Intralysosomal iron induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D-mediated cell death in trabecular meshwork cells exposed to oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of intralysosomal redox-active iron in oxidative stress-induced damage in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells.Chronic oxidative stress was applied using the hyperoxic model; acute oxidative stress was applied with H(2)O(2). Microarray analysis was performed using microarrays. mRNA and protein levels were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Redox-active iron was monitored using calcein-AM. Apoptosis was quantified using double staining. DNA damage was evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Lysosomal permeabilization was monitored using uptake and acridine orange relocation techniques. Intracellular ROS production was quantified using H(2)DCFDA. Cytosolic translocation of cathepsins was visualized with pepstatin-A-BODIPY-FL. Chemical inhibition of cathepsins was achieved with leupeptin and pepstatin A. Silencing of cathepsin expression was accomplished with miRNA sequences. Lysosomal iron chelation was achieved with desferrioxamine.Chronically stressed TM cells showed elevated levels of redox-active iron and altered expression of genes involved in intracellular iron homeostasis. Although iron increased ROS production and lipofuscin levels and sensitized TM cells to H(2)O(2), intralysosomal iron chelation completely protected the cells against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and apoptosis. The protective effect of desferrioxamine was mediated by the prevention of lysosomal ROS generation and the rupture of lysosomal membrane, with the subsequent release of cathepsin D into the cytosol.These results indicate that the generation of intralysosomal ROS induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the release of cathepsin D into the cytosol, leading to TM cell death. Here, the authors propose a mechanism by which oxidative stress might contribute to the decrease in cellularity reported in the TM tissue with both aging and disease.
Project description:To investigate the effects of chronic oxidative stress on lysosomal function in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells.Confluent cultures of porcine TM cells were grown for 2 weeks in physiological (5% O(2)) or hyperoxic conditions (40% O(2)) in the presence or absence of the protease inhibitor leupeptin (10 microM). The following parameters were quantified using the fluorogenic probes indicated within parentheses: autofluorescence, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS; H(2)DCFDA), mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1), mitochondrial content (Mitotracker Red; Invitrogen-Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), lysosomal content (acridine orange and Lysotracker Red [Invitrogen-Molecular Probes]), autophagic vacuole content (MDC), SA-beta-galactosidase (FDG), and cathepsin activities (z-FR-AMC). Cathepsin levels were quantified by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Ultrastructural analysis was performed by transmission electron microscopy.Prolonged exposure of porcine TM cells to a hyperoxic environment led to an increase in ROS production and oxidized material. Electron micrographs revealed the cytoplasmic accumulation of lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes. Augmented lysosomal and autophagic vacuole content was confirmed with specific fluorophores. The mRNA and protein levels of several cathepsins were upregulated with oxidative stress. This upregulated expression did not correlate with increased lysosomal activity.The results indicate that chronic exposure of TM cells to oxidative stress causes the accumulation of nondegradable material within the lysosomal compartment, leading to diminished lysosomal activity. Since the lysosomal system is responsible for the continuous turnover of cellular organelles, impaired lysosomal activity may lead to progressive failure of cellular TM function with age.
Project description:The introduction of apo-ferritin or the iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated to starch into the lysosomal compartment protects cells against oxidative stress, lysosomal rupture and ensuing apoptosis/necrosis by binding intralysosomal redox-active iron, thus preventing Fenton-type reactions and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal membranes. Because up-regulation of MTs (metallothioneins) also generates enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, including X-irradiation, and MTs were found to be capable of iron binding in an acidic and reducing lysosomal-like environment, we propose that these proteins might similarly stabilize lysosomes following autophagocytotic delivery to the lysosomal compartment. Here, we report that Zn-mediated MT up-regulation, assayed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, results in lysosomal stabilization and decreased apoptosis following oxidative stress, similar to the protection afforded by fluid-phase endocytosis of apo-ferritin or DFO. In contrast, the endocytotic uptake of an iron phosphate complex destabilized lysosomes against oxidative stress, but this was suppressed in cells with up-regulated MT. It is suggested that the resistance against oxidative stress, known to occur in MT-rich cells, may be a consequence of autophagic turnover of MT, resulting in reduced iron-catalysed intralysosomal peroxidative reactions.
Project description:The mechanisms involved in radiation-induced cellular injury and death remain incompletely understood. In addition to the direct formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (HO*) by radiolysis of water, oxidative stress events in the cytoplasm due to formation of H2O2 may also be important. Since the major pool of low-mass redox-active intracellular iron seems to reside within lysosomes, arising from the continuous intralysosomal autophagocytotic degradation of ferruginous materials, formation of H2O2 inside and outside these organelles may cause lysosomal labilization with release to the cytosol of lytic enzymes and low-mass iron. If of limited magnitude, such release may induce 'reparative autophagocytosis', causing additional accumulation of redox-active iron within the lysosomal compartment. We have used radio-resistant histiocytic lymphoma (J774) cells to assess the importance of intralysosomal iron and lysosomal rupture in radiation-induced cellular injury. We found that a 40 Gy radiation dose increased the 'loose' iron content of the (still viable) cells approx. 5-fold when assayed 24 h later. Cytochemical staining revealed that most redox-active iron was within the lysosomes. The increase of intralysosomal iron was associated with 'reparative autophagocytosis', and sensitized cells to lysosomal rupture and consequent apoptotic/necrotic death following a second, much lower dose of radiation (20 Gy) 24 h after the first one. A high-molecular-mass derivative of desferrioxamine, which specifically localizes intralysosomally following endocytic uptake, added to the culture medium before either the first or the second dose of radiation, stabilized lysosomes and largely prevented cell death. These observations may provide a biological rationale for fractionated radiation.
Project description:Oxidative damage to nuclear DNA is known to involve site-specific Fenton-type chemistry catalysed by redox-active iron or copper in the immediate vicinity of DNA. However, the presence of transition metals in the nucleus has not been shown convincingly. Recently, it was proposed that a major part of the cellular pool of loose iron is confined within the acidic vacuolar compartment [Yu, Persson, Eaton and Brunk (2003) Free Radical Biol. Med. 34, 1243-1252; Persson, Yu, Tirosh, Eaton and Brunk (2003) Free Radical Biol. Med. 34, 1295-1305]. Consequently, rupture of secondary lysosomes, as well as subsequent relocation of labile iron to the nucleus, could be an important intermediary step in the generation of oxidative damage to DNA. To test this concept we employed the potent iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated with starch to form an HMM-DFO (high-molecular-mass DFO complex). The HMM-DFO complex will enter cells only via fluid-phase endocytosis and remain within the acidic vacuolar compartment, thereby chelating redox-active iron exclusively inside the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Both free DFO and HMM-DFO equally protected lysosomal-membrane integrity against H2O2-induced oxidative disruption. More importantly, both forms of DFO prevented H2O2-induced strand breaks in nuclear DNA, including telomeres. To exclude the possibility that lysosomal hydrolases, rather than iron, caused the observed DNA damage, limited lysosomal rupture was induced using the lysosomotropic detergent O-methyl-serine dodecylamine hydrochloride; subsequently, hardly any DNA damage was found. These observations suggest that rapid oxidative damage to cellular DNA is minimal in the absence of redox-active iron and that oxidant-mediated DNA damage, observed in normal cells, is mainly derived from intralysosomal iron translocated to the nucleus after lysosomal rupture.
Project description:Lysosomes are a promising therapeutic target for induction apoptosis in cancer cells due to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) leading to leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, especially the cathepsins, into the cytoplasm. We hypothesized that with the modification of the ceramide-loaded liposomes with transferrin (Tf), we would achieve both tumor targeting and increased delivery of lysosome-destabilizing agents, such as ceramides to lysosomes, to initiate LMP-induced apoptosis. We prepared Tf-modified (TL) and plain (PL) liposomes and loaded with short (C6)- or long (C16) N-acyl chain ceramides. Uptake, intracellular localization of liposomes, stability of the lysosomal membrane and release of cathepsin D were investigated on Hela cells by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by binding of fluorescently-labeled Annexin V. Antitumor and pro-apoptotic effects of C6Cer-loaded Tf-liposomes were demonstrated in vivo in an A2780-ovarian carcinoma xenograft mouse model. TL were internalized specifically via the TfR-dependent endocytic pathway and localized within the endosome-lysosomal compartment. Ceramide-loaded Tf-liposomes significantly increased apoptosis compared with ceramide-free and ceramide-loaded non-modified liposomes. The treatment of cancer cells with TL led to increased LMP and cytoplasmic relocation of the intralysosomal cathepsin D. A strong antitumor and pro-apoptotic effect of C6Cer-loaded TL was also demonstrated in vivo in an A2780-ovarian carcinoma xenograft mouse model. The lysosomal accumulation of ceramides delivered by Tf-liposomes initiates the permeabilization of the lysosomal membranes required for the release of lysosomal cathepsins into the cytoplasm and initiation of the cancer cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:1. The procedure of Barrett [(1973) Biochem. J.131, 809-822] for isolating cathepsins B and D from human liver was modified for use with rat liver and skeletal muscle. The purified enzymes appeared to be similar to those reported in other species. 2. Sephadex G-75 chromatography of concentrated muscle extract resolved two peaks of cathepsin B inhibitory activity, corresponding to molecular weights of 12500 and 62000. 3. The degradation of purified myofibrillar proteins by cathepsins B and D was clearly demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. After incubation with enzyme, the polypeptide bands representing the substrates decreased in intensity and lower molecular weight products appeared. 4. Cathepsins B and D, purified from either rat liver or skeletal muscle, were shown to degrade myosin, purified from either rabbit or rat muscle. Soluble denatured myosin was degraded more extensively than insoluble native myosin. Degradation by cathepsin B was inhibited by lack of reducing agent, or by myoglobin, iodoacetic acid and leupeptin, but not by pepstatin. The same potential modifiers were applied to cathepsin D, and only pepstatin produced inhibition. 5. Rat liver cathepsin B had a pH optimum of 5.2 on native rabbit myosin. The pH optimum of cathepsin D was 4.0, with a shoulder of activity about 1pH unit above the optimum. 6. Rat liver cathepsins B and D were demonstrated to degrade rabbit F-actin at pH5.0, and were inhibited by leupeptin and pepstain, respectively. 7. The degradation of myosin and actin by cathepsin D was more extensive than that by cathepsin B.
Project description:During chronic kidney disease (CKD) there is a dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis leading to renal fibrosis. Lysosomal proteases such as cathepsins (Cts) regulate this process in other organs, however, their role in CKD is still unknown. Here we describe a novel role for cathepsins in CKD. CtsD and B were located in distal and proximal tubular cells respectively in human disease. Administration of CtsD (Pepstatin A) but not B inhibitor (Ca074-Me), in two mouse CKD models, UUO and chronic ischemia reperfusion injury, led to a reduction in fibrosis. No changes in collagen transcription or myofibroblasts numbers were observed. Pepstatin A administration resulted in increased extracellular urokinase and collagen degradation. In vitro and in vivo administration of chloroquine, an endo/lysosomal inhibitor, mimicked Pepstatin A effect on renal fibrosis. Therefore, we propose a mechanism by which CtsD inhibition leads to increased collagenolytic activity due to an impairment in lysosomal recycling. This results in increased extracellular activity of enzymes such as urokinase, triggering a proteolytic cascade, which culminates in more ECM degradation. Taken together these results suggest that inhibition of lysosomal proteases, such as CtsD, could be a new therapeutic approach to reduce renal fibrosis and slow progression of CKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Redox cycling compounds have been reported to cause false positive inhibition of proteases in drug discovery studies. This kind of false positives can lead to unusually high hit rates in high-throughput screening campaigns and require further analysis to distinguish true from false positive hits. Such follow-up studies are both time and resource consuming. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study we show that 5-aminoquinoline-8-ol is a time-dependent inactivator of cathepsin B with a k(inact)/K(I) of 36.7 ± 13.6 M(-1) s(-1) using enzyme kinetics. 5-Aminoquinoline-8-ol inhibited cathepsins H, L and B in the same concentration range, implying a non-specific mechanism of inhibition. Further analogues, 4-aminonaphthalene-1-ol and 4-aminophenol, also displayed time-dependent inhibition of cathepsin B with k(inact)/K(I) values of 406.4 ± 10.8 and 36.5 ± 1.3 M(-1) s(-1). No inactivation occurred in the absence of either the amino or the hydroxyl group, suggesting that the 4-aminophenol moiety is a prerequisite for enzyme inactivation. Induction of redox oxygen species (ROS) by 4-aminophenols in various redox environments was determined by the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Addition of catalase to the assay buffer significantly abrogated the ROS signal, indicating that H(2)O(2) is a component of the ROS induced by 4-aminophenols. Furthermore, using mass spectrometry, active site probe DCG-04 and isoelectric focusing we show that redox inactivation of cysteine cathepsins by 5-aminoquinoline-8-ol is active site directed and leads to the formation of sulfinic acid. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we report that compounds containing the 4-aminophenol moiety inactivate cysteine cathepsins through a redox-based mechanism and are thus likely to cause false positive hits in the screening assays for cysteine proteases.
Project description:Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display 'UVA-mimetic' effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts.
Project description:Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC) disease, an autosomal recessive lipid trafficking disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the NPC1 gene, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration resulting in cognitive impairment, ataxia and early death. Little is known about the cellular pathways leading to neuron loss. Here, we studied the effects of diminishing expression of cystatin B, an endogenous inhibitor of cathepsins B, H and L, on the development of NPC neuropathology. We show that decreased expression of cystatin B in patient fibroblasts enhances cathepsin activity. Deletion of the encoding Cstb gene in Npc1-deficient mice resulted in striking deleterious effects, particularly within the cerebellum where diffuse loss of Purkinje cells was observed in young mice. This severe pathology occurred through cell autonomous mechanisms that triggered Purkinje cell death. Moreover, our analyses demonstrated the mislocalization of lysosomal cathepsins within the cytosol of Npc1-deficient Purkinje cells. We provide evidence that this may be a consequence of damage to lysosomal membranes by reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the leakage of lysosomal contents that culminates in apoptotic cell death. Consistent with this notion, toxicity from ROS was attenuated in an NPC cell model by cystatin B over-expression or pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B. The observation that Npc1 and Cstb deletion genetically interact to potently enhance the degenerative phenotype of the NPC cerebellum provides strong support for the notion that lysosomal membrane permeabilization contributes to cerebellar degeneration in NPC disease.