Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta-mediated EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic reactivations in 293 cells.
ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-?-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1) an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2) a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta is a latent-lytic molecular switch evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. In previous studies, doxycycline-inducible Rta was shown to potently produce an irreversible G1 arrest followed by cellular senescence in 293 cells. Here, we demonstrate that in this system the inducible Rta not only reactivates resident genome of EBV but also that of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), to similar efficiency. However, Rta-induced senescence program was terminated by the robust viral lytic cycle replication that eventually caused cell death. Furthermore, prior to the abrupt expression of immediate-early protein (EBV BZLF1 or KSHV RTA), Rta simultaneously down-regulates cell cycle activators (c-Myc, CDK6, CCND2) and up-regulates senescence-related genes (p21, 14-3-3s). Since Rta is a viral immediate-early transcriptional activator, it is envisioned that during the initial stage of viral reactivation, Rta may engage to modulate the host transcriptome, to halt cell cycle progression, and to maintain an ideal environment for manufacturing infectious virions. This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. Overall design: Refer to individual Series.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta is a latent-lytic molecular switch evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. In previous studies, doxycycline-inducible Rta was shown to potently produce an irreversible G1 arrest followed by cellular senescence in 293 cells. Here, we demonstrate that in this system the inducible Rta not only reactivates resident genome of EBV but also that of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), to similar efficiency. However, Rta-induced senescence program was terminated by the robust viral lytic cycle replication that eventually caused cell death. Furthermore, prior to the abrupt expression of immediate-early protein (EBV BZLF1 or KSHV RTA), Rta simultaneously down-regulates cell cycle activators (c-Myc, CDK6, CCND2) and up-regulates senescence-related genes (p21, 14-3-3s). Since Rta is a viral immediate-early transcriptional activator, it is envisioned that during the initial stage of viral reactivation, Rta may engage to modulate the host transcriptome, to halt cell cycle progression, and to maintain an ideal environment for manufacturing infectious virions. Refer to individual Series. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE24585: Expression profiling of host genes modulated by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta in HEK293 cells GSE24586: Expression profiling of host genes modulated by Epstein-Barr virus Rta in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells
Project description:Herpesviruses exist in two states, latency and a lytic productive cycle. Here we identify an immediate-early gene encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus eight (HHV8) that activates lytic cycle gene expression from the latent viral genome. The gene is a homologue of Rta, a transcriptional activator encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). KSHV/Rta activated KSHV early lytic genes, including virus-encoded interleukin 6 and polyadenylated nuclear RNA, and a late gene, small viral capsid antigen. In cells dually infected with Epstein-Barr virus and KSHV, each Rta activated only autologous lytic cycle genes. Expression of viral cytokines under control of the KSHV/Rta gene is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated diseases.
Project description:The majority of AIDS-associated primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) are latently infected with both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). PELs harboring two viruses have higher oncogenic potential, suggesting functional interactions between EBV and KSHV. The KSHV replication and transcription activator (K-RTA) is necessary and sufficient for induction of KSHV lytic replication. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is essential for EBV transformation and establishment of latency in vitro. We show EBV inhibits chemically induced KSHV lytic replication, in part because of a regulatory loop in which K-RTA induces EBV LMP-1 and LMP-1 in turn inhibits K-RTA expression and furthermore the lytic gene expression of KSHV. Suppression of LMP-1 expression in dually infected PEL cells enhances the expression of K-RTA and lytic replication of KSHV upon chemical induction. Because LMP-1 is known to inhibit EBV lytic replication, KSHV-mediated induction of LMP-1 would potentiate EBV latency. Moreover, KSHV infection of EBV latency cells induces LMP-1, and K-RTA is involved in the induction. Both LMP-1 and K-RTA are expressed during primary infection by EBV of KSHV latency cells. Our findings provide evidence that an interaction between EBV and KSHV at molecular levels promotes the maintenance and possibly establishment of viral latency, which may contribute to pathogenesis of PELs.
Project description:Rta, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate-early protein, reactivates viral lytic replication that is closely associated with tumorigenesis. In previous studies, we demonstrated that in epithelial cells Rta efficiently induced cellular senescence, which is an irreversible G1 arrest likely to provide a favorable environment for productive replications of EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). To restrict progression of the cell cycle, Rta simultaneously upregulates CDK inhibitors and downregulates MYC, CCND1, and JUN, among others. Rta has long been known as a potent transcriptional activator, thus its role in gene repression is unexpected. In silico analysis revealed that the promoter regions of MYC, CCND1, and JUN are common in (i) the presence of CpG islands, (ii) strong chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) signals of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), and (iii) having at least one Rta binding site. By combining ChIP assays and DNA methylation analysis, here we provide evidence showing that Rta binding accumulated CpG methylation and decreased CTCF occupancy in the regulatory regions of MYC, CCND1, and JUN, which were associated with downregulated gene expression. Stable residence of CTCF in the viral latency and reactivation control regions is a hallmark of viral latency. Here, we observed that Rta-mediated decreased binding of CTCF in the viral genome is concurrent with virus reactivation. Via interfering with CTCF binding, in the host genome Rta can function as a transcriptional repressor for gene silencing, while in the viral genome Rta acts as an activator for lytic gene loci by removing a topological constraint established by CTCF.IMPORTANCE CTCF is a multifunctional protein that variously participates in gene expression and higher-order chromatin structure of the cellular and viral genomes. In certain loci of the genome, CTCF occupancy and DNA methylation are mutually exclusive. Here, we demonstrate that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate-early protein, Rta, known to be a transcriptional activator, can also function as a transcriptional repressor. Via enriching CpG methylation and decreasing CTCF reloading, Rta binding efficiently shut down the expression of MYC, CCND1, and JUN, thus impeding cell cycle progression. Rta-mediated disruption of CTCF binding was also detected in the latency/reactivation control regions of the EBV genome, and this in turn led to viral lytic cycle progression. As emerging evidence indicates that a methylated EBV genome is a preferable substrate for EBV Zta, the other immediate-early protein, our results suggest a mechanistic link in understanding the molecular processes of viral latent-lytic switch.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of three human proliferative disorders, namely, Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease. Lytic DNA replication of KSHV, which is essential for viral propagation, requires the binding of at least two KSHV proteins, replication and transactivation activator (RTA) and K-bZIP, on the lytic origin of replication. Moreover, K-bZIP physically interacts with RTA and represses its transactivation activity on several viral promoters in transient transfection assays. To evaluate the physiological roles of K-bZIP in the context of PEL, we generated BCBL-1 cells with a tetracycline (Tet)-inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) directed against the K8 mRNA to knock down K-bZIP expression at different points during KSHV's life cycle. Using this model, we demonstrate that in the absence of K-bZIP expression, dramatic decreases in orf50, orf57, and orf26 transcript expression are observed. Similar effects were seen at the protein level for RTA (immediate-early protein) and K8.1 (late protein) expression. Interestingly, a direct correlation between K-bZIP levels and viral lytic mRNAs was noticed. As a consequence of K-bZIP knockdown, viral DNA replication and virion production were severely impaired. The same effects were observed following knockdown of K-bZIP in another PEL cell line, BC3. Finally, using shRNA-K8-inducible 293 cells, we report that de novo synthesis of K-bZIP is not necessary for initiation of infection and latency establishment. These data support the concept that K-bZIP is essential for lytic viral gene expression, viral DNA replication, and virus propagation in PEL cells.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) has been frequently implicated in many cancers as well as viral pathogenesis. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked to several human malignancies. It can stabilize HIF-1? during latent infection and undergoes lytic replication in response to hypoxic stress. However, the mechanism by which KSHV controls its latent and lytic life cycle through the deregulation of HIF-1? is not fully understood. Our previous studies showed that the hypoxia-sensitive chromatin remodeler KAP1 was targeted by the KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) to repress expression of the major lytic replication and transcriptional activator (RTA). Here we further report that an RNA interference-based knockdown of KAP1 in KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells disrupted viral episome stability and abrogated sub-G1/G1 arrest of the cell cycle while increasing the efficiency of KSHV lytic reactivation by hypoxia or using the chemical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or sodium butyrate (NaB). Moreover, KSHV genome-wide screening revealed that four hypoxia-responsive clusters have a high concurrence of both RBP-J? and HIF-1? binding sites (RBS+HRE) within the same gene promoter and are tightly associated with KAP1. Inhibition of KAP1 greatly enhanced the association of RBP-J? with the HIF-1? complex for driving RTA expression not only in normoxia but also in hypoxia. These results suggest that both KAP1 and the concurrence of RBS+HRE within the RTA promoter are essential for KSHV latency and hypoxia-induced lytic reactivation.Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a DNA tumor virus, is an etiological agent linked to several human malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). HIF-1?, a key hypoxia-inducible factor, is frequently elevated in KSHV latently infected tumor cells and contributes to KSHV lytic replication in hypoxia. The molecular mechanisms of how KSHV controls the latent and lytic life cycle through deregulating HIF-1? remain unclear. In this study, we found that inhibition of hypoxia-sensitive chromatin remodeler KAP1 in KSHV-infected PEL cells leads to a loss of viral genome and increases its sensitivity to hypoxic stress, leading to KSHV lytic reactivation. Importantly, we also found that four hypoxia-responsive clusters within the KSHV genome contain a high concurrence of RBP-J? (a key cellular regulator involved in Notch signaling) and HIF-1? binding sites. These sites are also tightly associated with KAP1. This discovery implies that KAP1, RBP-J?, and HIF-1? play an essential role in KSHV pathogenesis through subtle cross talk which is dependent on the oxygen levels in the infected cells.
Project description:An important step in the herpesvirus life cycle is the switch from latency to lytic reactivation. In order to study the life cycle of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), we developed a gene expression system in KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. This system uses Flp-mediated efficient recombination and tetracycline-inducible expression. The Rta transcriptional activator, which acts as a molecular switch for lytic reactivation of KSHV, was efficiently integrated downstream of the Flp recombination target site, and its expression was tightly controlled by tetracycline. Like stimulation with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA), the ectopic expression of Rta efficiently induced a complete cycle of viral replication, including a well-ordered program of KSHV gene expression and production of infectious viral progeny. A striking feature of Rta-mediated lytic gene expression was that Rta induced KSHV gene expression in a more powerful and efficient manner than TPA stimulation, indicating that Rta plays a central, leading role in KSHV lytic gene expression. Thus, our streamlined gene expression system provides a novel means not only to study the effects of viral gene products on overall KSHV gene expression and replication, but also to understand the natural viral reactivation process.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of commonly fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A hallmark of all herpesviruses is their biphasic life cycle-viral latency and the productive lytic cycle-and it is well established that reactivation of the KSHV lytic cycle is associated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, a thorough appreciation of the mechanisms that govern reactivation is required to better understand disease progression. The viral protein replication and transcription activator (RTA) is the KSHV lytic switch protein due to its ability to drive the expression of various lytic genes, leading to reactivation of the entire lytic cycle. While the mechanisms for activating lytic gene expression have received much attention, how RTA impacts cellular function is less well understood. To address this, we developed a cell line with doxycycline-inducible RTA expression and applied stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. Using this methodology, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain containing 3B [ARID3B]) whose expression was enhanced by RTA and that relocalized to replication compartments upon lytic reactivation. We also show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or overexpression of ARID3B led to an enhancement or inhibition of lytic reactivation, respectively. Furthermore, DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ARID3B specifically interacts with A/T-rich elements in the KSHV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt), and this was dependent on lytic cycle reactivation. Therefore, we have identified a novel cellular protein whose expression is enhanced by KSHV RTA with the ability to inhibit KSHV reactivation.Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Herpesviruses are able to establish a latent infection, in which they escape immune detection by restricting viral gene expression. Importantly, however, reactivation of productive viral replication (the lytic cycle) is necessary for the pathogenesis of KS. Therefore, it is important that we comprehensively understand the mechanisms that govern lytic reactivation, to better understand disease progression. In this study, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain protein 3B [ARID3B]) that we show is able to temper lytic reactivation. We showed that the master lytic switch protein, RTA, enhanced ARID3B levels, which then interacted with viral DNA in a lytic cycle-dependent manner. Therefore, we have added a new factor to the list of cellular proteins that regulate the KSHV lytic cycle, which has implications for our understanding of KSHV biology.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA2 and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication and transcription activator (RTA) are recruited to their responsive elements through interaction with a Notch-mediated transcription factor, RBP-Jkappa. In particular, RTA and EBNA2 interactions with RBP-Jkappa are essential for the lytic replication of KSHV and expression of B-cell activation markers CD21 and CD23a, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that like EBV EBNA2, KSHV RTA strongly induces CD21 and CD23a expression through RBP-Jkappa binding sites in the first intron of CD21 and in the CD23a core promoter, respectively. However, unlike EBV EBNA2, which alters immunoglobulin mu (Igmu) and c-myc gene expression, RTA did not affect Igmu and c-myc expression, indicating that KSHV RTA targets the Notch signal transduction pathway in a manner similar to but distinct from that of EBV EBNA2. Furthermore, RTA-induced expression of CD21 glycoprotein, which is an EBV receptor, efficiently facilitated EBV infection. In addition, RTA-induced CD23 glycoprotein underwent proteolysis and gave rise to soluble CD23 (sCD23) molecules in B lymphocytes and KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphocytes. sCD23 then stimulated primary human lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that cellular CD21 and CD23a are common targets for B lymphotropic gammaherpesviruses and that KSHV RTA regulates RBP-Jkappa-mediated cellular gene expression, which ultimately provides a favorable milieu for viral reproduction in the infected host.