Myocardial parvovirus B19 persistence: lack of association with clinicopathologic phenotype in adults with heart failure.
ABSTRACT: Multiple viruses have been isolated from the heart, but their significance remains controversial. We sought to determine the prevalence of cardiotropic viruses in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) samples from adult patients with heart failure (HF) and to define the clinicopathologic profile of patients exhibiting viral positivity.EMB from 100 patients (median ejection fraction, 30%; interquartile range [IQR], 20% to 45%) presenting for cardiomyopathy evaluation (median symptom duration, 5 months; IQR, 1 to 13 months) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and parvovirus B19. Each isolate was sequenced, and viral load was determined. Parvovirus B19 was the only virus detected in EMB samples (12% of subjects). No patient had antiparvovirus IgM antibodies, but all had IgG antibodies, suggesting viral persistence. The clinical presentation of parvovirus-positive patients was markedly heterogeneous with both acute and chronic HF, variable ventricular function, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. No patient met Dallas histopathologic criteria for active or borderline myocarditis. Two patients with a positive cardiac MRI and presumed "parvomyocarditis" had similar viral loads to autopsy controls without heart disease. The oldest parvovirus-positive patients were positive for genotype 2, suggesting lifelong persistence in the myocardium.Parvovirus B19 was the only virus isolated from EMB samples in this series of adult patients with HF from the United States. Positivity was associated with a wide array of clinical presentations and HF phenotypes. Our studies do not support a causative role for parvovirus B19 persistence in HF and, therefore, advocate against the use of antiviral therapy for these patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human parvovirus B19 infection generally displays a self-limiting course followed by viral clearance; although, in some cases, persistent infection may occur. Few cases of severe pulmonary disease following primary infection in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients were reported. OBJECTIVES:To investigate the prevalence and clinical impact of parvovirus B19 in the lower respiratory tract. STUDY DESIGN:The prevalence of parvovirus B19-DNA was evaluated by Real-Time PCR in 264 bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) from 189 adult patients over a full-year period and related to demographic characteristics, underlying pathologies, immune status, admission to intensive care unit, mortality within 28 days, and discharge diagnosis. RESULTS:Parvovirus B19-DNA was detected in 7/189 (3.7%) patients, without significant association to demographic characteristics, immune status, transplant versus non-transplant status, admission to intensive care unit, presence of haematological conditions. In two lung transplant recipients surveillance specimens were positive to B19. Four of the remaining five patients presented respiratory insufficiency. A significant association to mortality was found, as 3/7 (42.9%) positive patients died within 28 days. No patient presented serological evidence of recent or acute infection and viremia. CONCLUSIONS:Parvovirus B19 may be detected at low frequency in BAL specimens from patients with different pathological backgrounds. This finding could be due to chronic infection with virus persistence in the lower respiratory tract, also in the absence of symptoms unequivocally attributable to B19. The high rate of mortality warrants the need for further studies to evaluate the opportunity to consider parvovirus B19 in the diagnostic work-up of lower respiratory tract infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. RESULTS: B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×10(2)-1.1×10(5) copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. DISCUSSION: This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety.
Project description:Latent microorganism infection is a safety concern for the clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study is to investigate the frequencies and sensitivities of the latent virus and mycoplasma infections in synovium, bone marrow, peripheral blood cells, and blood plasma and cultured synovial MSCs.Total DNA and RNA of the synovium (n = 124), bone marrow (n = 123), peripheral blood cells (n = 121), plasma (n = 121), and 14-day cultured synovial MSCs (n = 63) were collected from patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty or anterior ligament reconstruction after written informed consents were obtained. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to quantitatively measure the representative genomes of 13 DNA viruses, 6 RNA viruses, and 9 mycoplasmas. Multi-spliced mRNA detection and virus spike test were also performed to demonstrate the sensitivity of synovial MSCs to the candidate pathogens.In synovium and bone marrow, the positive rates of parvovirus B19 genome were significantly higher than in peripheral blood cells (18.7% and 22% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Multi-alignment analysis of amplified and sequenced viral target genes showed the proximity of the parvovirus B19 gene from different tissue in the same patients. Synovial MSCs cultured for 14 days were positive for virus infection only in two patients (2/62 = 3%). Parvovirus B19 multi-spliced mRNAs were not detected in these two samples. Virus spike test demonstrated the sensitivity of synovial MSCs to herpes simplex virus (HSV)1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV), but not to parvovirus B19.This study revealed a relatively high incidence of latent parvovirus B19 in synovium and bone marrow tissue.
Project description:Febrile patients PCR positive for H1N1 swine flu, seasonal H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 in nasal swabs and controls consisting of febrile patients with rhinovirus infection or febrile patients of non-viral etiology (nasal swabs PCR negative for common respiratory viruses and blood PCR negative for dengue and parvovirus B19) were assessed consecutively for global transcriptional changes in whole blood Peripheral whole blood collected in PAX-gene tubes and extracted for total RNA
Project description:Although human B19 parvovirus infection has been clearly associated with a number of distinct syndromes (including severe anemia, abortion, and arthritis), detailed knowledge of its pathogenesis has been hindered by the lack of a suitable animal model. We have identified a novel simian parvovirus in cynomolgus monkeys with severe anemia. Sequencing of a 723-bp fragment of cloned viral DNA extracted from serum revealed that the simian parvovirus has 65% homology at the DNA level with the human B19 parvovirus but little homology with other known parvoviruses. Light microscopic examination of bone marrow from infected animals showed intranuclear inclusion bodies, and ultrastructural studies showed viral arrays characteristic of parvoviruses. Another striking feature was the presence of marked dyserythropoiesis in cells of the erythroid lineage, raising the possibility that B19 parvovirus infection may underlie related dyserythropoietic syndromes in human beings. Affected animals had concurrent infection with the immunosuppressive type D simian retrovirus, analogous to HIV patients who develop severe anemia because of infection with B19 parvovirus. The remarkable similarities between the simian and B19 parvoviruses suggest that experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys may serve as a useful animal model of human B19 infection.
Project description:Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a global infection with over 50% of infected children residing in sub-Saharan Africa. It causes persistent anaemia under immuno-compromised states such as HIV infection, thereby complicating the course of HIV infection. This study was therefore designed to determine the prevalence and genotypes of B19V among HIV positive children. Blood specimens were collected from HIV positive children and genomic DNA extracted and assayed for the presence of Parvovirus B19 DNA using polymerase chain reaction and the product detected by gel electrophoresis. Amplicons for positive PCR were purified and sequenced for genotype analysis. For the purpose of comparison (differences in the sequences of the NS1/VP1u region), nine HIV negative children were enrolled in this study. Two (1.3%) of the 158 HIV infected children were positive for Parvovirus B19 DNA. Analysis of the results showed a low prevalence of Parvovirus B19 among HIV positive children but a significant relationship was established between Parvovirus B19 infection and the severity of anaemia (p=0.015). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data showed that all the B19 virus isolates detected in this study were genotype 1. This study therefore has been able to give an insight to the prevalence and circulating genotypes of Parvovirus B19 among HIV infected children and also establishing a relationship between anaemia and parvovirus B19 infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Case-control studies suggest that acute infection transiently increases the risk of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that an unbiased pathogen discovery approach utilizing MassTag-polymerase chain reaction would identify pathogens in the blood of childhood arterial ischemic stroke cases. METHODS:The multicenter international VIPS study (Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke) enrolled arterial ischemic stroke cases, and stroke-free controls, aged 29 days through 18 years. Parental interview included questions on recent infections. In this pilot study, we used MassTag-polymerase chain reaction to test the plasma of the first 161 cases and 34 controls enrolled for a panel of 28 common bacterial and viral pathogens. RESULTS:Pathogen DNA was detected in no controls and 14 cases (8.7%): parvovirus B19 (n=10), herpesvirus 6 (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and rhinovirus 6C (n=1). Parvovirus B19 infection was confirmed by serologies in all 10; infection was subclinical in 8. Four cases with parvovirus B19 had underlying congenital heart disease, whereas another 5 had a distinct arteriopathy involving a long-segment stenosis of the distal internal carotid and proximal middle cerebral arteries. CONCLUSIONS:Using MassTag-polymerase chain reaction, we detected parvovirus B19-a virus known to infect erythrocytes and endothelial cells-in some cases of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. This approach can generate new, testable hypotheses about childhood stroke pathogenesis.
Project description:Background. Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common finding in endomyocardial biopsy specimens from myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy patients. However, current understanding of how B19V is contributing to cardiac damage is rather limited due to the lack of appropriate mice models. In this work we demonstrate that immunization of BALB/c mice with the major immunogenic determinant of B19V located in the unique sequence of capsid protein VP1 (VP1u) is an adequate model to study B19V associated heart damage. Methods and Results. We immunized mice in the experimental group with recombinant VP1u; immunization with cardiac myosin derived peptide served as a positive reference and phosphate buffered saline served as negative control. Cardiac function and dimensions were followed echocardiographically 69 days after immunization. Progressive dilatation of left ventricle and decline of ejection fraction were observed in VP1u- and myosin-immunized mice. Histologically, severe cardiac fibrosis and accumulation of heart failure cells in lungs were observed 69 days after immunization. Transcriptomic profiling revealed ongoing cardiac remodeling and immune process in VP1u- and myosin-immunized mice. Conclusions. Immunization of BALB/c mice with VP1u induces dilated cardiomyopathy in BALB/c mice and it could be used as a model to study clinically relevant B19V associated cardiac damage.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects women, characterized by the production of autoantibodies. Its causal agent is unknown, but the combination of environmental, hormonal and genetic factors may favor the development of the disease. Parvovirus B19 has been associated with the development of SLE, since it induces the production of anti-single stranded DNA antibodies. It is unknown whether PV-B19 infection is an environmental factor that trigger or reactivate SLE in the Mexican Mayan population.A preliminary serological and molecular study of PV-B19 infection in Mayan women with established SLE was done.IgG and IgM anti PV-B19 were evaluated in 66 SLE patients and 66 control subjects, all women of Mayan origin. Viral DNA and viral load were analyzed by qPCR.Insignificant levels of IgM were observed in 14.3% (4/28) of the patients and 11.4% (4/35) of control subjects. IgG was detected in 82.1% (23/28) of the patients and 82.9% (29/35) of control subjects, but were significantly higher in patients. Viral DNA was found in 86.0% (57/66) of the patients and 81.0% (54/66) of control subjects. Viral load, quantified in 28/66 patients and 31/66 controls which were positive for IgM and IgG, was significantly higher in controls.The high prevalence of PV-B19 in Yucatan, and the presence of IgM, IgG, and viral load in Mayan women with established SLE suggest that PV-B19 infection could be an environmental factor to trigger or reactivate SLE.
Project description:RATIONALE:Parvovirus B19 has been linked to polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), but there is some controversy about its pathogenesis regarding whether it is triggered by the immune complex or by the activated immune cells that phagocytose viruses. PATIENT CONCERNS:A 38-year-old woman was admitted with fever and bicytopenia. She also complained of a painful palpable nodule in the left forearm. DIAGNOSIS:Her bone marrow aspirate revealed erythroblasts in abnormal megaloblastic changes, some of which presented with pseudopods, and parvovirus B19 was positive in a PCR analysis of her blood, which was compatible with parvovirus B19-induced hemophagocytic syndrome. Skin excisional biopsy of the nodule on the left forearm revealed a heavy inflammatory cell infiltrate throughout whole layers of a medium-sized vessel, the characteristic feature of PAN. PCR analysis of the vasculitis tissue showed a positive result for parvovirus B19. INTERVENTIONS:Her symptoms spontaneously resolved with supportive care. OUTCOMES:She underwent regular follow-up without recurrence of vasculitis-associated symptoms. LESSONS:This case highlights the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in vasculitis tissues, which can support the role of cellular immune response in the pathogenesis of parvovirus-associated PAN.