ESCC to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via the TRAIL-DR5-AMPK signaling pathway, and that activation of ER stress may be beneficial for improving the efficacy of TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor ?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent with cancer cell-selective cell death inducing effect. However, the major limitation in the usage of TRAIL as a chemotherapeutic agent is the development of TRAIL resistance in many cancer types including myeloid leukemia. In this study, we report for the first time that Medicarpin (Med), a naturally occurring phytoalexin sensitizes myeloid leukemia cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Combination of Med and TRAIL induced significantly higher apoptosis compared with that of the individual treatments of either agent alone through activation of both the extrinsic and the intrinsic cell death pathways characterized by the activation of caspases 8, 9, 3, and 7. Med treatment downregulated antiapoptotic proteins (Survivin, Bcl2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, and c-FLIP), upregulated pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Cytochrome C, Smac/Diablo, Bid, truncated Bid (tBid), p-eIF2?, Bip, and CHOP (CCAAT-enhancer binding protein homologous protein)), induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest, and increased the expression of the functional TRAIL receptor DR5 through activation of the ROS-JNK-CHOP pathway. Gain and loss of function studies clearly indicated that DR5 expression was critical for Med-induced TRAIL sensitization. The Med-induced TRAIL sensitization did not involve the NFkB signaling pathway or redistribution of DR5 in lipid rafts. The concomitant treatment with Med and TRAIL showed robust apoptotic effects in primary myeloid leukemia cells but had no toxic effects in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In conclusion, our results suggest that Med sensitizes myeloid leukemia cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the upregulation of DR5 through activation of the ROS-JNK-CHOP pathway.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively is able to increase apoptosis in cancer cells as agent with minimum toxicity to noncancerous cells. However, all cancer cells are not sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In this study, we showed the sub-lethal concentrations of a lysosomotropic autophagy inhibitor, IITZ-01, sensitizes cancer cells (renal, lung, and breast carcinoma) to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through DR5 upregulation and survivin downregulation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Knockdown of DR5 or overexpression of survivin inhibited combined treatment with IITZ-01 and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. IITZ-01 downregulated protein expression of Cbl, ubiquitin E3 ligase, and decreased expression level of Cbl markedly led to increase DR5 protein expression and TRAIL sensitivity. Moreover, IITZ-01 decreased expression level of survivin protein via downregulation of deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 9X (USP9X) expression. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that IITZ-01 enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through DR5 stabilization by downregulation of Cbl and USP9X-dependent survivin ubiquitination and degradation in renal carcinoma cells.
Project description:Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively kills tumor cells, it is being tested in cancer patients. Unfortunately, patients develop resistance to the cytokine, therefore, agents that can sensitize cells to TRAIL are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated whether dibenzylideneacetone (DBA) can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL and potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis. As indicated by accumulation of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine, DNA breaks, intracellular esterase activity, and activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3, we concluded that DBA potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. DBA also converted TRAIL resistant-cells to TRAIL-sensitive. When examined for the mechanism, we found that DBA decreased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and decoy receptor-2 and increased proapoptotic proteins. DBA also induced both death receptor (DR)-5 and DR4. Knockdown of DR5 and DR4 by small interfering RNA (SiRNA) reduced the sensitizing effect of DBA on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In addition, DBA increased the expression of CHOP proteins. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA decreased the induction of DBA-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis. Induction of receptors by DBA, however, was p53-independent, as deletion of p53 had no effect on receptor induction. We observed that DBA-induced induction of DR5 and DR4 was mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as N-acetylcysteine blocked the induction of death receptors and suppression of cell survival proteins by DBA. Overall, our results show that DBA potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through downregulation of cell survival proteins and upregulation of death receptors via activation of ROS and CHOP mediated pathways.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has significant apoptosis-inducing activity in some glioma cell lines, although many lines are either moderately or completely resistant, which has limited the therapeutic applicability of this agent. Because our recent studies showed that inhibition of proteasomal function may be independently active as an apoptosis-inducing stimulus in these tumors, we investigated the sensitivity of a panel of glioma cell lines (U87, T98G, U373, A172, LN18, LN229, LNZ308, and LNZ428) to TRAIL alone and in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Analysis of these cell lines revealed marked differences in their sensitivity to these treatments, with two (LNZ308 and U373) of the eight cell lines revealing no significant induction of cell death in response to TRAIL alone. No correlation was found between sensitivity of cells to TRAIL and expression of TRAIL receptors DR4, DR5, and decoy receptor DcR1, caspase 8, apoptosis inhibitory proteins XIAP, survivin, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl, and cFLIP. However, TRAIL-resistant cell lines exhibited a high level of basal NF-?B activity. Bortezomib was capable of potentiating TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant cells in a caspase-dependent fashion. Bortezomib abolished p65/NF-?B DNA-binding activity, supporting the hypothesis that inhibition of the NF-?B pathway is critical for the enhancement of TRAIL sensitization in glioma cells. Moreover, knockdown of p65/NF-?B by shRNA also enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating that p65/NF-?B may be important in mediating TRAIL sensitivity and the effect of bortezomib in promoting TRAIL sensitization and apoptosis induction.