Response prediction in chronic hepatitis C by assessment of IP-10 and IL28B-related single nucleotide polymorphisms.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:High baseline levels of IP-10 predict a slower first phase decline in HCV RNA and a poor outcome following interferon/ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Several recent studies report that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) adjacent to IL28B predict spontaneous resolution of HCV infection and outcome of treatment among HCV genotype 1 infected patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS:In the present study, we correlated the occurrence of variants at three such SNPs (rs12979860, rs12980275, and rs8099917) with pretreatment plasma IP-10 and HCV RNA throughout therapy within a phase III treatment trial (HCV-DITTO) involving 253 Caucasian patients. The favorable SNP variants (CC, AA, and TT, respectively) were associated with lower baseline IP-10 (P?=?0.02, P?=?0.01, P?=?0.04) and were less common among HCV genotype 1 infected patients than genotype 2/3 (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P?=?0.01). Patients carrying favorable SNP genotypes had higher baseline viral load than those carrying unfavorable variants (P?=?0.0013, P?=?0.029, P?=?0.0004 respectively). Among HCV genotype 1 infected carriers of the favorable C, A, or T alleles, IP-10 below 150 pg/mL significantly predicted a more pronounced reduction of HCV RNA from day 0 to 4 (first phase decline), which translated into increased rates of RVR (62%, 53%, and 39%) and SVR (85%, 76%, and 75% respectively) among homozygous carriers with baseline IP-10 below 150 pg/mL. In multivariate analyses of genotype 1-infected patients, baseline IP-10 and C genotype at rs12979860 independently predicted the first phase viral decline and RVR, which in turn independently predicted SVR. CONCLUSIONS:Concomitant assessment of pretreatment IP-10 and IL28B-related SNPs augments the prediction of the first phase decline in HCV RNA, RVR, and final therapeutic outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin-28B (IL28B) have received considerable interest for their association with sustained virological response (SVR) when treating patients of genotype-1 hepatitis C virus (GT1-HCV) chronic infection with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV). This study was to investigate the predictive power of IL28B SNPs for on-treatment responses and SVR in treatment-naïve patients with GT1-HCV chronic infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We analyzed ten SNPs of IL28B in 191 treatment-naïve patients with GT1-HCV chronic infection who received PegIFN/RBV. In these patients, rapid virological response (RVR), early virological response (EVR) and SVR were achieved in 69.6%, 95.8% and 68.6% of the patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P value) indicated age (0.96; 0.93-0.99; 0.012), low baseline viral load (4.65; 2.23-9.66; <0.001) and CC genotype of rs12979860 (7.74; 2.55-23.53; <0.001) but no other SNPs were independent predictors for SVR. In addition, none of the ten SNPs examined were associated with baseline viral load and stages of liver fibrosis. Regarding RVR, low baseline viral load (2.83; 1.40-5.73; 0.004) and CC genotype of rs12979860 (10.52; 3.45-32.04; <0.001) were two critical predictors. As for EVR, only CC genotype of rs12979860 (36.21; 6.68-196.38; <0.001) was the predictor. Similarly, for end of treatment response (ETR), CC genotype of rs12979860 (15.42; 4.62-51.18; <0.001) was the only predictor. For patients with RVR, only low baseline viral load (3.90; 1.57-9.68; 0.003) could predict the SVR. For patients without RVR, only rs12979860 (4.60; 1.13-18.65; 0.033) was the predictor for SVR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:rs12979860 is the critical predictor for RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR in treatment-naïve patients of GT1-HCV chronic infection. Furthermore, this SNP is the only predictor for SVR in patients without RVR. These results have provided evidence that rs12979860 is the ideal IL28B SNP for genetic testing in treating patients of GT1-HCV chronic infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The rs12979860 CC genotype of the interleukin 28B (IL28B) polymorphism is associated with high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) to peginterferon (PegIFN) and ribavirin (Rbv) in hepatitis C virus genotype-1 (HCV-1) patients. The impact of baseline predictors of treatment outcome and their interplay with viral kinetics in HCV-1 CC patients has not been fully evaluated. AIM:To identify baseline and on-therapy predictors of treatment failure in HCV-1 IL28B CC patients. METHODS:Treatment-naïve HCV-1 patients, compliant to PegIFN and Rbv who did not discontinue treatment for nonvirological reasons, were analyzed. RESULTS:109 HCV-1 IL28B CC were studied. Sixty were males, 39 with BMI >25, 69 with >600,000 IU/mL HCV RNA, 15 with HCV1a, and 30 with cirrhosis. Overall, 75 (69%) achieved an SVR; cirrhosis was the only baseline predictor of treatment failure (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.07-6.21) as SVR rates were 53% in cirrhotics versus 75% in noncirrhotics (P = 0.03). HCV RNA undetectability (<50 IU/mL) at week 4 (RVR) was achieved by 58 patients (53%). The SVR rates were independent of RVR in noncirrhotics, 76% (34/45) RVR (+) and 74% (25/34) RVR (-) (P = 0.9). In cirrhotic patients, SVR rates were significantly higher in RVR (+) compared to RVR (-) (10/13 (77%) versus 6/17 (35%) P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:In HCV-1 IL28B CC patients, cirrhosis is the only clinical baseline predictor of PegIFN and Rbv treatment failure. However, in IL28B CC cirrhotics, the achievement of RVR identifies those patients who still have high rates of SVR to Peg-IFN/Rbv therapy.
Project description:High plasma levels of interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) have been shown to be associated with impaired treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Whether IP-10 levels predict treatment in acute HCV infection is unknown.Patients with acute or early chronic HCV infection from the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC) cohort were evaluated. Baseline and on-treatment plasma IP-10 levels were measured by ELISA. IL28B genotype was determined by sequencing.Overall, 74 HCV mono-infected and 35 HIV/HCV co-infected patients were treated in ATAHC, of whom 89 were adherent to therapy and were included for analysis. IP-10 levels correlated with HCV RNA levels at baseline (r = 0.48, P<0.001) and during treatment. Baseline IP-10 levels were higher in patients who failed to achieve rapid virological response (RVR). Only one patient with a plasma IP-10 level >600 pg/mL achieved RVR. There was no association with IP-10 levels and early virological response (EVR) or sustained virological response (SVR).Baseline IP-10 levels are associated with early viral kinetics but not ultimate treatment outcome in acute HCV infection. Given previous data showing that patients with high baseline IP-10 are unlikely to spontaneously clear acute HCV infection, they should be prioritized for early antiviral therapy.
Project description:AIMS:The aim was to evaluate early viral kinetics in patients receiving mericitabine [hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleoside polymerase inhibitor] with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) and ribavirin in two clinical trials (PROPEL and JUMP-C). METHODS:We examined rapid virological responses (RVRs; week 4 HCV RNA <15?IU?ml(-1) ) and complete early virological responses (cEVR; week 12 HCV RNA <15?IU?ml(-1) ) in HCV genotype 1/4-infected patients receiving mericitabine (500 or 1000?mg) or placebo twice daily plus peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. RESULTS:Among IL28B rs12979860 CC genotype patients receiving 500 or 1000?mg mericitabine or placebo, respectively, RVR rates were 64.3% (95% confidence interval: 38.8-83.7%), 95.1% (83.9-98.7%) and 33.3% (20.2-49.7%), and cEVR rates were 100% (78.5-100%), 100% (91.4-100%) and 80.6% (65.0-90.3%). Among non-CC genotype patients, RVR rates were 26.5% (14.6-43.1%), 52.3% (43.0-61.3%) and 5.7% (2.2-13.8%), and cEVR rates were 76.5% (60.0-87.6%), 84.6% (76.6-90.1%) and 28.6% (19.3-40.1%), respectively. In multiple regression analysis, IL28B genotype (P < 0.0001), mericitabine dose (P < 0.0001) and bodyweight (P = 0.0009) were associated with first-phase (?) slope (change in log10 HCV RNA from baseline to week 1). CONCLUSIONS:Mericitabine-containing triple therapy reduces the impact of IL28B genotype on RVR and cEVR compared with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin dual therapy. The IL28B genotype, mericitabine dose and bodyweight are the most important factors associated with the ? slope, and there is no evidence of a pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between mericitabine and ribavirin.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis C is associated with non-specific symptoms including fever. We aimed to determine the association of temperature changes with interferon antiviral activity. METHODS:60 treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C (67% genotype 1/4/6, 33% genotype 2/3) were admitted to start peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in a clinical trial. Temperature was measured at baseline and 3 times daily for the first 24h and the maximal increase from baseline during that time (?Tmax) was determined. Serum HCV-RNA, interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs - CD274, ISG15, RSAD2, IRF7, CXCL10) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured at very early time points, and response kinetics calculated. The IL28B single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12979860, was genotyped. RESULTS:Temperatures rose by 1.2±0.8°C, peaking after 12.5h. ?Tmax was strongly associated with 1st phase virological decline (r=0.59, p<0.0001) and was independent of gender, cirrhosis, viral genotype or baseline HCV-RNA. The association with 1st phase decline was seen in patients with rs12979860CC genotype (r = 0.65, p <0.0001) but not in CT/TT (r = 0.13, p = 0.53) and patients with CC genotype had a higher DTmax (1.4 ± 0.8 C vs. 0.8 ± 0.6 +C, p = 0.001). DTmax was associated with 6- and 24-h induction of serum IP-10 and of PBMC ISG expression, but only in patients with rs12979860CC [corrected].?Tmax weakly predicted early virological response (AUC=0.68, CI 0.49-0.88). CONCLUSIONS:Temperature rise following peginterferon injection is closely associated with virological response and is modulated by IL28B polymorphism, reflecting host interferon-responsiveness.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:A combination of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (PR) is the standard therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. The impact of polymorphism of interleukin-28B (IL28B) on sustained virological response (SVR) to PR has been well documented in patients with CHC genotype-1 (GT1), but it is controversial in genotype-2 (GT2) CHC patients. This study investigated the predictability of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of IL28B on the treatment responses of PR in patients with CHC GT2. METHOD:197 CHC GT2 consecutive patients who received PR treatment in our prospective cohort were enrolled. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping, quantification of HCV-RNA and genotyping of the ten SNPs of IL28B were performed. Six SNPs of IL28B were chosen for analysis. The propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was applied using patients with CHC GT1 in another prospective cohort as a positive comparison to avoid covariate bias. RESULTS:The distribution of the six SNPs was similar in GT1 and GT2 patients. Five of these SNPs had strong association with treatment responses in GT1 but not in GT2 patients. After PSM analysis, these five SNPs still showed strong association with rapid virological response (RVR), cEVR and SVR in GT1 and had no influence in GT2 patients. Furthermore, rs12979860 and baseline viral load were the predictors for both RVR and SVR in GT1 patients. However, only baseline viral load could predict RVR and SVR in GT2 patients. In addition, in patients without RVR, rs12979860 was the only predictor for SVR in GT1 but no predictor for SVR was found in GT2. CONCLUSIONS:The genetic polymorphisms of IL28B had no impact on treatment responses in GT2 patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The role of ribavirin (RBV) in the treatment of recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) (acute/early chronic) is unclear, particularly in HIV-infected individuals. This study evaluated early virological decline during recent HCV therapy in HIV-uninfected individuals receiving pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) monotherapy and HIV-infected individuals receiving PEG-IFN/RBV. DESIGN:The Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C was a nonrandomized prospective study of patients with recent HCV. METHODS:All participants received PEG-IFN (24 weeks); HCV/HIV participants also received RBV. Early HCV RNA decline was assessed among adherent participants (?80% PEG-IFN, ?80% treatment). Logistic regression identified predictors of rapid virological response (RVR) (<10 IU/ml). RESULTS:Of 109 treated, 82% were adherent (HCV, n=57; HCV/HIV, n=32). Overall, RVR was 51% (HCV: 55% vs. HCV/HIV: 43%; P=0.323). Factors independently associated with RVR included duration of infection less than 26 weeks, HCV RNA below 5.6 log(10) IU/ml at baseline and HCV genotype 2/3 infection. Between baseline and week 12, mean decline in HCV RNA was greater in HCV/HIV participants (PEG-IFN/RBV) compared to HCV participants (PEG-IFN) (4.19 vs. 3.32 log(10) IU/ml; P=0.029). Greater HCV RNA decline was observed in those treated with RBV, particularly amongst those with an estimated duration of infection at least 26 weeks and those with unfavourable IL28B genotypes. Adherent HIV-uninfected and infected participants had similar early virological response (76 vs. 90%; P=0.102) and sustained virological response (63 vs. 75%; P=0.253), respectively. RVR was highly predictive of sustained virological response (adjusted odds ratio 4.09; 1.49, 11.25). CONCLUSION:The results of this study suggest a potential benefit for PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy in maximizing virological responses in HCV/HIV participants with recent HCV, particularly those with a longer duration of HCV infection and unfavourable IL28B genotypes.
Project description:AIM: To evaluate the influence of the presence of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) 3DS1 on HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients. METHODS: HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included. KIR3DS1, their specific HLA-B ligands and IL28B gene were genotyped. Reductions of plasma HCV RNA levels between baseline and week 1, week 2 and week 4 were analyzed for IL28B genotype and KIR3DS1 (HLA Bw4 or Bw6). Rapid and sustained virological response (RVR and SVR) rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients were included. Patients with KIR3DS1 and Bw4 had higher rates of HCV viral decline than those who were not carriers of KIR3DS1 (week 1: p?=?0.01; week 2: p?=?0.038; week 4: p?=?0.03). Patients carrying KIR3DS1/Bw4 had higher rates of RVR and SVR than those who did not carry KIR3DS1 (RVR: 46.15% versus 17.02%, p?=?0.012; SVR: 63.6% versus 13 26.5%, p?=?0.031). With respect to patients carrying the IL28B-CC genotype, those with KIR3DS1/Bw4 had greater rates of HCV viral clearance (week 1: p<0.001; week 2: p?=?0.01; week 4: p?=?0.02), RVR (p?=?0.015) and SVR (p?=?0.029) than those not carrying KIR3DS1. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the KIR3DS1 genotype has a positive effect on HCV viral clearance during the first weeks of Peg-IFN/RBV treatment in HCV/HCV co-infected patients bearing genotype 1, and higher RVR and SVR rates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sustained virological response (SVR) and virological relapse maintain pivotal roles in the management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC); however, there is little data regarding the long-term outcomes of patients with CHC in China. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate the predictive factors of therapeutic effect and viral relapse in patients who achieved end-of-treatment response (ETR). PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed clinical, biochemical and virological data of 169 adult patients with CHC from China who were not treated with pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG IFN-?) and ribavirin, of which 142 achieved ETR and with a follow-up period ranging from six months to six years. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 20.0. RESULTS:Of the 169 patients, 124 (73.4%) achieved SVR and 23 (16.2%) experienced relapses post-therapy in cases of ETR patients. We considered sex, age, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, baseline hepatitis C virus RNA level, HCV genotypes, IL28B rs12979860 genotype, rapid virological response (RVR), and early virological response (EVR). For antiviral effect in patients with CHC, HCV genotypes (2, 3) (?(2) = 11.285, P = 0.001), IL28B genotype (rs12979860 CC) (?(2) = 16.552, P < 0.001), RVR (?(2) = 37.339, P < 0.001), and EVR (?(2) = 70.265, P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with achieving SVR. For ETR patients with long-term follow-up, the relapse rate within six months was significantly higher than within other periods during six-year follow-up (?(2) = 7.792, P = 0.005). Relapse was virtually not observed after therapy ceased for 48 weeks. The IL28B genotype (rs12979860 CT/TT) (OR = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.031-0.339; P < 0.001), lower RVR (OR = 0.239; 95% CI, 0.078-0.738; P = 0.013), and EVR (OR = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.016-0.661; P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for relapse. CONCLUSIONS:Our study comprehensively explored the predictive factors of therapeutic effect of administered drugs and analyzed viral relapse during a six-months to six-year follow-up period from China. The SVR may not be the perfect endpoint of HCV therapy in Chinese people; we recommend 48 weeks after treatment withdrawal as the suitable time point.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the early viral kinetics and interleukin-28B (IL28B) polymorphisms of hepatitis C genotype 6 during pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy. METHODS:Sixty-five patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) were included, of whom 15 (23.1%), 16 (24.6%) and 34 (52.3%) patients were infected with hepatitis C genotype 1 (HCV-1), genotype 3 (HCV-3) and genotype 6 (HCV-6), respectively. Serum HCV-RNA levels were measured frequently during the first 4-wk of therapy. DNA extracted from samples was analyzed for the IL28B single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12979860 by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. RESULTS:During the first 4-wk of therapy, the mean viral decline for patients with HCV-6 (5.55 ± 1.82 log??IU/mL) was comparable to that of patients with HCV-3 (5.55 ± 1.82 log??IU/mL vs 5.86 ± 1.02 log??IU/mL, P = 0.44) and was significantly higher than patients with HCV-1 (5.55 ± 1.82 log??IU/mL vs 4.23 ± 1.99 log??IU/mL, P = 0.04). In the HCV-6 group, the first phase (days 0-2) viral decline was significantly higher in patients with the favorable rs12979860 CC than non-CC genotypes (2.46 ± 1.01 log??IU/mL/wk vs 1.70 ± 0.67 log??IU/mL, respectively, P = 0.045). A statistically insignificant decrease in the second-phase (days 7-28) decline was also found in patients with the CC genotype than those with the non-CC genotype, though not significantly different (1.24 ± 0.64 log??IU/mL/wk vs 0.80 ± 0.65 log??IU/mL/wk, respectively, P = 0.172). At baseline, the SNP genotype was an independent predictor of rapid virological response but not of sustained virological response. CONCLUSION:The IL28B genotype was linked to an impact on early viral kinetics in response to PEG-IFN/RBV therapy in HCV-6 infected patients.