A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of counseling and alarm device on HAART adherence and virologic outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Behavioral interventions that promote adherence to antiretroviral medications may decrease HIV treatment failure. Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa confront increasing financial constraints to provide comprehensive HIV care, which include adherence interventions. This study compared the impact of counseling and use of an alarm device on adherence and biological outcomes in a resource-limited setting.A randomized controlled, factorial designed trial was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Antiretroviral-naïve individuals initiating free highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the form of fixed-dose combination pills (d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine) were randomized to one of four arms: counseling (three counseling sessions around HAART initiation), alarm (pocket electronic pill reminder carried for 6 months), counseling plus alarm, and neither counseling nor alarm. Participants were followed for 18 months after HAART initiation. Primary study endpoints included plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count every 6 months, mortality, and adherence measured by monthly pill count. Between May 2006 and September 2008, 400 individuals were enrolled, 362 initiated HAART, and 310 completed follow-up. Participants who received counseling were 29% less likely to have monthly adherence <80% (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.01; p?=?0.055) and 59% less likely to experience viral failure (HIV-1 RNA ?5,000 copies/ml) (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21-0.81; p?=?0.01) compared to those who received no counseling. There was no significant impact of using an alarm on poor adherence (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65-1.32; p?=?0.7) or viral failure (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.53-1.84; p?=?1.0) compared to those who did not use an alarm. Neither counseling nor alarm was significantly associated with mortality or rate of immune reconstitution.Intensive early adherence counseling at HAART initiation resulted in sustained, significant impact on adherence and virologic treatment failure during 18-month follow-up, while use of an alarm device had no effect. As antiretroviral treatment clinics expand to meet an increasing demand for HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, adherence counseling should be implemented to decrease the development of treatment failure and spread of resistant HIV.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>PEARLS, a large scale trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV (n?=?1,571, 9 countries, 4 continents), found that a once-daily protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen (ATV+DDI+FTC), but not a once-daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI/NRTI) regimen (EFV+FTC/TDF), had inferior efficacy compared to a standard of care twice-daily NNRTI/NRTI regimen (EFV+3TC/ZDV). The present study examined non-adherence in PEARLS.<h4>Methods</h4>Outcomes: non-adherence assessed by pill count and by self-report, and time to treatment failure. Longitudinal predictors: regimen, quality of life (general health perceptions ?=? QOL-health, mental health ?=? QOL-mental health), social support, substance use, binge drinking, and sexual behaviors. "Life-Steps" adherence counseling was provided.<h4>Results</h4>In both pill-count and self-report multivariable models, both once-a-day regimens had lower levels of non-adherence than the twice-a-day standard of care regimen; although these associations attenuated with time in the self-report model. In both multivariable models, hard-drug use was associated with non-adherence, living in Africa and better QOL-health were associated with less non-adherence. According to pill-count, unprotected sex was associated with non-adherence. According to self-report, soft-drug use was associated with non-adherence and living in Asia was associated with less non-adherence. Both pill-count (HR?=?1.55, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.09, p<.01) and self-report (HR?=?1.13, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.13, p<.01) non-adherence were significant predictors of treatment failure over 72 weeks. In multivariable models (including pill-count or self-report nonadherence), worse QOL-health, age group (younger), and region were also significant predictors of treatment failure.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In the context of a large, multi-national, multi-continent, clinical trial there were variations in adherence over time, with more simplified regimens generally being associated with better adherence. Additionally, variables such as QOL-health, regimen, drug-use, and region play a role. Self-report and pill-count adherence, as well as additional psychosocial variables, such QOL-health, age, and region, were, in turn, associated with treatment failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is still elusive in most developing nations. We asked whether peer support influenced adherence and treatment outcome and if a single viral load (VL) could define treatment failure in a resource-limited setting. METHODS:A multicenter longitudinal and cross-sectional survey of VL, CD4 T cells, and adherence in 546 patients receiving HAART for up to 228 months. VL and CD4 counts were determined using m2000 Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and FACS counters, respectively. Adherence was assessed based on pill count and on self-report. RESULTS:Of the patients, 55.8%, 22.2%, and 22% had good, fair, and poor adherence, respectively. Adherence, peer support, and regimen, but not HIV disclosure, age, or gender, independently correlated with VL and durability of treatment in a multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). Treatment failure was 35.9% using sequential VL but ranged between 27% and 35% using alternate single VL cross-sectional definitions. More patients failed stavudine (41.2%) than zidovudine (37.4%) or tenofovir (28.8%, P = 0.043) treatment arms. Peer support correlated positively with adherence (?(2), P < 0.001), with nonadherence being highest in the stavudine arm. VL before the time of regimen switch was comparable between patients switching and not switching treatment. Moreover, 36% of those switching still failed the second-line regimen. CONCLUSION:Weak adherence support and inaccessible VL testing threaten to compromise the success of HAART scale-up in Kenya. To hasten antiretroviral therapy monitoring and decision making, we suggest strengthening patient-focused adherence programs, optimizing and aligning regimen to WHO standards, and a single point-of-care VL testing when multiple tests are unavailable.
Project description:Few HIV antiretroviral adherence interventions target patients before they start treatment, assess adherence readiness to determine the timing of treatment initiation, or tailor the amount of adherence support. The Supporting Treatment Adherence Readiness through Training (START) intervention, based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills model of behavior change, is designed to address these gaps with the inclusion of (1) brief pill-taking practice trials for enhancing pretreatment adherence counseling and providing a behavioral criterion for determining adherence readiness and the timing of treatment initiation and (2) a performance-driven dose regulation mechanism to tailor the amount of counseling to the individual needs of the patient and conserve resources. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effects of START on antiretroviral adherence and HIV virologic suppression.A sample of 240 patients will be randomized to receive START or usual care at one of two HIV clinics. Primary outcomes will be optimal dose-taking adherence (>85 % prescribed doses taken), as measured with electronic monitoring caps, and undetectable HIV viral load. Secondary outcomes will include dose-timing adherence (>85 % prescribed doses taken on time) and CD4 count. Primary endpoints will be month 6 (short-term effect) and month 24 (to test durability of effect), though electronic monitoring will be continuous and a fully battery of assessments will be administered every 6 months for 24 months.If efficacious and cost-effective, START will provide clinicians with a model for assessing patient adherence readiness and helping patients to achieve and sustain readiness and optimal treatment benefits.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02329782 . Registered on 22 December 2014.
Project description:Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become more potent and better tolerated. While the current treatment regimens still have limitations, they are more effective, more convenient, and less toxic than regimens used in the early HAART era, and new agents, formulations and strategies continue to be developed. Simplification of therapy is an option for many patients currently being treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The main goals are to reduce pill burden, improve quality of life and enhance medication adherence, while minimizing short- and long-term toxicities, reducing the risk of virologic failure and maximizing cost-effectiveness. ART simplification strategies that are currently used or are under study include the use of once-daily regimens, less toxic drugs, fixed-dose coformulations and induction-maintenance approaches. Improved adherence and persistence have been observed with the adoption of some of these strategies. The role of regimen simplification has implications not only for individual patients, but also for health care policy. With increased interest in ART regimen simplification, it is critical to study not only implications for individual tolerability, toxicity, adherence, persistence and virologic efficacy, but also cost, scalability, and potential for dissemination and implementation, such that limited human and financial resources are optimally allocated for maximal efficiency, coverage and sustainability of global HIV/AIDS treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We examined trends in adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HIV RNA suppression and estimated the minimum cutoff of adherence to newer HAART formulations needed for HIV RNA suppression by regimen type. METHODS:We used Veterans Affairs pharmacy dispensing data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort between October 2000 and September 2010 and defined adherence as the duration of time the patient had the medications available, relative to the total number of days between refills for all antiretrovirals in a year. Temporal trends in adherence and viral load suppression were examined by the patient's most frequently used HAART regimen in the year. The minimum needed adherence was defined as the level at which the odds of suppression was not significantly different than that observed with ? 95% adherence using repeated-measures logistic regression. RESULTS:A total of 21,865 HAART users contributed 82,217 person-years of follow-up. There was a significant increase (P(trend) < 0.001) in the proportion virally suppressed even among those with <95% adherence (2001: 38% to 2010: 84%), and the trend was similar when restricting to their first HAART regimen. For nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor multi-pill users, the odds of suppression did not differ for 85%-89% adherence compared to those with ? 95% adherence [odds ratios: 0.82 (0.64-1.04)], but for protease inhibitor users, the odds of suppression significantly differed if adherence levels were <95% compared to ? 95% adherence. CONCLUSIONS:Although all HIV-infected persons should be instructed to achieve perfect adherence, concerns of slightly lower adherence should not hinder prescribing new HAART regimens early in HIV infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1-infected individuals prevents sexual transmission if viral load is suppressed. METHODS:Participants were HIV-1-infected partners randomized to early ART (CD4 350-550) in HPTN052 (n = 886, median follow-up = 2.1 years), a clinical trial of early ART to prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples at 13 sites in 9 countries. Adherence was assessed through pill count (dichotomized at <95%) and through self-report items. Predictors of adherence were mental health and general health perceptions, substance use, binge drinking, social support, sexual behaviors, and demographics. Viral suppression was defined as HIV plasma viral load <400 copies per milliliter. Adherence counseling and couples' counseling about safer sex were provided. Logistic and linear regression models using generalized estimating equation for repeated measurements were used. FINDINGS:Through pill count, 82% of participants were adherent at 1 month and 83.3% at 1 year. Mental health was the only psychosocial variable associated with adherence [pill count, odds ratios (OR) = 1.05, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.00 to 1.11; self-report parameter estimate, OR = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04], although regional differences emerged. Pill count (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.30) and self-report (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.77) adherence were associated with viral suppression. INTERPRETATION:Although adherence was high among individuals in stable relationships taking ART for prevention, mental health and adherence covaried. Assessing and intervening on mental health in the context of promoting adherence to ART as prevention should be explored. Adherence and couples' counseling, feedback about viral suppression, and/or altruism may also help explain the magnitude of adherence observed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens changes occur frequently among HIV-infected persons. Duration and type of initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and factors associated with regimen switching were evaluated in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS:Participants were classified according to the calendar period of HAART initiation: T1 (1996-2001), T2 (2002-2005), and T3 (2006-2009). Kaplan-Meier curves depicted time from HAART initiation to first regimen changes within 5.5 years. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine factors associated with time to switching. RESULTS:Of 1009 participants, 796 changed regimen within 5.5 years after HAART initiation. The percentage of participants who switched declined from 85% during T1 to 49% in T3. The likelihood of switching in T3 decreased by 50% (P < 0.01) compared with T1 after adjustment for pre-HAART ART use, age, race, and CD4 count. Incomplete HIV suppression decreased over time (P < 0.01) but predicted switching across all time periods. Lower HAART adherence (?95% of prescribed doses) was predictive of switching only in T1. In T2, central nervous system symptoms predicted switching [relative hazard (RH) = 1.7; P = 0.012]. Older age at HAART initiation was associated with increased switching in T1 (RH = 1.03 per year increase) and decreased switching in T2 (RH = 0.97 per year increase). CONCLUSIONS:During the first 15 years of the HAART era, initial HAART regimen duration lengthened and regimen discontinuation rates diminished. Both HIV RNA nonsuppression and poor adherence predicted switching before 2001 while side effects that were possibly ART related were more prominent during T2.
Project description:The convergent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) pandemics continue to collectively exact significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been a critical component in combating the scourge of these two conditions as both a preemptive and therapeutic modality. However, concomitant administration of antiretroviral and antituberculous therapies poses significant challenges, including cumulative drug toxicities, drug-drug interactions, high pill burden, and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), thus complicating the management of coinfected individuals. This paper will review data from recent studies regarding the optimal timing of HAART initiation relative to TB treatment, with the ultimate goal of improving coinfection-related morbidity and mortality while mitigating toxicity resulting from concurrent treatment of both infections.
Project description:HIV-1 drug resistance monitoring in resource-poor settings is crucial due to limited drug alternatives. Recent reports of the increased prevalence of CXCR4 usage in subtype C infections may have implications for CCR5 antagonists in therapy. We investigated the prevalence of drug resistance mutations and CXCR4 coreceptor utilization of viruses from HIV-1 subtype C-infected children. Fifty-one children with virological failure during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 43 HAART-naive children were recruited. Drug resistance genotyping and coreceptor utilization assessment by phenotypic and genotypic methods were performed. At least one significant drug resistance mutation was present in 85.4% of HAART-failing children. Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) were detected in 58.5% of HAART-failing children and 39.0% had ?3 TAMs. CXCR4 (X4) or dual (R5X4)/mixed (R5, X4) (D/M)-tropic viruses were found in 54.3% of HAART-failing and 9.4% of HAART-naive children (p<0.0001); however, the HAART-failing children were significantly older (p<0.0001). In multivariate logistic regression, significant predictors of CXCR4 usage included antiretroviral treatment, older age, and lower percent CD4(+) T cell counts. The majority of genotypic prediction tools had low sensitivity (?65.0%) and high specificity (?87.5%) for predicting CXCR4 usage. Extensive drug resistance, including the high percentage of TAMs found, may compromise future drug choices for children, highlighting the need for improved treatment monitoring and adherence counseling. Additionally, the increased prevalence of X4/D/M viruses in HAART-failing children suggests limited use of CCR5 antagonists in salvage therapy. Enhanced genotypic prediction tools are needed as current tools are not sensitive enough for predicting CXCR4 usage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limited health literacy is a known barrier to medication adherence among people living with HIV. Adherence improvement interventions are urgently needed for this vulnerable population. PURPOSE:This study tested the efficacy of a pictograph-guided adherence skills-building counseling intervention for limited literacy adults living with HIV. METHODS:Men and women living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy (N = 446) who scored <90% correct on a test of functional health literacy were partitioned into marginal and lower literacy groups and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 adherence-counseling conditions: (1) pictograph-guided adherence counseling, (2) standard adherence counseling, or (3) general health improvement counseling. Participants were followed for 9 months postintervention with unannounced pill count adherence and blood plasma viral load as primary end points. RESULTS:Preliminary analyses demonstrated the integrity of the trial and >90% of participants were retained. Generalized estimating equations showed significant interactions between counseling conditions and levels of participant health literacy across outcomes. Participants with marginal health literacy in the pictograph-guided and standard-counseling conditions demonstrated greater adherence and undetectable HIV viral loads compared with general health counseling. In contrast and contrary to hypotheses, participants with lower health literacy skills in the general health improvement counseling demonstrated greater adherence compared with the 2 adherence counseling conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with marginal literacy skills benefit from adherence counseling regardless of pictographic tailoring, and patients with lower literacy skills may require more intensive or provider-directed interventions.