Associations of tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphisms with irritable bowel syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) are suspected in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin and has two isoforms: TPH1 and TPH2. Genetic variants in both genes have been studied in various disorders related to serotonin dysregulation. The aim of this study was to examine whether TPH gene variants were associated with IBS and IBS-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the TPH1 and one SNP from the TPH2 were genotyped in 199 IBS patients and 79 healthy controls. All subjects were Caucasian women of European origin. Irritable bowel syndrome patients filled in a daily diary with five GI symptoms and stool characteristics for 28 days.The TPH1 SNPs showed no association with the diagnosis of IBS. However, among IBS patients, all five TPH1 SNPs showed some association with diarrhea and loose type of stool consistency, with P-values rating from 0.01 to 0.20. The TPH2 SNP showed a trend towards a reduced risk of IBS and possible associations with stool characteristics, both hard and loose stools. However, no P-values were less than the conservative multiple-comparison-adjusted threshold of 0.001 and hence these results must be interpreted cautiously.This study is the first to assess associations of TPH gene variants with IBS-related GI symptoms and stool characteristics. The possible association of TPH gene variants with diarrhea needs to be verified in an independent sample.
Project description:The aims of this exploratory study were to examine whether tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene polymorphisms are associated with psychosocial factors in women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). TPH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin and has two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TPH1 gene and one SNP in the TPH2 gene were selected based on previous studies investigating associations between these SNPs and psychiatric or behavioral disorders. One hundred ninety-nine Caucasian women with IBS were included. Results of univariate analysis showed no association between TPH1and TPH2 gene SNPs and current level of psychological distress or psychiatric illness. However, TPH1 gene SNPs were associated with IBS-related cognitions (rs4537731 and rs21105) and quality of life (rs684302 and rs1800532), in particular the mental health and energy subscales. These associations were independent of the subjects' levels of gastrointestinal symptoms. These results suggest that patients' perception of their illness, and of the impact it has on their lives, may be subject to genetic influences, in this case sequence variants in TPH1. However, caution should be used in interpreting these results given the large number of hypothesis tests performed in this exploratory hypothesis-generating study, and the results should be considered tentative until confirmed in an independent sample.
Project description:Serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT3 R) antagonists are potentially useful therapeutic agents for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). To identify biomarkers predicting effectiveness of the 5-HT3 R antagonist (ramosetron) in IBS-D.Irritable bowel syndrome-D Japanese subjects received 2.5 or 5 ?g of ramosetron once daily for 4 weeks. Colonic mucosal S100A and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA expression levels were measured before treatment. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood and polymorphisms of TPH1 and TPH2 were analyzed.Forty-two patients (27 men and 15 women, mean age 42 years) with IBS-D were included for analysis. Improvement of IBS symptoms was seen in 26 (61.9%). Baseline S100A10 (p = 0.02) and TPH1 (p = 0.02) expression were significantly higher in the ramosetron responders than in the non-responders. The frequencies of the TPH1 rs4537731G allele in linkage disequilibrium with the TPH1 rs7130929 T allele (11.5% vs 50%, p = 0.003; OR: 12; 95% CI: 2.1-69) along with TPH1 rs211105 C allele (3.8% vs 43.8%, p = 0.0003; OR: 19; 95% CI: 2.1-181) were significantly lower in the responders than in the non-responders. The mean scores of diarrhea at baseline were significantly higher (5.2 vs 3.7, p = 0.005) in patients with TPH1 rs211105 T/T than those with the G allele.TPH1 gene polymorphisms and S100A10 expression, which correlate with 5-HT signaling were associated with ramosetron effectiveness in IBS-D, and may possibly lead to prospective identification of the resistance to treatment.
Project description:LX-1031 is an oral, small molecule tryptophan 5-hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitor that reduces serotonin (5-HT) synthesis peripherally. It has potential for illnesses characterized by excess 5-HT, such as diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and carcinoid diarrhea. In vitro, inhibition of TPH1 occurred in 10(-8) -10(-7) mol L(-1) range. In vivo in rodents, LX-1031 has no effect on brain 5-HT while dose-dependently reducing 5-HT, particularly in the small bowel. After oral LX1031 in humans, systemic exposure is very low, plasma concentrations are linear in dose range 250-750 mg q.i.d.; the median T(1/2) for elimination is ? 20 h, and repeat administration for 14 days doubles C(max) . In ascending-single-dose and multiple-dose (14 days) trials in healthy volunteers, LX-1031, 2-4 g day(-1) significantly reduced urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) starting by Day 5, and persisting over the 14 day exposure. There are no dose-limiting toxicities in healthy subjects or remarkable adverse effects in clinical trials to date. Over a 28-day treatment period, LX-1031 was associated with improved weekly global scores (2/4 weeks) and improved stool consistency with lower urinary 5-HIAA excretion. LX-1031 appears promising for chronic diarrhea associated with increased 5-HT expression including IBS-D. Optimal doses, efficacy and safety in IBS clinical trials need to be fully elucidated; low systemic exposure, selectivity for TPH1 over TPH2, and lack of effect on brain 5-HT in several species suggest that LX-1031 is unlikely to cause affective disorders.
Project description:Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Serotonin is also a precursor for melatonin biosynthesis, which mainly occurs in the pineal gland of vertebrates. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) acts as the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin biosynthesis and is the initial enzyme involved in the synthesis of melatonin. Recently, two enzymes-TPH1 and TPH2-were reported to form the TPH family in vertebrates and to play divergent roles in serotonergic systems. Here, we examined the evolution of the TPH family from 70 vertebrate genomes. Based on the sequence similarity, we extracted 184 predicted tph homologs in the examined vertebrates. A phylogenetic tree, constructed on the basis of these protein sequences, indicated that tph genes could be divided into two main clades (tph1 and tph2), and that the two clades were further split into two subgroups of tetrapods and Actinopterygii. In tetrapods, and some basal non-teleost ray-finned fishes, only two tph isotypes exist. Notably, tph1 in most teleosts that had undergone the teleost-specific genome duplication could be further divided into tph1a and tph1b. Moreover, protein sequence comparisons indicated that TPH protein changes among vertebrates were concentrated at the NH?-terminal. The tertiary structures of TPH1 and TPH2 revealed obvious differences in the structural elements. Five positively selected sites were characterized in TPH2 compared with TPH1; these sites may reflect the functional divergence in enzyme activity and substrate specificity. In summary, our current work provides novel insights into the evolution of tph genes in vertebrates from a comprehensive genomic perspective.
Project description:Fatigue is the most common extraintestinal symptom in women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Genetic polymorphisms of monoamines are associated with fatigue in many chronic diseases. In this pilot exploratory study, the primary aim was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase ( TPH1/TPH2), serotonin reuptake transporter ( SERT), or catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT) are associated with fatigue in women with IBS. Additionally, analysis explored whether these genetic associations with fatigue would be present when controlling for abdominal pain, psychological distress, feeling stressed, and sleepiness during the day. Secondary analysis of two randomized controlled trial baseline data sets in Caucasian women with IBS ( N = 185) was conducted. Participants kept a daily diary with one dimension (i.e., severity) for each of the 26 symptoms, including fatigue, for 28 days prior to randomization. DNA samples were tested for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TPH1 (four SNPs) /TPH2 (one SNP), SERT (one SNP), and COMT (one SNP). Analysis of covariance was used to examine associations of percentage of diary days with moderate to very severe symptoms with genetic polymorphisms. Only one SNP, TPH2 rs4570625, was significantly associated with fatigue ( p = .005). T-allele (low functional) carriers of TPH2 (i.e., G/T or T/T genotypes) reported a greater percentage of days with moderate to very severe fatigue than G/G homozygotes ( p = .001). Reduced synthesis of tryptophan in the central nervous system may contribute to reports of fatigue in women with IBS. Understanding genetic risk factors for fatigue may elucidate preemptive strategies to reduce fatigue in individuals with IBS.
Project description:The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The biosynthesis of serotonin is regulated by two rate-limiting enzymes, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 and -2 (TPH1 and TPH2). We used a gene-targeting approach to generate mice with selective and complete elimination of the two known TPH isoforms. This resulted in dramatically reduced central 5-HT levels in Tph2 knockout (TPH2KO) and Tph1/Tph2 double knockout (DKO) mice; and substantially reduced peripheral 5-HT levels in DKO, but not TPH2KO mice. Therefore, differential expression of the two isoforms of TPH was reflected in corresponding depletion of 5-HT content in the brain and periphery. Surprisingly, despite the prominent and evolutionarily ancient role that 5-HT plays in both vertebrate and invertebrate physiology, none of these mutations resulted in an overt phenotype. TPH2KO and DKO mice were viable and normal in appearance. Behavioral alterations in assays with predictive validity for antidepressants were among the very few phenotypes uncovered. These behavioral changes were subtle in the TPH2KO mice; they were enhanced in the DKO mice. Herein, we confirm findings from prior descriptions of TPH1 knockout mice and present the first reported phenotypic evaluations of Tph2 and Tph1/Tph2 knockout mice. The behavioral effects observed in the TPH2 KO and DKO mice strongly confirm the role of 5-HT and its synthetic enzymes in the etiology and treatment of affective disorders.
Project description:Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, is believed to have essential role in many mental disorders, including depression. In the present study, we generated a rat model of depression by exposing the animals to stress, and the rats were then treated with paroxetine. The results indicated that the concentration of 5-HT in the brain and liver tissues were significantly lower in the rat model of depression than in healthy or treated rats. Immunohistochemical analyses of TPH1/2 showed less TPH1 and TPH2 expression, specifically TPH2, in the brain, liver and kidney of the depressive rats than in the healthy rats; In addition, the two TPH isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, had different spatial distributions,the mRNAs of the TPH1/2 genes were significantly decreased and TPH1/2 were highly methylated in the depressive model rat, but treatment with paroxetine ameliorated the expression and methylation of TPH1/2. All together, stress was able to inhibit expression of TPH1/2 in brain tissue and decrease concentration of 5-HT, the mechanism maybe involve in increasing the methylation of TPH2 genes promoter; Paroxetine has a role in confronting the effect of stress in depressive rat model.
Project description:Brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission plays a key role in the regulation of mood and has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Recently, we discovered a second TPH isoform (TPH2) in vertebrates, including man, which is predominantly expressed in brain, while the previously known TPH isoform (TPH1) is primarly a non-neuronal enzyme. Overwhelming evidence now points to TPH2 as a candidate gene for 5-HT-related psychiatric disorders. To assess the role of TPH2 gene variability in the etiology of psychiatric diseases we performed cDNA sequence analysis of TPH2 transcripts from human post mortem amygdala samples obtained from individuals with psychiatric disorders (drug abuse, schizophrenia, suicide) and controls. Here we show that TPH2 exists in two alternatively spliced variants in the coding region, denoted TPH2a and TPH2b. Moreover, we found evidence that the pre-mRNAs of both splice variants are dynamically RNA-edited in a mutually exclusive manner. Kinetic studies with cell lines expressing recombinant TPH2 variants revealed a higher activity of the novel TPH2B protein compared with the previously known TPH2A, whereas RNA editing was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of both TPH2 splice variants. Therefore, our results strongly suggest a complex fine-tuning of central nervous system 5-HT biosynthesis by TPH2 alternative splicing and RNA editing. Finally, we present molecular and large-scale linkage data evidencing that deregulated alternative splicing and RNA editing is involved in the etiology of psychiatric diseases, such as suicidal behaviour.
Project description:Serotonin synthesis in mammals is initiated by 2 distinct tryptophan hydroxylases (TPH), TPH1 and TPH2. By genetically ablating TPH2, we created mice (Tph2(-/-)) that lack serotonin in the central nervous system. Surprisingly, these mice can be born and survive until adulthood. However, depletion of serotonin signaling in the brain leads to growth retardation and 50% lethality in the first 4 weeks of postnatal life. Telemetric monitoring revealed more extended daytime sleep, suppressed respiration, altered body temperature control, and decreased blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during nighttime in Tph2(-/-) mice. Moreover, Tph2(-/-) females, despite being fertile and producing milk, exhibit impaired maternal care leading to poor survival of their pups. These data confirm that the majority of central serotonin is generated by TPH2. TPH2-derived serotonin is involved in the regulation of behavior and autonomic pathways but is not essential for adult life.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Disturbances in serotonin neurotransmission are implicated in the etiology of many psychiatric disorders, including bipolar affective disorder (BPD). The tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH), which codes for the enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in serotonin biosynthetic pathway, is one of the leading candidate genes for psychiatric and behavioral disorders. In a preliminary study, we found that TPH1 intron7 A218C polymorphism was associated with BPD. This study was designed to investigate sequence variants of the TPH1 gene in Taiwanese and to test whether the TPH1 gene is a susceptibility factor for the BPD. METHODS: Using a systematic approach, we have searched the exons and promoter region of the TPH1 gene for sequence variants in Taiwanese Han and have identified five variants, A-1067G, G-347T, T3804A, C27224T, and A27237G. These five variants plus another five taken from the literature and a public database were examined for an association in 108 BPD patients and 103 controls; no association was detected for any of the 10 variants. RESULTS: Haplotype constructions using these 10 SNPs showed that the 3 most common haplotypes in both patients and controls were identical. One of the fourth common haplotype in the patient group (i.e. GGGAGACCCA) was unique and showed a trend of significance with the disease (P = 0.028). However, the significance was abolished after Bonferroni correction thus suggesting the association is weak. In addition, three haplotype-tagged SNPs (htSNPs) were selected to represent all haplotypes with frequencies larger than 2% in the Taiwanese Han population. The defined TPH1 htSNPs significantly reduce the marker number for haplotype analysis thus provides useful information for future association studies in our population. CONCLUSION: Results of this study did not support the role of TPH1 gene in BPD etiology. As the current studies found the TPH1 gene under investigation belongs to the peripheral serotonin system and may link to a cardiac dysfunction phenotype, a second TPH gene that functions predominantly in the brain (i.e., nTPH or TPH2) should be the target for the future association study.