Replication of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) loci for fasting plasma glucose in African-Americans.
ABSTRACT: Chronically elevated blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) is the primary indicator of type 2 diabetes, which has a prevalence that varies considerably by ethnicity in the USA, with African-Americans disproportionately affected. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have significantly enhanced our understanding of the genetic basis of diabetes and related traits, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG). However, the majority of GWASs have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Thus, it is important to conduct replication analyses in populations with non-European ancestry to identify shared loci associated with FPG across populations.We used data collected from non-diabetic unrelated African-American individuals (n = 927) who participated in the Howard University Family Study to attempt to replicate previously published GWASs of FPG. Of the 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported, we directly tested 20 in this study. In addition to the direct test, we queried a 500 kb window centred on all 29 reported SNPs for local replication of additional markers in linkage disequilibrium (LD).Using direct SNP and LD-based comparisons, we replicated multiple SNPs previously associated with FPG and strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in populations with European ancestry. The replicated SNPs included those in or near TCF7L2, SLC30A8, G6PC2, MTNR1B, DGKB-TMEM195 and GCKR. We also replicated additional variants in LD with the reported SNPs in ZMAT4 and adjacent to IRS1.We identified multiple GWAS variants for FPG in our cohort of African-Americans. Using an LD-based strategy we also identified SNPs not previously reported, demonstrating the utility of using diverse populations for replication analysis.
Project description:The FTO gene is one of the most consistently replicated loci for obesity. However, data from populations of African ancestry are limited. We evaluated genetic variation in the FTO gene and investigated associations with obesity in West Africans and African Americans.The study samples comprised 968 African Americans (59% female, mean age 49 years, mean BMI 30.8 kg/m(2)) and 517 West Africans (58% female, mean age 54 years, mean BMI 25.5 kg/m(2)). FTO genetic variation was evaluated by genotyping 262 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the entire gene. Association of each SNP with BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass was investigated under an additive model.As expected, both African-ancestry samples showed weaker linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns compared with other continental (e.g., European) populations. Several intron 8 SNPs, in addition to intron 1 SNPs, showed significant associations in both study samples. The combined effect size for BMI for the top SNPs from meta-analysis was 0.77 kg/m(2) (P = 0.009, rs9932411) and 0.70 kg/m(2) (P = 0.006, rs7191513). Two previously reported associations with intron 1 SNPs (rs1121980 and rs7204609, r(2) = 0.001) were replicated among the West Africans.The FTO gene shows significant differences in allele frequency and LD patterns in populations of African ancestry compared with other continental populations. Despite these differences, we observed evidence of associations with obesity in African Americans and West Africans, as well as evidence of heterogeneity in association. More studies of FTO in multiple ethnic groups are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Breast cancer is a partially heritable trait and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 180 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer. We have previously performed breast cancer GWAS in Latinas and identified a strongly protective single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 6q25, with the protective minor allele originating from indigenous American ancestry. Here we report on fine mapping of the 6q25 locus in an expanded sample of Latinas. METHODS:We performed GWAS in 2385 cases and 6416 controls who were either US Latinas or Mexican women. We replicated the top SNPs in 2412 cases and 1620 controls of US Latina, Mexican, and Colombian women. In addition, we validated the top novel variants in studies of African, Asian and European ancestry. In each dataset we used logistic regression models to test the association between SNPs and breast cancer risk and corrected for genetic ancestry using either principal components or genetic ancestry inferred from ancestry informative markers using a model-based approach. RESULTS:We identified a novel set of SNPs at the 6q25 locus associated with genome-wide levels of significance (p?=?3.3?×?10-?8 - 6.0?×?10-?9) not in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with variants previously reported at this locus. These SNPs were in high LD (r2?>?0.9) with each other, with the top SNP, rs3778609, associated with breast cancer with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.70-0.84). In a replication in women of Latin American origin, we also observed a consistent effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.99; p?=?0.037). We also performed a meta-analysis of these SNPs in East Asians, African ancestry and European ancestry populations and also observed a consistent effect (rs3778609, OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.97; p?=?0.0017). CONCLUSION:Our study adds to evidence about the importance of the 6q25 locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Our finding also highlights the utility of performing additional searches for genetic variants for breast cancer in non-European populations.
Project description:C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant protein produced primarily by the liver. Circulating CRP levels are influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors, including infection and obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an unbiased approach towards identifying loci influencing CRP levels. None of the six GWAS for CRP levels has been conducted in an African ancestry population. The present study aims to: (i) identify genetic variants that influence serum CRP in African Americans (AA) using a genome-wide association approach and replicate these findings in West Africans (WA), (ii) assess transferability of major signals for CRP reported in European ancestry populations (EA) to AA and (iii) use the weak linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure characteristic of African ancestry populations to fine-map the previously reported CRP locus. The discovery cohort comprised 837 unrelated AA, with the replication of significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessed in 486 WA. The association analysis was conducted with 2 366 856 genotyped and imputed SNPs under an additive genetic model with adjustment for appropriate covariates. Genome-wide and replication significances were set at P < 5 × 10(-8) and P < 0.05, respectively. Ten SNPs in (CRP pseudogene-1) CRPP1 and CRP genes were associated with serum CRP (P = 2.4 × 10(-09) to 4.3 × 10(-11)). All but one of the top-scoring SNPs associated with CRP in AA were successfully replicated in WA. CRP signals previously identified in EA samples were transferable to AAs, and we were able to fine-map this signal, reducing the region of interest from the 25 kb of LD around the locus in the HapMap CEU sample to only 8 kb in our AA sample.
Project description:<label>STUDY QUESTION</label>Do genetic associations identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) replicate in women of diverse race/ancestry from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study?<label>SUMMARY ANSWER</label>We replicated GWAS reproductive trait single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in our European descent population and found that many SNPs were also associated with AM and ANM in populations of diverse ancestry.<label>WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY</label>Menarche and menopause mark the reproductive lifespan in women and are important risk factors for chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Both events are believed to be influenced by environmental and genetic factors, and vary in populations differing by genetic ancestry and geography. Most genetic variants associated with these traits have been identified in GWAS of European-descent populations.<label>STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION</label>A total of 42 251 women of diverse ancestry from PAGE were included in cross-sectional analyses of AM and ANM.<label>MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS</label>SNPs previously associated with ANM (n = 5 SNPs) and AM (n = 3 SNPs) in GWAS were genotyped in American Indians, African Americans, Asians, European Americans, Hispanics and Native Hawaiians. To test SNP associations with ANM or AM, we used linear regression models stratified by race/ethnicity and PAGE sub-study. Results were then combined in race-specific fixed effect meta-analyses for each outcome. For replication and generalization analyses, significance was defined at P < 0.01 for ANM analyses and P < 0.017 for AM analyses.<label>MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE</label>We replicated findings for AM SNPs in the LIN28B locus and an intergenic region on 9q31 in European Americans. The LIN28B SNPs (rs314277 and rs314280) were also significantly associated with AM in Asians, but not in other race/ethnicity groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns at this locus varied widely among the ancestral groups. With the exception of an intergenic SNP at 13q34, all ANM SNPs replicated in European Americans. Three were significantly associated with ANM in other race/ethnicity populations: rs2153157 (6p24.2/SYCP2L), rs365132 (5q35/UIMC1) and rs16991615 (20p12.3/MCM8). While rs1172822 (19q13/BRSK1) was not significant in the populations of non-European descent, effect sizes showed similar trends.<label>LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION</label>Lack of association for the GWAS SNPs in the non-European American groups may be due to differences in locus LD patterns between these groups and the European-descent populations included in the GWAS discovery studies; and in some cases, lower power may also contribute to non-significant findings.<label>WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS</label>The discovery of genetic variants associated with the reproductive traits provides an important opportunity to elucidate the biological mechanisms involved with normal variation and disorders of menarche and menopause. In this study we replicated most, but not all reported SNPs in European descent populations and examined the epidemiologic architecture of these early reported variants, describing their generalizability and effect size across differing ancestral populations. Such data will be increasingly important for prioritizing GWAS SNPs for follow-up in fine-mapping and resequencing studies, as well as in translational research.
Project description:Prior type 2 diabetes (T2D) genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have generated a list of well-replicated susceptibility loci in populations of European and Asian ancestry. To validate the trans-ethnic contribution of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in these GWASs, we performed a family-based association analysis of 32 selected GWAS SNPs in a cohort of 1496 African-American (AA) subjects from the Genetics of NIDDM (GENNID) study. Functional roles of these SNPs were evaluated by screening cis-eQTLs in transformed lymphoblast cell lines available for a sub-group of Genetics of NIDDM (GENNID) families from Arkansas. Only three of the 32 GWAS-derived SNPs showed nominally significant association with T2D in our AA cohort. Among the replicated SNPs rs864745 in JAZF1 and rs10490072 in BCL11A gene (P=0.006 and 0.03, respectively, after adjustment for body mass index) were within the 1-lod drop support interval of T2D linkage peaks reported in these families. Genotyping of 19 tag SNPs in these two loci revealed no further common SNPs or haplotypes that may be a stronger predictor of T2D susceptibility than the index SNPs. Six T2D GWAS SNPs (rs6698181, rs9472138, rs730497, rs10811661, rs11037909 and rs1153188) were associated with nearby transcript expression in transformed lymphoblast cell lines of GENNID AA subjects. Thus, our study indicates a nominal role for JAZF1 and BCL11A variants in T2D susceptibility in AAs and suggested little overlap in known susceptibility to T2D between European- and African-derived populations when considering GWAS SNPs alone.
Project description:The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is an essential protein related to bone metabolism. Some VDR alleles are differentially distributed among ethnic populations and display variable patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). In this study, 200 unrelated Brazilians were genotyped using 21 VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 28 ancestry informative markers. The patterns of LD and haplotype distribution were compared among Brazilian and the HapMap populations of African (YRI), European (CEU) and Asian (JPT+CHB) origins. Conditional regression and haplotype-specific analysis were performed using estimates of individual genetic ancestry in Brazilians as a quantitative trait. Similar patterns of LD were observed in the 5' and 3' gene regions. However, the frequency distribution of haplotype blocks varied among populations. Conditional regression analysis identified haplotypes associated with European and Amerindian ancestry, but not with the proportion of African ancestry. Individual ancestry estimates were associated with VDR haplotypes. These findings reinforce the need to correct for population stratification when performing genetic association studies in admixed populations.
Project description:We used a gene - based replication strategy to test the reproducibility of prior acute lung injury (ALI) candidate gene associations.We phenotyped 474 patients from a prospective severe trauma cohort study for ALI. Genomic DNA from subjects' blood was genotyped using the IBC chip, a multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Results were filtered for 25 candidate genes selected using prespecified literature search criteria and present on the IBC platform. For each gene, we grouped SNPs according to haplotype blocks and tested the joint effect of all SNPs on susceptibility to ALI using the SNP-set kernel association test. Results were compared to single SNP analysis of the candidate SNPs. Analyses were separate for genetically determined ancestry (African or European).We identified 4 genes in African ancestry and 2 in European ancestry trauma subjects which replicated their associations with ALI. Ours is the first replication of IL6, IL10, IRAK3, and VEGFA associations in non-European populations with ALI. Only one gene - VEGFA - demonstrated association with ALI in both ancestries, with distinct haplotype blocks in each ancestry driving the association. We also report the association between trauma-associated ALI and NFKBIA in European ancestry subjects.Prior ALI genetic associations are reproducible and replicate in a trauma cohort. Kernel - based SNP-set analysis is a more powerful method to detect ALI association than single SNP analysis, and thus may be more useful for replication testing. Further, gene-based replication can extend candidate gene associations to diverse ethnicities.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified many common genetic variants that are associated with polygenic traits, and have typically been performed with individuals of recent European ancestry. In these populations, many common variants are tightly correlated, with the perfect or near-perfect proxies for the functional or true variant showing equivalent evidence of association, considerably limiting the resolution of fine mapping. Populations with recent African ancestry often have less extensive and/or different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and have been proposed to be useful in fine-mapping studies. Here, we strongly replicate and fine map in populations of predominantly African ancestry the association between variation at the FTO locus and body mass index (BMI) that is well established in populations of European ancestry. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms that are correlated with the signal of association in individuals of European ancestry but that have varying degrees of correlation in African-derived individuals. Most of the variants, including one previously proposed as functionally important, have no significant association with BMI, but two variants, rs3751812 and rs9941349, show strong evidence of association (P = 2.58 x 10(-6) and 3.61 x 10(-6) in a meta-analysis of 9881 individuals). Thus, we have both strongly replicated this association in African-ancestry populations and narrowed the list of potentially causal variants to those that are correlated with rs3751812 and rs9941349 in African-derived populations. This study illustrates the potential of using populations with different LD patterns to fine map associations and helps pave the way for genetically guided functional studies at the FTO locus.
Project description:Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) approximately 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P?=?3.4×10(-12) and 2p14-rs4315565, P?=?1.2×10(-8)). As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P?=?1.7×10(-4) for overall replication). Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01). Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Large genome-wide association (GWA) studies of European ancestry individuals have identified multiple genetic variants influencing iron status. Studies on the generalizability of these associations to African ancestry populations have been limited. These studies are important given interethnic differences in iron status and the disproportionate burden of iron deficiency among African ancestry populations. METHODS:We tested the associations of 20 previously identified iron status-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 628 Kenyans, 609 Tanzanians, 608 South Africans and 228 African Americans. In each study, we examined the associations present between 20 SNPs with ferritin and haemoglobin, adjusting for age, sex and CRP levels. RESULTS:In the meta analysis including all 4 African ancestry cohorts, we replicated previously reported associations with lowered haemoglobin concentrations for rs2413450 (? = -0.19, P = 0.02) and rs4820268 (? = -0.16, P = 0.04) in TMPRSS6. An association with increased ferritin concentrations was also confirmed for rs1867504 in TF (? = 1.04, P = <0.0001) in the meta analysis including the African cohorts only. CONCLUSIONS:In all meta analyses, we only replicated 4 of the 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms reported to be associated with iron status in large GWA studies of European ancestry individuals. While there is now evidence for the associations of a number of genetic variants with iron status in both European and African ancestry populations, the considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of iron status in ethnically diverse populations.