Expanded repertoire of AAV vector serotypes mediate unique patterns of transduction in mouse brain.
ABSTRACT: A wide diversity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) structural proteins uncovered from latent genomes in primate tissue has expanded the number of AAV vector serotypes, which can potentially confer unique cell tropism to the vector. We evaluated 17 of these vectors in the mouse brain using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. A rapid initial evaluation was performed by neonatal lateral ventricle injections. Vectors made with capsids hu.32, hu.37, pi.2, hu.11, rh.8, hu.48R3, and AAV9 for comparison were selected for further analysis based on their ability to transduce large numbers of cells and result in novel patterns of cell transduction. These vectors were injected into adult brains in four major structures (cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus), and all were found to transduce neurons. In addition, hu.32, hu.11, pi.2, hu.48R3, and rh.8 resulted in GFP expression in some astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. AAVs rh.8, pi.2, hu.32, and hu.11 also appeared to result in neuronal transport of the vector genome. Vector transport was studied by a single unilateral injection into the hippocampus and vector genome was found in projection sites of the hippocampus. These unique patterns of cell transduction expand the potential repertoire for targeting AAV vectors to selected subsets of brain cells.
Project description:Recent successes of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based gene therapy have created a demand for large-scale AAV vector manufacturing and purification techniques for use in clinical trials and beyond. During the development of purification protocols for rh.10, hu.37, AAV8, rh.64R1, AAV3B, and AAV9 vectors, based on a widely used affinity resin, AVB sepharose (GE), we found that, under the same conditions, different serotypes have different affinities to the resin, with AAV3B binding the best and AAV9 the poorest. Further analysis revealed a surface-exposed residue (amino acid number 665 in AAV8 VP1 numbering) differs between the high-affinity AAV serotypes (serine in AAV3B, rh.10, and hu.37) and the low-affinity ones (asparagine in AAV8, rh.64R1, and AAV9). The residue locates within a surface-exposed, variable epitope flanked by highly conserved residues. The substitution of the epitope in AAV8, rh.64R1, and AAV9 with the corresponding epitope of AAV3B (SPAKFA) resulted in greatly increased affinity to AVB sepharose with no reduction in the vectors' in vitro potency. The presence of the newly identified AVB-binding epitope will be useful for affinity resin selection for the purification of novel AAV serotypes. It also suggests the possibility of vector engineering to yield a universal affinity chromatography purification method for multiple AAV serotypes.
Project description:DNA shuffling and directed evolution were employed to develop a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector capable of crossing the seizure-compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transducing cells in the brain. Capsid DNA from AAV serotypes 1-6, 8, and 9 were shuffled and recombined to create a library of chimeric AAVs. One day after kainic acid-induced limbic seizure activity in rats, the virus library was infused intravenously (i.v.), and 3 days later, neuron-rich cells were mechanically dissociated from seizure-sensitive brain sites, collected and viral DNA extracted. After three cycles of selection, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-packaged clones were administered directly into brain or i.v. 1 day after kainic acid-induced seizures. Several clones that were effective after intracranial administration did not transduce brain cells after the i.v. administration. However, two clones (32 and 83) transduced the cells after direct brain infusion and after i.v. administration transduced the cells that were localized to the piriform cortex and ventral hippocampus, areas exhibiting a seizure-compromised BBB. No transduction occurred in areas devoid of BBB compromise. Only one parental serotype (AAV8) exhibited a similar expression profile, but the biodistribution of 32 and 83 diverged dramatically from this parental serotype. Thus, novel AAV vectors have been created that can selectively cross the seizure-compromised BBB and transduce cells.
Project description:Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors hold great potential for liver-directed gene therapy. Stable and high levels of transgene expression have been achieved in many murine models. Systemic delivery of AAV vectors in nonhuman primates (NHPs) that are natural hosts of AAVs appear to be challenging due to the high prevalence of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). This study evaluates the performance of AAV8, hu.37, and rh.8 vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a liver-specific promoter in rhesus macaques. Two of the animals that received AAV8 showed transduction of 24 and 40% of hepatocytes 7 days after systemic vector delivery. Importantly, expression was detected in several animals after 35 days despite the elevation of liver enzymes and development of transgene-specific T cells in liver. Pre-existing low levels of NAbs profoundly impacted the outcome of gene transfer and redirected vector DNA to spleen. We developed a sensitive in vivo passive transfer assay to detect low levels of NAbs to these novel AAV serotypes. Other strategies need to be developed to reduce immune response to the transgene in order to maintain long-term gene expression.
Project description:Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the beta-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies.
Project description:Some recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) can cross the neonatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) and efficiently transduce cells of the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the adult CNS, transduction levels by systemically delivered rAAVs are significantly reduced, limiting their potential for CNS gene therapy. Here, we characterized 12 different rAAVEGFPs in the adult mouse CNS following intravenous delivery. We show that the capability of crossing the adult BBB and achieving widespread CNS transduction is a common character of AAV serotypes tested. Of note, rAAVrh.8 is the leading vector for robust global transduction of glial and neuronal cell types in regions of clinical importance such as cortex, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, corpus callosum, and substantia nigra. It also displays reduced peripheral tissue tropism compared to other leading vectors. Additionally, we evaluated rAAVrh.10 with and without microRNA (miRNA)-regulated expressional detargeting from peripheral tissues for systemic gene delivery to the CNS in marmosets. Our results indicate that rAAVrh.8, along with rh.10 and 9, hold the best promise for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat neurological diseases in the adult patient population. Additionally, systemically delivered rAAVrh.10 can transduce the CNS efficiently, and its transgene expression can be limited in the periphery by endogenous miRNAs in adult marmosets.
Project description:Delivery of genes that are larger than the wild-type adeno-associated virus (AAV) 4,681 nucleotide genome is inefficient using AAV vectors. We previously demonstrated in vitro that concurrent proteasome inhibitor (PI) treatment improves transduction by AAV vectors encoding oversized transgenes. In this study, an AAV vector with a 5.6 kilobase (kb) factor VIII expression cassette was used to test the effect of an US Food and Drug Administration-approved PI (bortezomib) treatment concurrent with vector delivery in vivo. Intrahepatic vector delivery resulted in factor VIII expression that persisted for >1 year in hemophilia mice. Single-dose bortezomib given with AAV2 or AAV8 factor VIII vector enhanced expression on average ~600 and ~300%, respectively. Moreover, coadministration of AAV8.canineFVIII (1 × 10(13) vg/kg) and bortezomib in hemophilia A dogs (n = 4) resulted in normalization of the whole blood clotting time (WBCT) and 90% reduction in hemorrhages for >32 months compared to untreated hemophilia A dogs (n = 3) or dogs administered vector alone (n = 3). Demonstration of long-term phenotypic correction of hemophilia A dogs with combination adjuvant bortezomib and AAV vector expressing the oversized transgene establishes preclinical studies that support testing in humans and provides a working paradigm to facilitate a significant expansion of therapeutic targets for human gene therapy.
Project description:Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors efficiently transduce various cell types and can produce long-term expression of transgenes in vivo. Although AAV vector genomes can persist within cells as episomes, vector integration has been observed in various experimental settings, either at non-homologous sites where DNA damage may have occurred or by homologous recombination. In some cases, integration is essential for the therapeutic or experimental efficacy of AAV vectors. Recently, insertional mutagenesis resulting from the integration of AAV vectors was associated with tumorigenesis in mice, a consideration that may have relevance for certain clinical applications.
Project description:Vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) have the potential to stably transduce mammalian cells by integrating into host chromosomes. Despite active research on the use of AAV vectors for gene therapy, the structure of integrated vector proviruses has not previously been analyzed at the DNA sequence level. Studies on the integration of wild-type AAV have identified a common site-specific integration locus on human chromosome 19; however, most AAV vectors do not appear to integrate at this locus. To improve our understanding of AAV vector integration, we analyzed the DNA sequences of several integrated vector proviruses. HeLa cells were transduced with an AAV shuttle vector, and integrated proviruses containing flanking human DNA were recovered as bacterial plasmids for further analysis. We found that AAV vectors integrated as single-copy proviruses at random chromosomal locations and that the flanking HeLa DNA at integration sites was not homologous to AAV or the site-specific integration locus of wild-type AAV. Recombination junctions were scattered throughout the vector terminal repeats with no apparent site specificity. None of the integrated vectors were fully intact. Vector proviruses with nearly intact terminal repeats were excised and amplified after infection with wild-type AAV and adenovirus. Our results suggest that AAV vectors integrate by nonhomologous recombination after partial degradation of entering vector genomes. These findings have important implications for the mechanism of AAV vector integration and the use of these vectors in human gene therapy.
Project description:AAV vectors poorly transduce Dendritic cells (DC), a feature invoked to explain AAV's low immunogenicity. However, the reason for this non-permissiveness remained elusive. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis using human monocyte-derived immature DC (iDC) as model. iDC internalized AAV vectors of various serotypes, but even the most efficient serotype failed to transduce iDC above background. Since AAV vectors reached the cell nucleus, we hypothesized that AAV's intracellular processing occurs suboptimal. On this basis, we screened an AAV peptide display library for capsid variants more suitable for DC transduction and identified the I/VSS family which transduced DC with efficiencies of up to 38%. This property correlated with an improved vector uncoating. To determine the consequence of this novel feature for AAV's in vivo performance, we engineered one of the lead candidates to express a cytoplasmic form of ovalbumin, a highly immunogenic model antigen, and assayed transduction efficiency as well as immunogenicity. The capsid variant clearly outperformed the parental serotype in muscle transduction and in inducing antigen-specific humoral and T cell responses as well as anti-capsid CD8+ T cells. Hence, vector uncoating represents a major barrier hampering AAV vector-mediated transduction of DC and impacts on its use as vaccine platform.
Project description:Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are becoming an important tool for gene therapy of numerous genetic and other disorders. Several recombinant AAV vectors (rAAV) have the ability to transduce striated muscles in a variety of animals following intramuscular and intravascular administration, and have attracted widespread interest for therapy of muscle disorders such as the muscular dystrophies. However, most studies have focused on the ability to transduce mature muscle cells, and have not examined the ability to target myogenic stem cells such as skeletal muscle satellite cells. Here we examined the relative ability of rAAV vectors derived from AAV6 to target myoblasts, myocytes and myotubes in culture and satellite cells and myofibers in vivo. AAV vectors are able to transduce proliferating myoblasts in culture, albeit with reduced efficiency relative to post-mitotic myocytes and myotubes. In contrast, quiescent satellite cells are refractory to transduction in adult mice. These results suggest that while muscle disorders characterized by myofiber regeneration can be slowed or halted by AAV transduction, little if any vector transduction can be obtained in myogenic stems cells that might other wise support ongoing muscle regeneration.