A New Classification Based on the Kaban's Modification for Surgical Management of Craniofacial Microsomia.
ABSTRACT: In medicine, classifications are designed to describe accurately and reliably all anatomic and structural components, establish a prognosis, and guide a given treatment. Classifications should be useful in a universal way to facilitate communication between health professionals and to formulate management protocols. In many situations and particularly with craniofacial microsomia, there have been many different classifications that do not achieve this goal. In fact, when there are so many classifications, one can conclude that there is not a clear one that accomplishes all these ends and defines a treatment protocol. It is our intent to present a new classification based on the Pruzansky's classification, later modified by Kaban, to determine treatment protocols based on the degree of osseous deficiency present in the body, ramus, and temporomandibular joint. Different mandibular defects are presented in two patients with craniofacial microsomia type III and IV according to our classification with the corresponding management proposed for each type and adequate functional results.
Project description:Craniofacial microsomia encapsulates congenital anomalies of the external and middle ear, maxilla, mandible, facial and trigeminal nerves, and surrounding soft tissues on the affected side. The recruitment of craniofacial microsomia samples is a huge problem to bind the investigation of its genetic basis because of the lower prevalence rate (ranging between 1 and 4 per 10,000 births) and consultation rate. Here, we performed the first genome-wide associations study on craniofacial microsomia and identified many significant loci associated with craniofacial microsomia. Overall design: To investigate the loci associated with craniofacial microsomia, we performed GWAS on patients from China .
Project description:BACKGROUND:The authors compared the IQ and academic achievement of adolescents with craniofacial microsomia (cases) and unaffected children (controls). Among cases, the authors analyzed cognitive functioning by facial phenotype. METHODS:The authors administered standardized tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, writing, and mathematics to 142 cases and 316 controls recruited from 26 cities across the United States and Canada. Phenotypic classification was based on integrated data from photographic images, health history, and medical chart reviews. Hearing screens were conducted for all participants. RESULTS:After adjustment for demographics, cases' average scores were lower than those of controls on all measures, but the magnitude of differences was small (standardized effect sizes, -0.01 to -0.3). There was little evidence that hearing status modified case-control group differences (Wald p > 0.05 for all measures). Twenty-five percent of controls and 38 percent of cases were classified as having learning problems (adjusted OR, 1.5; 95 percent CI, 0.9 to 2.4). Comparison of cases with and without learning problems indicated that those with learning problems were more likely to be male, Hispanic, and to come from lower income, bilingual families. Analyses by facial phenotype showed that case-control group differences were largest for cases with both microtia and mandibular hypoplasia (effect sizes, -0.02 to -0.6). CONCLUSIONS:The highest risk of cognitive-academic problems was observed in patients with combined microtia and mandibular hypoplasia. Developmental surveillance of this subgroup is recommended, especially in the context of high socioeconomic risk and bilingual families. Given the early stage of research on craniofacial microsomia and neurodevelopment, replication of these findings is needed. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Risk, II.
Project description:Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a rare congenital anomaly that involves immature derivatives from the first and second pharyngeal arches. The genetic pathogenesis of CFM is still unclear. Here we interrogate 0.9 million genetic variants in 939 CFM cases and 2,012 controls from China. After genotyping of an additional 443 cases and 1,669 controls, we identify 8 significantly associated loci with the most significant SNP rs13089920 (logistic regression P=2.15 × 10(-120)) and 5 suggestive loci. The above 13 associated loci, harboured by candidates of ROBO1, GATA3, GBX2, FGF3, NRP2, EDNRB, SHROOM3, SEMA7A, PLCD3, KLF12 and EPAS1, are found to be enriched for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development and vasculogenesis. We then perform whole-genome sequencing on 21 samples from the case cohort, and identify several novel loss-of-function mutations within the associated loci. Our results provide new insights into genetic background of craniofacial microsomia.
Project description:Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a congenital condition characterized by microtia and mandibular underdevelopment. Healthcare databases and birth defects surveillance programs could be used to improve knowledge of CFM. However, no specific International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code exists for this condition, which makes standardized data collection challenging. Our aim was to evaluate the validity of existing ICD-9-CM codes to identify individuals with CFM.Study sample eligibility criteria were developed by an expert panel and matched to 11 ICD-9-CM codes. We queried hospital discharge data from two craniofacial centers and identified a total of 12,254 individuals who had ?1 potentially CFM-related code(s). We reviewed all (n = 799) medical records identified at the University of North Carolina (UNC) and 500 randomly selected records at Seattle Children's Hospital (SCH). Individuals were classified as a CFM case or non-case.Thirty-two individuals (6%) at SCH and 93 (12%) at UNC met the CFM eligibility criteria. At both centers, 59% of cases and 95% of non-cases had only one code assigned. At both centers, the most frequent codes were 744.23 (microtia), 754.0 and 756.0 (nonspecific codes), and the code 744.23 had a positive predictive value (PPV) >80% and sensitivity >70%. The code 754.0 had a sensitivity of 3% (PPV <1%) at SCH and 36% (PPV = 5%) at UNC, whereas 756.0 had a sensitivity of 38% (PPV = 5%) at SCH and 18% (PPV = 26%) at UNC.These findings suggest the need for a specific CFM code to facilitate CFM surveillance and research.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The Craniofacial microsomia: Longitudinal Outcomes in Children pre-Kindergarten (CLOCK) study is a longitudinal cohort study of neurobehavioral outcomes in infants and toddlers with craniofacial microsomia (CFM). In this article, we review the data collection and methods used to characterize this complex condition and describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohort. SETTING:Craniofacial and otolaryngology clinics at 5 study sites. PARTICIPANTS:Infants with CFM and unaffected infants (controls) ages 12 to 24 months were recruited from the same geographical regions and followed to age 36 to 48 months. METHODS:Phenotypic, neurodevelopmental, and facial expression assessments were completed during the first and third waves of data collection (time 1 and time 3, respectively). Medical history data were taken at both of these time points and during an intermediate parent phone interview (time 2). RESULTS:Our cohort includes 108 cases and 84 controls. Most cases and controls identified as white and 55% of cases and 37% of controls identified as Hispanic. Nearly all cases had microtia (95%) and 59% had mandibular hypoplasia. Cases received extensive clinical care in infancy, with 59% receiving care in a craniofacial clinic and 28% experiencing at least one surgery. Study visits were completed at a study site (92%) or at the participant's home (8%). CONCLUSIONS:The CLOCK study represents an effort to overcome the challenges of characterizing the phenotypic and neurodevelopmental outcomes of CFM in a large, demographically and geographically diverse cohort.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Craniofacial microsomia (CFM), also known as the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, comprises a variable phenotype with the most common features including microtia and mandibular hypoplasia on one or both sides, in addition to lateral oral clefts, epibulbar dermoids, cardiac, vertebral, and renal abnormalities. The etiology of CFM is largely unknown. The MYT1 gene has been reported as a candidate based in mutations found in three unrelated individuals. Additional patients with mutations in this gene are required to establish its causality. We present two individuals with CFM that have rare variants in MYT1 contributing to better understand the genotype and phenotype associated with mutations in this gene. METHODS/RESULTS:We conducted genetic analysis using whole-exome and -genome sequencing in 128 trios with CFM. Two novel MYT1 mutations were identified in two participants. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm these mutations. CONCLUSION:We identified two additional individuals with CFM who carry rare variants in MYT1, further supporting the presumptive role of this gene in the CFM spectrum.
Project description:Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is characterized by underdevelopment of the structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches resulting in aesthetic, psychological, and functional problems including feeding and swallowing difficulties. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into swallowing difficulties in patients with CFM. A retrospective study was conducted in the population of patients diagnosed with CFM at three major craniofacial units. Patients with feeding difficulties and those who underwent video fluoroscopic swallow (VFS) studies were included for further analyses. The outcome of the VFS-studies was reviewed with regard to the four phases of swallowing. In our cohort, 13.5% of the 755 patients were diagnosed with swallowing difficulties. The outcome of the VFS-studies of 42 patients showed difficulties in the oral and pharyngeal phases with both thin and thick liquids. Patients with more severe mandibular hypoplasia showed more difficulties to form an appropriate bolus compared to patients who were less severely affected. This is the first study to document swallowing problems in patients with CFM. Difficulties were seen in both the oral and pharyngeal phases. We recommend routine screening for swallowing issues by a speech and language therapist in all patients with CFM and to obtain a VFS-study in patients with a type III mandible.
Project description:Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is the second most common facial anomaly after cleft lip and palate. The phenotype is highly variable and most cases are sporadic. We investigated the disorder in a large pedigree with five affected individuals spanning eight meioses. Whole-exome sequencing results indicated the absence of a pathogenic coding point mutation. A genome-wide survey of segmental variations identified a 1.3 Mb duplication of chromosome 14q22.3 in all affected individuals that was absent in more than 1000 chromosomes of ethnically matched controls. The duplication was absent in seven additional sporadic HFM cases, which is consistent with the known heterogeneity of the disorder. To find the critical gene in the duplicated region, we analyzed signatures of human craniofacial disease networks, mouse expression data, and predictions of dosage sensitivity. All of these approaches implicated OTX2 as the most likely causal gene. Moreover, OTX2 is a known oncogenic driver in medulloblastoma, a condition that was diagnosed in the proband during the course of the study. Our findings suggest a role for OTX2 dosage sensitivity in human craniofacial development and raise the possibility of a shared etiology between a subtype of hemifacial microsomia and medulloblastoma.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Knowledge of unmet school participation needs for students with craniofacial microsomia (CFM) can inform decisions regarding intervention support.<h4>Objective</h4>To compare students with and without CFM on school participation (i.e., frequency, involvement, desire for participation to change) and caregivers' perceptions of environmental support for participation in occupations.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional design using secondary analyses of a subset of data.<h4>Setting</h4>Multisite cohort study.<h4>Participants</h4>Caregivers of students with CFM (n = 120) and of students without CFM (n = 315), stratified by history of education- and health-related service use.<h4>Outcomes and measures</h4>School participation and environmental support, obtained with the Participation and Environment Measure-Children and Youth.<h4>Results</h4>Significant group differences were found in frequency of school participation (effect size [ES] = -0.38, 95% confidence interval [-0.64, -0.12], p = .005), level of involvement (ES = -0.14, p = .029), and desired change (p = .001), with students with CFM exhibiting greater participation restriction than students without CFM and no history of service use. No statistically significant group differences were found in environmental support for participation in the school setting. Item-level findings showed statistically significant higher desire for participation to change in three of five school occupations (odds ratio = 1.77-2.39, p = .003-.045) for students with CFM compared with students without CFM and no history of service use.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>The results suggest that students with CFM experience restriction in participation at school.<h4>What this article adds</h4>Students with CFM may benefit from targeted school-based interventions to optimize their inclusion.