Evolution of major milk proteins in Mus musculus and Mus spretus mouse species: a genoproteomic analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Due to their high level of genotypic and phenotypic variability, Mus spretus strains were introduced in laboratories to investigate the genetic determinism of complex phenotypes including quantitative trait loci. Mus spretus diverged from Mus musculus around 2.5 million years ago and exhibits on average a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in every 100 base pairs when compared with any of the classical laboratory strains. A genoproteomic approach was used to assess polymorphism of the major milk proteins between SEG/Pas and C57BL/6J, two inbred strains of mice representative of Mus spretus and Mus musculus species, respectively. RESULTS: The milk protein concentration was dramatically reduced in the SEG/Pas strain by comparison with the C57BL/6J strain (34 ± 9 g/L vs. 125 ± 12 g/L, respectively). Nine major proteins were identified in both milks using RP-HPLC, bi-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-Tof mass spectrometry. Two caseins (? and ?s1) and the whey acidic protein (WAP), showed distinct chromatographic and electrophoresis behaviours. These differences were partly explained by the occurrence of amino acid substitutions and splicing variants revealed by cDNA sequencing. A total of 34 SNPs were identified in the coding and 3'untranslated regions of the SEG/Pas Csn1s1 (11), Csn2 (7) and Wap (8) genes. In addition, a 3 nucleotide deletion leading to the loss of a serine residue at position 93 was found in the SEG/Pas Wap gene. CONCLUSION: SNP frequencies found in three milk protein-encoding genes between Mus spretus and Mus musculus is twice the values previously reported at the whole genome level. However, the protein structure and post-translational modifications seem not to be affected by SNPs characterized in our study. Splicing mechanisms (cryptic splice site usage, exon skipping, error-prone junction sequence), already identified in casein genes from other species, likely explain the existence of multiple ?s1-casein isoforms both in SEG/Pas and C57BL/6J strains. Finally, we propose a possible mechanism by which the hallmark tandem duplication of a 18-nt exon (14 copies) may have occurred in the mouse genome.
Project description:A LINE-1 element, LIC105, was found in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain, C57BL/6J. Upon sequencing, this element was found to belong to a M. spretus LINE-1 subfamily originating within the last 0.2 million years. This is the second spretus-specific LINE-1 subfamily found to be represented in C57BL/6J. Although it is unclear how these M. spretus LINE-1s transferred from M. spretus to M. m. domesticus, it is now clear that at least two different spretus LINE-1 sequences have recently transferred. The limited divergence between the C57BL/6J spretus-like LINE-1s and their closest spretus ancestors suggests that the transfer did not involve an exceptionally long lineage of sequential transpositions.
Project description:Morphological integration and modularity within semi-autonomous modules are essential mechanisms for the evolution of morphological traits. However, the genetic makeup responsible for the control of variational modularity is still relatively unknown. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic variation for mandible shape clustered into two morphogenetic components: the alveolar group and the ascending ramus. We used the mouse as a model system to investigate genetics determinants of mandible shape. To do this, we used a combination of geometric morphometric tools and a set of 18 interspecific recombinant congenic strains (IRCS) derived from the distantly related species, Mus spretus SEG/Pas and Mus musculus C57BL/6. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis comparing mandible morphometry between the C57BL/6 and the IRCSs identified 42 putative SEG/Pas segments responsible for the genetic variation. The magnitude of the QTL effects was dependent on the proportion of SEG/Pas genome inherited. Using a multivariate correlation coefficient adapted for modularity assessment and a two-block partial least squares analysis to explore the morphological integration, we found that these QTL clustered into two well-integrated morphogenetic groups, corresponding to the ascending ramus and the alveolar region. Together, these results provide evidence that the mouse mandible is subjected to genetic coordination in a modular manner.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mus spretus diverged from Mus musculus over one million years ago. These mice are genetically and phenotypically divergent. Despite the value of utilizing M. musculus and M. spretus for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, relatively little genomic information on M. spretus exists, and most of the available sequence and polymorphic data is for one strain of M. spretus, Spret/Ei. In previous work, we mapped fifteen loci for skin cancer susceptibility using four different M. spretus by M. musculus F1 backcrosses. One locus, skin tumor susceptibility 5 (Skts5) on chromosome 12, shows strong linkage in one cross. RESULTS: To identify potential candidate genes for Skts5, we sequenced 65 named and unnamed genes and coding elements mapping to the peak linkage area in outbred spretus, Spret/EiJ, FVB/NJ, and NIH/Ola. We identified polymorphisms in 62 of 65 genes including 122 amino acid substitutions. To look for polymorphisms consistent with the linkage data, we sequenced exons with amino acid polymorphisms in two additional M. spretus strains and one additional M. musculus strain generating 40.1 kb of sequence data. Eight candidate variants were identified that fit with the linkage data. To determine the degree of variation across M. spretus, we conducted phylogenetic analyses. The relatedness of the M. spretus strains at this locus is consistent with the proximity of region of ascertainment of the ancestral mice. CONCLUSION: Our analyses suggest that, if Skts5 on chromosome 12 is representative of other regions in the genome, then published genomic data for Spret/EiJ are likely to be of high utility for genomic studies in other M. spretus strains.
Project description:Introgressed variants from other species can be an important source of genetic variation because they may arise rapidly, can include multiple mutations on a single haplotype, and have often been pretested by selection in the species of origin. Although introgressed alleles are generally deleterious, several studies have reported introgression as the source of adaptive alleles-including the rodenticide-resistant variant of Vkorc1 that introgressed from Mus spretus into European populations of Mus musculus domesticus. Here, we conducted bidirectional genome scans to characterize introgressed regions into one wild population of M. spretus from Spain and three wild populations of M. m. domesticus from France, Germany, and Iran. Despite the fact that these species show considerable intrinsic postzygotic reproductive isolation, introgression was observed in all individuals, including in the M. musculus reference genome (GRCm38). Mus spretus individuals had a greater proportion of introgression compared with M. m. domesticus, and within M. m. domesticus, the proportion of introgression decreased with geographic distance from the area of sympatry. Introgression was observed on all autosomes for both species, but not on the X-chromosome in M. m. domesticus, consistent with known X-linked hybrid sterility and inviability genes that have been mapped to the M. spretus X-chromosome. Tract lengths were generally short with a few outliers of up to 2.7 Mb. Interestingly, the longest introgressed tracts were in olfactory receptor regions, and introgressed tracts were significantly enriched for olfactory receptor genes in both species, suggesting that introgression may be a source of functional novelty even between species with high barriers to gene flow.
Project description:The Sry (sex determining region, Y chromosome) open reading frame from mice representing four species of the genus Mus was sequenced in an effort to understand the conditional dysfunction of some M. domesticus Sry alleles when present on the C57BL/6J inbred strain genetic background and to delimit the functionally important protein regions. Twenty-two Sry alleles were sequenced, most from wild-derived Y chromosomes, including 11 M. domesticus alleles, seven M. musculus alleles and two alleles each from the related species M. spicilegus and M. spretus. We found that the HMG domain (high mobility group DNA binding domain) and the unique regions are well conserved, while the glutamine repeat cluster (GRC) region is quite variable. No correlation was found between the predicted protein isoforms and the ability of a Sry allele to allow differentiation of ovarian tissue when on the C57BL/6J genetic background, strongly suggesting that the cause of this sex reversal is not the Sry protein itself, but rather the regulation of SRY expression. Furthermore, our interspecies sequence analysis provides compelling evidence that the M. musculus and M. domesticus SRY functional domain is contained in the first 143 amino acids, which includes the HMG domain and adjacent unique region (UR-2).
Project description:The mammalian vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses two G-protein coupled receptor gene families that mediate pheromone responses, the V1R and V2R receptor genes. In rodents, there are ~150 V1R genes comprising 12 subfamilies organized in gene clusters at multiple chromosomal locations. Previously, we showed that several of these subfamilies had been extensively modulated by gene duplications, deletions, and gene conversions around the time of the evolutionary split of the mouse and rat lineages, consistent with the hypothesis that V1R repertoires might be involved in reinforcing speciation events. Here, we generated genome sequence for one large cluster containing two V1R subfamilies in Mus spretus, a closely related and sympatric species to Mus musculus, and investigated evolutionary change in these repertoires along the two mouse lineages.We describe a comparison of spretus and musculus with respect to genome organization and synteny, as well as V1R gene content and phylogeny, with reference to previous observations made between mouse and rat. Unlike the mouse-rat comparisons, synteny seems to be largely conserved between the two mouse species. Disruption of local synteny is generally associated with differences in repeat content, although these differences appear to arise more from deletion than new integrations. Even though unambiguous V1R orthology is evident, we observe dynamic modulation of the functional repertoires, with two of seven V1Rb and one of eleven V1Ra genes lost in spretus, two V1Ra genes becoming pseudogenes in musculus, two additional orthologous pairs apparently subject to strong adaptive selection, and another divergent orthologous pair that apparently was subjected to gene conversion.Therefore, eight of the 18 (~44%) presumptive V1Ra/V1Rb genes in the musculus-spretus ancestor appear to have undergone functional modulation since these two species diverged. As compared to the rat-mouse split, where modulation is evident by independent expansions of these two V1R subfamilies, divergence between musculus and spretus has arisen more by mutations within coding sequences. These results support the hypothesis that adaptive changes in functional V1R repertoires contribute to the delineation of very closely related species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Genetic determinism of cranial morphology in the mouse is still largely unknown, despite the localization of putative QTLs and the identification of genes associated with Mendelian skull malformations. To approach the dissection of this multigenic control, we have used a set of interspecific recombinant congenic strains (IRCS) produced between C57BL/6 and mice of the distant species Mus spretus (SEG/Pas). Each strain has inherited 1.3% of its genome from SEG/Pas under the form of few, small-sized, chromosomal segments.<h4>Results</h4>The shape of the nasal bone was studied using outline analysis combined with Fourier descriptors, and differential features were identified between IRCS BcG-66H and C57BL/6. An F2 cross between BcG-66H and C57BL/6 revealed that, out of the three SEG/Pas-derived chromosomal regions present in BcG-66H, two were involved. Segments on chromosomes 1 (?32 Mb) and 18 (?13 Mb) showed additive effect on nasal bone shape. The three chromosomal regions present in BcG-66H were isolated in congenic strains to study their individual effect. Epistatic interactions were assessed in bicongenic strains.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results show that, besides a strong individual effect, the QTL on chromosome 1 interacts with genes on chromosomes 13 and 18. This study demonstrates that nasal bone shape is under complex genetic control but can be efficiently dissected in the mouse using appropriate genetic tools and shape descriptors.
Project description:In Mus spretus, the chloride channel 4 gene Clcn4-2 is X-linked and dosage compensated by X up-regulation and X inactivation, while in the closely related mouse species Mus musculus, Clcn4-2 has been translocated to chromosome 7. We sequenced Clcn4-2 in M. spretus and identified the breakpoints of the evolutionary translocation in the Mus lineage. Genetic and epigenetic differences were observed between the 5'ends of the autosomal and X-linked loci. Remarkably, Clcn4-2 introns have been truncated on chromosome 7 in M. musculus as compared with the X-linked loci from seven other eutherian mammals. Intron sequences specifically preserved in the X-linked loci were significantly enriched in AT-rich oligomers. Genome-wide analyses showed an overall enrichment in AT motifs unique to the eutherian X (except for genes that escape X inactivation), suggesting a role for these motifs in regulation of the X chromosome.
Project description:We evaluated the suitability of high-throughput transcriptomics approach to monitor terrestrial ecosystems. Free-living Mus spretus from several polluted sites of Huelva (Andalusia, SW Spain) were compared with mice from DoM-CM-1ana Biological Reserve (M-bM-^@M-^\Santa OlallaM-bM-^@M-^] lagoon (SOL) used as negative control). As most popular bioindicators, M. spretus is poorly represented in gene databases, therefore limiting the use of genomics in ecotoxicological studies. To solve this problem, we used microarrays produced from mRNAs of M. musculus. Specifically we used the One-Color Gene Expression Platform commercialized by Agilent. Gene expression in Mus spretus liver was assessed in mice from 5 sites of the Spanish Southwest. Five independent experiments were performed. The arrays were hybridized with labelled cRNA samples made from pooled livers of 9 mice per sampling site. We made 4 technichal repetitions per sample.
Project description:We studied the evolution of alternative splicing in the early stages of species divergence in the house mouse. We sequenced the testis transcriptomes of three Mus musculus subspecies and Mus spretus using Illumina technology. On the basis of a genome-wide analysis of read coverage differences among subspecies, we identified several hundred candidate alternatively spliced regions.