Quantification of protein phosphorylation by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: The identification and quantification of specific phosphorylation sites within a protein by mass spectrometry has proved challenging when measured from peptides after protein digestion because each peptide has a unique ionization efficiency that alters with modification, such as phosphorylation, and because phosphorylation can alter cleavage by trypsin, shifting peptide distribution. In addition, some phosphorylated peptides generated by tryptic digest are small and hydrophilic and, thus, are not retained well on commonly used C18 columns. We have developed a novel C-terminal peptide (2)H-labeling derivatization strategy and a mass balance approach to quantify phosphorylation. We illustrate the application of our method using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry by quantifying phosphorylation of troponin I with protein kinase A and protein kinase C. The method also improves the retention and elution of hydrophilic peptides. The method defines phosphorylation without having to measure the phosphorylated peptides directly or being affected by variable miscleavage. Measurement of phosphorylation is shown to be linear (relative standard error <5%) with a detection limit of <10%.
Project description:Attempts to characterize recombinant integral membrane proteins (IMPs) by mass spectrometry are frequently hindered by several factors including the detergents required for extraction and purification that interferes with analysis, poor solubility, incomplete digestion, and limited identification of the transmembrane domain-spanning peptides. The goal of this study was to examine and develop methods for purification of an IMP that are amenable to downstream digestion of the protein and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry. In this study, we have overexpressed a candidate IMP, the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) in Pichia pastoris and examined conditions for the efficient affinity purification, in-solution digestion, and analysis of the protein. Analysis of the intact purified protein without detergent was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The purified IMP was digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were identified. A method that utilizes differential solubility and ionization properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic peptides was developed. Large hydrophobic peptides were only detected in solutions containing 50% formic acid. Ionization of hydrophilic peptides was suppressed in formic acid, but they produced a strong signal in 50% acetonitrile. Eighty-seven percent sequence coverage of the protein was obtained with only one large hydrophobic peptide that remained unidentified. The results demonstrate a simple method to purify and digest a recombinant IMP for analysis by mass spectrometry.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation is a critical post-translational modification (PTM). Despite recent technological advances in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)-mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, comprehensive phosphoproteomic coverage in complex biological systems remains challenging, especially for hydrophilic phosphopeptides with enriched regions of serines, threonines, and tyrosines that often orchestrate critical biological functions. To address this issue, we developed a simple, easily implemented method to introduce a commonly used tandem mass tag (TMT) to increase peptide hydrophobicity, effectively enhancing RPLC-MS analysis of hydrophilic peptides. Different from conventional TMT labeling, this method capitalizes on using a nonprimary amine buffer and TMT labeling occurring before C18-based solid phase extraction. Through phosphoproteomic analyses of MCF7 cells, we have demonstrated that this method can greatly increase the number of identified hydrophilic phosphopeptides and improve MS detection signals. We applied this method to study the peptide QPSSSR, a very hydrophilic tryptic peptide located on the C-terminus of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) CXCR3. Identification of QPSSSR has never been reported, and we were unable to detect it by traditional methods. We validated our TMT labeling strategy by comparative RPLC-MS analyses of both a hydrophilic QPSSSR peptide library as well as common phosphopeptides. We further confirmed the utility of this method by quantifying QPSSSR phosphorylation abundances in HEK 293 cells under different treatment conditions predicted to alter QPSSSR phosphorylation. We anticipate that this simple TMT labeling method can be broadly used not only for decoding GPCR phosphoproteome but also for effective RPLC-MS analysis of other highly hydrophilic analytes.
Project description:Peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled with targeted mass spectrometry is a quantitative approach for the robust and reproducible quantification of peptide analytes. The approach is capable of multiplexed quantification of peptides, including posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation. Anti-peptide antibodies are used to enrich analytes and heavy stable isotope-labeled standards. The enriched peptides are directly measured by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), a well-characterized quantitative mass spectrometry-based method. Quantification is performed by measuring the analyte (light) peptide response relative to the heavy standard, which is spiked at a known concentration. Here, we describe the methodology for multiplexed measurement of phosphorylated peptides on the ATM kinase and their nonmodified peptide analogs in cellular lysates. The method provides quantitative measurements of phospho-signaling and can be extended to a number of other phosphopeptides and sample types.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous and critical post-translational modification (PTM) involved in numerous cellular processes. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has emerged as the preferred technology for protein identification, characterization, and quantification. Whereas ionization/detection efficiency of peptides in electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS are markedly influenced by the presence of phosphorylation, the physicochemical properties of intact proteins are assumed not to vary significantly due to the relatively smaller modification on large intact proteins. Thus, the ionization/detection efficiency of intact phosphoprotein is hypothesized not to alter appreciably for subsequent MS quantification. However, this hypothesis has never been rigorously tested. Herein, we systematically investigated the impact of phosphorylation on ESI-MS quantification of mono- and multiply phosphorylated proteins. We verified that a single phosphorylation did not appreciably affect the ESI-MS quantification of phosphoproteins as demonstrated in the enigma homolog isoform 2 (28 kDa) with monophosphorylation. Moreover, different ionization and desolvation parameters did not impact phosphoprotein quantification. In contrast to monophosphorylation, multiphosphorylation noticeably affected ESI-MS quantification of phosphoproteins likely due to differential ionization/detection efficiency between unphosphorylated and phosphorylated proteoforms as shown in the pentakis-phosphorylated ?-casein (24 kDa).
Project description:Despite advances in methods and instrumentation for analysis of phosphopeptides using mass spectrometry, it is still difficult to quantify the extent of phosphorylation of a substrate because of physiochemical differences between unphosphorylated and phosphorylated peptides. Here we report experiments to investigate those differences using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for a set of synthetic peptides by creating calibration curves of known input ratios of peptides/phosphopeptides and analyzing their resulting signal intensity ratios. These calibration curves reveal subtleties in sequence-dependent differences for relative desorption/ionization efficiencies that cannot be seen from single-point calibrations. We found that the behaviors were reproducible with a variability of 5-10% for observed phosphopeptide signal. Although these data allow us to begin addressing the issues related to modeling these properties and predicting relative signal strengths for other peptide sequences, it is clear that this behavior is highly complex and needs to be further explored.
Project description:This article contains peptides mapping, mass spectrometry and processed data related to the research "Identification and quantification of the phosphorylated ovalbumin by high resolution mass spectrometry under dry-heating treatment" . Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) was used to investigate the specific phosphorylation sites and the degree of phosphorylation (DSP) at each site. Specifically, phosphorylated peptides were monitored through mass shift on the FTICR MS spectrum. DSP was evaluated through the relative abundance levels of the FTICR MS spectrometry. From these data, the calculation method of DSP was exemplified.
Project description:Ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is typically employed for phosphoproteome analysis. Alternatively, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)-ESI-MS/MS has great potential for phosphoproteome analysis due to the significantly different migration times of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of peptides. In this work, we systematically compared UPLC-MS/MS and CZE-MS/MS for phosphorylated peptide identifications (IDs) using an enriched phosphoproteome from the MCF-10A cell line. When the sample loading amount of UPLC was 10 times higher than that of CZE (2 ?g vs 200 ng), UPLC generated more phosphorylated peptide IDs than CZE (3313 vs 1783). However, when the same sample loading amounts were used for CZE and UPLC (2-200 ng), CZE-MS/MS consistently and significantly outperformed UPLC-MS/MS in terms of phosphorylated peptide and total peptide IDs. This superior performance is most likely due to the higher peptide intensity generated by CZE-MS/MS. More importantly, compared with UPLC data from a 2 ?g sample, CZE-MS/MS can identify over 500 unique phosphorylated peptides from a 200 ng sample, suggesting that CZE and UPLC are complementary for phosphorylated peptide IDs. With further improved loading capacity via a dynamic pH junction method, 2313 phosphorylated peptides were identified with single-shot CZE-MS/MS in a 100 min analysis. This number of phosphorylated peptide IDs is over 1 order of magnitude higher than the number of phosphorylated peptide IDs previously reported by single-shot CZE-MS/MS.
Project description:Electrostatic repulsion hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique that is increasingly being used as a trapping/enrichment tool for glycopeptides/phosphorylated peptides or sample fractionation in proteomics research. Here, we describe a novel ERLIC-MS/MS-based peptide mapping method that was successfully used for the characterization of denosumab, in particular the analysis of sequence coverage, terminal peptides, methionine oxidation, asparagine deamidation and glycopeptides. Compared to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)-MS/MS methods, ERLIC demonstrated unique advantages in the retention of small peptides, resulting in 100% sequence coverage for both the light and heavy chains. It also demonstrated superior performance in the separation and characterization of asparagine deamidated peptides, which is known to be challenging by RPLC-MS/MS. The developed method can be used alone for peptide mapping-based characterization of monoclonal antibodies, or as an orthogonal method to complement the RPLC-MS/MS method. This study extends the applications of ERLIC from that of a trapping/fractioning column to biologic therapeutics characterization. The ERLIC-MS/MS method can enhance biologic therapeutics analysis with more reliability and confidence for bottom-up peptide mapping-based characterization.
Project description:We introduce a mass spectrometry-based method that provides residue-resolved quantitative information about protein phosphorylation. In this assay we combined our full-length expressed stable isotope-labeled protein for quantification strategy (FLEXIQuant) with a traditional kinase assay to determine the mechanisms of multikinase substrate phosphorylation such as priming-dependent kinase activities. The assay monitors the decrease in signal intensity of the substrate peptides and the concomitant increase in the (n × 80 Da)-shifted phosphorylated peptide. We analyzed the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) activity on doublecortin (DCX) revealing mechanistic details about the role of phosphorylation cross-talk in GSK3? activity and permitting an advanced model for GSK3?-mediated signaling.
Project description:Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II contains a C-terminal repeated domain (CTD) consisting of 52 consensus heptad repeats of Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 that mediate interactions with many cellular proteins to regulate transcription elongation, RNA processing and chromatin structure. A number of CTD-binding proteins have been identified and the crystal structures of several protein-CTD complexes have demonstrated considerable conformational flexibility of the heptad repeats in those interactions. Furthermore, phosphorylation of the CTD at tyrosine, serine and threonine residues can regulate the CTD-protein interactions. Although the interactions of CTD with specific proteins have been elucidated at the atomic level, the capacity and specificity of the CTD-interactome in mammalian cells is not yet determined.A proteomic study was conducted to examine the mammalian CTD-interactome. We utilized six synthetic peptides each consisting of four consensus CTD-repeats with different combinations of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation as affinity-probes to pull-down nuclear proteins from HeLa cells. The pull-down fractions were then analyzed by MUDPIT mass spectrometry, which identified 100 proteins with the majority from the phospho-CTD pull-downs. Proteins pulled-down by serine-phosphorylated CTD-peptides included those containing the previously defined CTD-interacting domain (CID). Using SILAC mass spectrometry, we showed that the in vivo interaction of RNA polymerase II with the mammalian CID-containing RPRD1B is disrupted by CID mutation. We also showed that the CID from four mammalian proteins interacted with pS2-phosphorylated but not pY1pS2-doubly phosphorylated CTD-peptides. However, we also found proteins that were preferentially pulled-down by pY1pS2- or pY1pS5-doubly phosphorylated CTD-peptides. We prepared an antibody against tyrosine phosphorylated CTD and showed that ionizing radiation (IR) induced a transient increase in CTD tyrosine phosphorylation by immunoblotting. Combining SILAC and IMAC purification of phospho-peptides, we found that IR regulated the phosphorylation at four CTD tyrosine sites in different ways.Upon phosphorylation, the 52 repeats of the CTD have the capacity to generate a large number of binding sites for cellular proteins. This study confirms previous findings that serine phosphorylation stimulates whereas tyrosine phosphorylation inhibits the protein-binding activity of the CTD. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of the CTD can also stimulate other CTD-protein interactions. The CTD-peptide affinity pull-down method described here can be adopted to survey the mammalian CTD-interactome in various cell types and under different biological conditions.