Gene-trap mutagenesis identifies mammalian genes contributing to intoxication by Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin.
ABSTRACT: The Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin is an extremely potent toxin associated with lethal toxemias in domesticated ruminants and may be toxic to humans. Intoxication results in fluid accumulation in various tissues, most notably in the brain and kidneys. Previous studies suggest that the toxin is a pore-forming toxin, leading to dysregulated ion homeostasis and ultimately cell death. However, mammalian host factors that likely contribute to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity are poorly understood. A library of insertional mutant Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which are highly susceptible to the lethal affects of ?-toxin, was used to select clones of cells resistant to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. The genes mutated in 9 surviving resistant cell clones were identified. We focused additional experiments on one of the identified genes as a means of validating the experimental approach. Gene expression microarray analysis revealed that one of the identified genes, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1, KIM-1, TIM1), is more abundantly expressed in human kidney cell lines than it is expressed in human cells known to be resistant to ?-toxin. One human kidney cell line, ACHN, was found to be sensitive to the toxin and expresses a larger isoform of the HAVCR1 protein than the HAVCR1 protein expressed by other, toxin-resistant human kidney cell lines. RNA interference studies in MDCK and in ACHN cells confirmed that HAVCR1 contributes to ?-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Additionally, ?-toxin was shown to bind to HAVCR1 in vitro. The results of this study indicate that HAVCR1 and the other genes identified through the use of gene-trap mutagenesis and RNA interference strategies represent important targets for investigation of the process by which ?-toxin induces cell death and new targets for potential therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Receptor molecules play key roles in the cellular entry of picornaviruses, and TIM1 (HAVCR1) is widely accepted to be the receptor for hepatitis A virus (HAV), an unusual, hepatotropic human picornavirus. However, its identification as the hepatovirus receptor predated the discovery that hepatoviruses undergo nonlytic release from infected cells as membrane-cloaked, quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions that enter cells via a pathway distinct from naked, nonenveloped virions. We thus revisited the role of TIM1 in hepatovirus entry, examining both adherence and infection/replication in cells with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-engineered TIM1 knockout. Cell culture-derived, gradient-purified eHAV bound Huh-7.5 human hepatoma cells less efficiently than naked HAV at 4°C, but eliminating TIM1 expression caused no difference in adherence of either form of HAV, nor any impact on infection and replication in these cells. In contrast, TIM1-deficient Vero cells showed a modest reduction in quasi-enveloped eHAV (but not naked HAV) attachment and replication. Thus, TIM1 facilitates quasi-enveloped eHAV entry in Vero cells, most likely by binding phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) residues on the eHAV membrane. Both Tim1-/-Ifnar1-/- and Tim4-/-Ifnar1-/- double-knockout mice were susceptible to infection upon intravenous challenge with infected liver homogenate, with fecal HAV shedding and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations similar to those in Ifnar1-/- mice. However, intrahepatic HAV RNA and ALT elevations were modestly reduced in Tim1-/-Ifnar1-/- mice compared to Ifnar1-/- mice challenged with a lower titer of gradient-purified HAV or eHAV. We conclude that TIM1 is not an essential hepatovirus entry factor, although its PtdSer-binding activity may contribute to the spread of quasi-enveloped virus and liver injury in mice.IMPORTANCE T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-containing domain protein 1 (TIM1) was reported more than 2 decades ago to be an essential cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus in the Hepatovirus genus, resulting in its designation as "hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1" (HAVCR1) by the Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature Committee. However, recent studies have shown that HAV exists in nature as both naked, nonenveloped (HAV) virions and membrane-cloaked, quasi-enveloped infectious virus (eHAV), prompting us to revisit the role of TIM1 in viral entry. We show here that TIM1 (HAVCR1) is not an essential cellular receptor for HAV entry into cultured cells or required for viral replication and pathogenesis in permissive strains of mice, although it may facilitate early stages of infection by binding phosphatidylserine on the eHAV surface. This work thus corrects the published record and sets the stage for future efforts to identify specific hepatovirus entry factors.
Project description:Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (Etx) is a pore-forming toxin responsible for a severe and rapidly fatal enterotoxemia of ruminants. The toxin is classified as a category B bioterrorism agent by the U.S. Government Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), making work with recombinant toxin difficult. To reduce the hazard posed by work with recombinant Etx, we have used a variant of Etx that contains a H149A mutation (Etx-H149A), previously reported to have reduced, but not abolished, toxicity. The three-dimensional structure of H149A prototoxin shows that the H149A mutation in domain III does not affect organisation of the putative receptor binding loops in domain I of the toxin. Surface exposed tyrosine residues in domain I of Etx-H149A (Y16, Y20, Y29, Y30, Y36 and Y196) were mutated to alanine and mutants Y30A and Y196A showed significantly reduced binding to MDCK.2 cells relative to Etx-H149A that correlated with their reduced cytotoxic activity. Thus, our study confirms the role of surface exposed tyrosine residues in domain I of Etx in binding to MDCK cells and the suitability of Etx-H149A for further receptor binding studies. In contrast, binding of all of the tyrosine mutants to ACHN cells was similar to that of Etx-H149A, suggesting that Etx can recognise different cell surface receptors. In support of this, the crystal structure of Etx-H149A identified a glycan (?-octyl-glucoside) binding site in domain III of Etx-H149A, which may be a second receptor binding site. These findings have important implications for developing strategies designed to neutralise toxin activity.
Project description:Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin belongs to the aerolysin-like family of pore-forming toxins and is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known. The epsilon toxin causes fatal enterotoxemia in sheep, goats, and possibly humans. Evidence indicates that the toxin binds to protein receptors including hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), but the region of the toxin responsible for cell binding has not been identified. In the present study, we identify amino acids within the epsilon toxin important for this cell interaction. Site-specific mutagenesis was used to investigate the role of a surface-accessible cluster of aromatic amino acids, and purified mutant proteins were tested in a series of cell-culture assays to assess cytotoxic activity and cell binding. When added to cells, four mutant proteins (Etx-Y29E, Etx-Y30E, Etx-Y36E and Etx-Y196E) were severely impaired in their ability to not only kill host cells, but also in their ability to permeabilize the plasma membrane. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and thermal stability studies revealed that the wild-type and mutant proteins were similarly folded. Additional experiments revealed that these mutant proteins were defective in binding to host cells and to HAVCR1. These data indicate that an amino acid motif including Y29, Y30, Y36, and Y196 is important for the ability of epsilon toxin to interact with cells and HAVCR1.
Project description:The RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a member of the MET proto-oncogene family and is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and cancer development. Here, we created a series of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell clones that express different levels of RON, and have investigated their biological properties. While low levels of RON correlated with little morphological change in MDCK cells, high levels of RON expression constitutively led to morphological scattering or complete and stabilized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Unexpectedly, MDCK clones expressing higher levels of RON exhibited retarded proliferation and senescence, despite increased motility and invasiveness. RON was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in MDCK cells expressing high levels of RON and undergoing EMT, and the MAPK signaling pathway was activated. This study reveals for the first time that RON alone is sufficient to induce complete and stabilized EMT in MDCK cells, and overexpression of RON does not cause cell transformation but rather induces cell cycle arrest and senescence, leading to impaired cell proliferation.
Project description:The cardinal virulence factor of human-pathogenic enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is Shiga toxin (Stx), which causes severe extraintestinal complications including kidney failure by damaging renal endothelial cells. In EHEC pathogenesis, the disturbance of the kidney epithelium by Stx becomes increasingly recognised, but how this exactly occurs is unknown. To explore this molecularly, we investigated the Stx receptor content and transcriptomic profile of two human renal epithelial cell lines: highly Stx-sensitive ACHN cells and largely Stx-insensitive Caki-2 cells. Though both lines exhibited the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide, RNAseq revealed strikingly different transcriptomic responses to an Stx challenge. Using RNAi to silence factors involved in ACHN cells' Stx response, the greatest protection occurred when silencing RAB5A and TRAPPC6B, two host factors that we newly link to Stx trafficking. Silencing these factors alongside YKT6 fully prevented the cytotoxic Stx effect. Overall, our approach reveals novel subcellular targets for potential therapies against Stx-mediated kidney failure.
Project description:During infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV), most patients develop mild or asymptomatic disease. However, a small number of patients develop serious, life-threatening hepatitis. We investigated this variability in disease severity by examining 30 Argentinean patients with HAV-induced acute liver failure in a case-control, cross-sectional, observational study. We found that HAV-induced severe liver disease was associated with a 6-amino-acid insertion in TIM1/HAVCR1 (157insMTTTVP), the gene encoding the HAV receptor. This polymorphism was previously shown to be associated with protection against asthma and allergic diseases and with HIV progression. In binding assays, the TIM-1 protein containing the 157insMTTTVP insertion polymorphism bound HAV more efficiently. When expressed by human natural killer T (NKT) cells, this long form resulted in greater NKT cell cytolytic activity against HAV-infected liver cells, compared with the shorter TIM-1 protein without the polymorphism. To our knowledge, the 157insMTTTVP polymorphism in TIM1 is the first genetic susceptibility factor shown to predispose to HAV-induced acute liver failure. Furthermore, these results suggest that HAV infection has driven the natural selection of shorter forms of the TIM-1 protein, which binds HAV less efficiently, thereby protecting against severe HAV-induced disease, but which may predispose toward inflammation associated with asthma and allergy.
Project description:The hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), classified as CD365, was initially discovered as an HAV cellular receptor using an expression cloning strategy. Due to the lack of HAV receptor-negative replication-competent cells, it was not possible to fully prove that HAVCR1 was a functional HAV receptor. However, biochemistry, classical virology, and epidemiology studies further supported the functional role of HAVCR1 as an HAV receptor. Here, we show that an anti-HAVCR1 monoclonal antibody that protected African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells against HAV infection only partially protected monkey Vero E6 cells and human hepatoma Huh7 cells, indicating that these two cell lines express alternative yet unidentified HAV receptors. Therefore, we focused our work on AGMK cells to further characterize the function of HAVCR1 as an HAV receptor. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology allowed us to knock out the monkey ortholog of HAVCR1 in AGMK cells. The resulting AGMK HAVCR1 knockout (KO) cells lost susceptibility to HAV infection, including HAV-free viral particles (vpHAV) and exosomes purified from HAV-infected cells (exo-HAV). Transfection of HAVCR1 cDNA into AGMK HAVCR1 KO cells restored susceptibility to vpHAV and exo-HAV infection. Furthermore, transfection of the mouse ortholog of HAVCR1, mHavcr1, also restored the susceptibility of AGMK HAVCR1 KO cells to HAV infection. Taken together, our data clearly show that HAVCR1 and mHavcr1 are functional HAV receptors that mediate HAV infection. This work paves the way for the identification of alternative HAV receptors to gain a complete understanding of their interplay with HAVCR1 in the cell entry and pathogenic processes of HAV.IMPORTANCE HAVCR1, an HAV receptor, is expressed in different cell types, including regulatory immune cells and antigen-presenting cells. How HAV evades the immune response during a long incubation period of up to 4 weeks and the mechanism by which the subsequent necroinflammatory process clears the infection remain a puzzle that most likely involves the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction. Based on negative data, a recent paper from the S. M. Lemon and W. Maury laboratories (A. Das, A. Hirai-Yuki, O. Gonzalez-Lopez, B. Rhein, S. Moller-Tank, R. Brouillette, L. Hensley, I. Misumi, W. Lovell, J. M. Cullen, J. K. Whitmire, W. Maury, and S. M. Lemon, mBio 8:e00969-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00969-17) suggested that HAVCR1 is not a functional HAV receptor, nor it is it required for HAV infection. However, our data, based on regain of the HAV receptor function in HAVCR1 knockout cells transfected with HAVCR1 cDNA, disagree with their findings. Our positive data show conclusively that HAVCR1 is indeed a functional HAV receptor and lays the ground for the identification of alternative HAV receptors and how they interact with HAVCR1 in cell entry and the pathogenesis of HAV.
Project description:The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We previously demonstrated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) positively regulated RCC proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GSK-3 in the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 pathway and regulation of the downstream substrates, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), and ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP).We used human RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki1, and A498) and, as normal controls, human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (HRPTEpC) and non-tumorous kidney tissues that were obtained surgically for treatment of RCC patients. Rapamycin-resistant ACHN (ACHN/RR) cells were generated with chronic exposure of ACHN to rapamycin ranging from 1nM finally to 1 ?M. Cell viability, cell cycling and direct interaction between GSK-3? and 4EBP1 were evaluated with MTS assay, flowcytometry and in vitro kinase assay with recombinant GSK-3? and 4EBP1products, respectively. Protein expression and phosphorylation of molecules associated with the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 pathway were examined by immunoblotting. Effects of drug combination were determined as the combination index with CompuSyn software.Overexpression and phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and S6RP together with GSK-3 activation were observed in RCC cell lines, but not in human normal kidney cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, p4EBP1 and pS6RP were strongly suppressed by GSK-3 inhibition. Rapamycin and LY294002 sufficiently decreased pS6RP, but only moderately p4EBP1. In vitro kinase assays showed that recombinant GSK-3? phosphorylated recombinant 4EBP1, and the effect was blocked by GSK-3 inhibitors. Different from rapamycin, AR- A014418 remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, and rapidly suppressed p4EBP1 and pS6RP in ACHN and ACHN/RR (in 30 min to 1 h). AR- A014418 and rapamycin combination showed additivity at lower concentrations, but antagonism at higher concentrations.GSK-3? could directly phosphorylate 4EBP1 and activate the mTORC1 downstream signaling cascades to enhance protein biosynthesis and cell proliferation in RCC cell lines independent of rapamycin sensitivity. The direct GSK-3?/4EBP1 pathway might be an important subcellular mechanism as an inherent equipment for RCC cells to acquire clinical chemoresistance to mTORC1 inhibitors.
Project description:Despite sunitinib contributes to prolong the progression-free survival of metastatic renal cell carcinoma significantly, the universal presence of resistance limits the initial response rate and restricts durable responses. The mechanisms involved in sunitinib resistance vary and need further investigation. We found lncRNA CCAT1 overexpressed in sunitinib resistant cells while declined in the parental cells. Moreover, lncRNA CCAT1 increased significantly in samples with resistance to sunitinib compared to those with responses to sunitinib. Impoverishment of CCAT1 suppressed cell growth and colony formation while triggered apoptosis. Inversely, the ectopic expression of c-Myc reversed the inhibition of cell growth and enhancement of apoptosis by sh-CCAT1. We also verified that anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 decreased along with the deregulation of CCAT1, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 restored in cells those were transfected sh-CCAT1 and c-Myc simultaneously. Apart from the in vitro experiments, we demonstrated that knockdown of CCAT1 boosted response to sunitinib by performing sunitinib-resistant ACHN mouse models. Briefly, lncRNA CCAT1 conferred renal cell carcinoma resistance to sunitinib in a c-Myc-dependent manner, providing novel target for improvement of sunitinib therapy. Overall design: Three ACHN clones and three ACHN sunitinib-resistant clones were established in the present study. PCR arrays based LncRNA expression profiles were gained with nrStarTM Human Functional LncRNA PCR Array.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The organic cation transporters 1 (OCT1) and 2 (OCT2) mediate drug uptake into hepatocytes and renal proximal tubular cells, respectively. Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) is a major component of subsequent export into bile and urine. However, the functional interaction of OCTs and MATE1 for uptake and transcellular transport of the oral antidiabetic drug metformin or of the cation 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) has not fully been characterized. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as well as double-transfected MDCK-OCT1-MATE1 and -OCT2-MATE1 cells were used to study metformin and MPP(+) uptake into and transcellular transport across cell monolayers, along with their concentration and pH dependence. KEY RESULTS: Cellular accumulation of MPP(+) and metformin was significantly reduced by 31% and 46% in MDCK-MATE1 single-transfected cells compared with MDCK control cells (10 µM; P < 0.01). Over a wide concentration range (10-2500 µM) metformin transcellular transport from the basal into the apical compartment was significantly higher in the double-transfected cells compared with the MDCK control and MDCK-MATE1 monolayers. This process was not saturated up to metformin concentrations of 2500 µM. In MDCK-OCT2-MATE1 cells basal to apical MPP(+) and metformin transcellular translocation decreased with increasing pH from 6.0 to 7.5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data demonstrate functional interplay between OCT1/OCT2-mediated uptake and efflux by MATE1. Moreover, MATE1 function in human kidney might be modified by changes in luminal pH values.