Novel therapies for resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FONT) phase II clinical trial: study design.
ABSTRACT: The lack of adequate randomized clinical trials (RCT) has hindered identification of new therapies that are safe and effective for patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), especially in patients who fail to respond to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies. Recent basic science advances have led to development of alternative treatments that specifically target aberrant pathways of fibrosis which are relevant to disease progression in FSGS. There is a need for a flexible Phase II study design which will test such novel antifibrotic strategies in order to identify agents suitable for phase III testing.The Novel Therapies for Resistant Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FONT) project is a multicenter Phase I/II RCT designed to investigate the potential efficacy of novel therapies for resistant FSGS. Adalimumab and galactose will be evaluated against conservative therapy consisting of the combination of lisinopril, losartan and atorvastatin. The sample size is defined to assure that if one of the treatments has a superior response rate compared to that of the other treatments, it will be selected with high probability for further evaluation. Comparison of primary and secondary endpoints in each study arm will enable a choice to be made of which treatments are worthy of further study in future Phase III RCT.This report highlights the key features of the FONT II RCT including the two-step outcome analysis that will expedite achievement of the study objectives. The proposed phase II study design will help to identify promising agents for further testing while excluding ineffective agents. This staged approach can help to prevent large expenditures on unworthy therapeutic agents in the management of serious but rare kidney diseases.
Project description:Patients with resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) who are unresponsive to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents are at very high risk of progression to end stage kidney disease. In the absence of curative treatment, current therapy centers on renoprotective interventions that reduce proteinuria and fibrosis. The FONT (Novel Therapies for Resistant FSGS) Phase II clinical trial (NCT00814255, Registration date December 22, 2008) was designed to assess the efficacy of adalimumab and galactose compared to standard medical therapy which was comprised of lisinopril, losartan, and atorvastatin.Key eligibility criteria were biopsy confirmed primary FSGS or documentation of a causative genetic mutation, urine protein:creatinine ratio >1.0 g/g, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >40 ml/min/1.73 m(2). The experimental treatments - adalimumab, galactose, standard medical therapy-- were administered for 26 weeks. The primary endpoint was a 50 % reduction in proteinuria with stable eGFR.Thirty-two subjects were screened and 21 were assigned to one of the three study arms. While none of the adalimumab-treated subjects achieved the primary outcome, 2 subjects in the galactose and 2 in the standard medical therapy arm had a 50 % reduction in proteinuria without a decline in eGFR. The proteinuria response did not correlate with serial changes in the serum glomerular permeability activity measured by the Palb assay or soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). There were no serious adverse effects related to treatments in the study.Recruitment into this trial that addressed patients with resistant FSGS fell short of the enrollment goal. Our findings suggest that future studies of novel therapies for rare glomerular diseases such as FSGS may benefit from enrollment of patients earlier in the course of their disease. In addition, better identification of patients who are likely to respond to a new treatment based on biomarkers suggesting involvement of the disease pathway targeted by the experimental agent may reduce the required sample size and increase the likelihood of a favorable outcome.
Project description:Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is an important cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in adults and children. It is responsible for 5-20% of all cases of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the United States. The pathogenesis of FSGS has not been fully elucidated; however, data from molecular studies of familial cases in the last two decades suggest that FSGS is a defect of the podocyte. The therapeutic agents available for treatment of FSGS are not very effective and only a small percentage of affected individuals will achieve complete remission. Recent data from molecular biology and molecular genetics has provided insight into the mechanisms of action of old agents and also identification of other novel therapeutic targets. This review focuses on recent advances in the molecular pathogenesis of FSGS and currently available therapeutic agents as well as potential novel therapies.
Project description:Transcriptome comparison of tubular tissues from kidneys with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and tubular tissues from the unaffected portion of tumor nephrectomies. High-density Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Arrays (HTA) 2.0 were used for the gene expression analysis. Overall design: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common podocytopathy. Renal tubular tissues from 5 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis patients and 5 controls were manually isolated under a stereomicroscope using 2 dissection needle holders in RNAlater at 4°C.Affymetrix HTA 2.0 microarray was used to perform a global analysis of the gene expression pattern in the tissues.
Project description:Transcriptome comparison of tubulointerstitial tissues from kidneys with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and tubulointerstitial tissues from the unaffected portion of surgical nephrectomies. High-density Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Arrays (HTA) 2.0 were used for the gene expression analysis. Overall design: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common podocytopathy. Renal tubulointerstitial tissues from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis patients and controls were manually isolated under a stereomicroscope using 2 dissection needle holders in RNAlater at 4°C.Affymetrix HTA 2.0 microarray was used to perform a global analysis of the gene expression pattern in the tissues.
Project description:Transcriptome comparison of glomeruli from kidneys with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and glomeruli from the unaffected portion of tumor nephrectomies. High-density Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Arrays (HTA) 2.0 were used for the gene expression analysis. Overall design: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common podocytopathy. Renal glomerular tissues from 5 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis patients and 5 controls were manually isolated under a stereomicroscope using 2 dissection needle holders in RNAlater at 4°C.Affymetrix HTA 2.0 microarray was used to perform a global analysis of the gene expression pattern in the tissues.
Project description:The recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and molecular function of glomerular filtration barrier come directly from genetic linkage and positional cloning studies. The exact role and function of the newly discovered genes and proteins are being investigated by in vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies. Those genes and proteins interactions seem to change susceptibility to kidney disease progression. Better understanding of their exact role in the development of FSGS may influence future therapies and outcomes in this complex disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We evaluated and compared the effects of sparsentan, a dual endothelin type A (ETA) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, with those of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with primary FSGS. METHODS:In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, active-control Efficacy and Safety of Sparsentan (RE-021), a Dual Endothelin Receptor and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, in Patients with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): A Randomized, Double-blind, Active-Control, Dose-Escalation Study (DUET), patients aged 8-75 years with biopsy-proven FSGS, eGFR>30 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C) ?1.0 g/g received sparsentan (200, 400, or 800 mg/d) or irbesartan (300 mg/d) for 8 weeks, followed by open-label sparsentan only. End points at week 8 were reduction from baseline in UP/C (primary) and proportion of patients achieving FSGS partial remission end point (FPRE) (UP/C: ?1.5 g/g and >40% reduction [secondary]). RESULTS:Of 109 patients randomized, 96 received study drugs and had baseline and week 8 UP/C measurements. Sparsentan-treated patients had greater reductions in UP/C than irbesartan-treated patients did when all doses (45% versus 19%; P=0.006) or the 400 and 800 mg doses (47% versus 19%; P=0.01) were pooled for analysis. The FSGS partial remission end point was achieved in 28% of sparsentan-treated and 9% of irbesartan-treated patients (P=0.04). After 8 weeks of treatment, BP was reduced with sparsentan but not irbesartan, and eGFR was stable with both treatments. Overall, the incidence of adverse events was similar between groups. Hypotension and edema were more common among sparsentan-treated patients but did not result in study withdrawals. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with FSGS achieved significantly greater reductions in proteinuria after 8 weeks of sparsentan versus irbesartan. Sparsentan was safe and well tolerated.
Project description:Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histological term that describes a pathologic renal entity affecting both adults and children, with a wide array of possible underlying etiologies. Podocyte damage with scarring, the hallmark of this condition, leads to altered permeability of the glomerular barrier, which may result in massive proteinuria and relentless renal function deterioration. A definite cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis can be confirmed in a minority of cases, while most forms have been traditionally labeled as primary or idiopathic. Despite this definition, increasing evidence indicates that primary forms are a heterogenous group rather than a single disease entity: several circulating factors that may affect glomerular permeability have been proposed as potential culprits, and both humoral and cellular immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Consistently, immunosuppressive drugs are considered as the cornerstone of treatment for primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but response to these agents and long-term outcomes are highly variable. In this review we provide a summary of historical and recent advances on the pathogenesis of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, focusing on implications for its differential diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Although C1q nephropathy (C1qN) was introduced three decades ago, the clinical significance and renal outcomes of C1qN remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of C1qN, including renal outcomes, by performing a matched comparison within a multicenter cohort. We enrolled 6,413 adult patients who underwent kidney biopsy between January 2000 and January 2018 at three tertiary hospitals in Korea. We compared the clinical characteristics of 23 patients with C1qN with those of patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or minimal change disease (MCD) who were matched by age, sex, diabetic status, and a period of biopsy. Histological and clinical parameters in patients with C1qN were also evaluated according to the different pathological phenotypes. For a mean follow-up period of 92 months, 4 patients with C1qN (17.4%) developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). None of the matched patients with MCD had ESRD, but 7 (30.4%) of patients with FSGS progressed to ESRD, which was not different from that of C1qN patients (p = 0.491). Laboratory and pathological findings, except segmental glomerulosclerosis, were not notably different between FSGS and C1qN. The presence of segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity, and podocyte effacement did not affect both the short- and long-term renal outcomes in patients with C1qN. Our study showed that the renal outcomes of C1qN are comparable with those of FSGS, and not with MCD. Specific pathological findings, including segmental glomerulosclerosis in C1qN, were not associated with renal outcomes, which may suggest homogeneity in the clinical features of C1qN.
Project description:To search for biomarkers to differentiate Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD). Compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between patients with FSGS and patients with MCD using microarray analysis. This dataset is part of the TransQST collection.