ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland.
ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and gonadal biology. Disruption of SF-1 can lead to disorders of adrenal development, while increased SF-1 dosage has been associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify a novel subset of SF-1 target genes in the adrenal by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) combined with systems analysis. SF-1 ChIP-on-chip was performed in NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells using promoter tiling arrays, leading to the identification of 445 gene loci where SF-1-binding regions were located from 10 kb upstream to 3 kb downstream of a transcriptional start. Network analysis of genes identified as putative SF-1 targets revealed enrichment for angiogenic process networks. A 1.1-kb SF-1-binding region was identified in the angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) promoter in a highly repetitive region, and SF-1-dependent activation was confirmed in luciferase assays. Angiogenesis is paramount in adrenal development and tumorigenesis, but until now a direct link between SF-1 and vascular remodeling has not been established. We have identified Ang2 as a potentially important novel target of SF-1 in the adrenal gland, indicating that regulation of angiogenesis might be an important additional mechanism by which SF-1 exerts its actions in the adrenal gland.
Project description:The development and differentiation of steroidogenic organs are controlled by Ad4BP/SF-1 (adrenal 4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1). Besides, lysosomal activity is required for steroidogenesis and also enables adrenocortical cell to survive during stress. However, the role of lysosomal activity on steroidogenic cell growth is as yet unknown. Here, we showed that lysosomal activity maintained Ad4BP/SF-1 protein stability for proper steroidogenic cell growth. Treatment of cells with lysosomal inhibitors reduced steroidogenic cell growth in vitro. Suppression of autophagy did not affect cell growth indicating that autophagy was dispensable for steroidogenic cell growth. When lysosomal activity was inhibited, the protein stability of Ad4BP/SF-1 was reduced leading to reduced S phase entry. Interestingly, treatment of cells with lysosomal inhibitors reduced glycolytic gene expression and supplying the cells with pyruvate alleviated the growth defect. ChIP-sequence/ChIP studies indicated that Ad4BP/SF-1 binds to the upstream region of Ccne1 (cyclin E1) gene during G1/S phase. In addition, treatment of zebrafish embryo with lysosomal inhibitor reduced the levels of the interrenal (adrenal) gland markers. Thus lysosomal activity maintains steroidogenic cell growth via stabilizing Ad4BP/SF-1 protein.
Project description:The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and gonadal biology. We aimed to identify a novel subset of SF-1 target genes in the adrenal by performing ChIP-on-chip in NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells using promoter tiling arrays. Analysis of ChIP-on-chip experiments with CisGenome identified 738 SF-1-binding regions that met criteria of an MA score more than 3.5 mean ± S.D. and a false discovery rate of <5%. Subsequent analysis focused on those regions that were located between 10 kb upstream and 3 kb downstream of the TSS of known genes, in keeping with the design of the Human Promoter 1.0R arrays. Using this approach, binding regions were annotated to 445 gene loci. The supplementary bed file contains all 946 SF-1 binding sites identified by analysis with CisGenome using standard settings (MA>3.0) Overall design: Unstimulated NCI-H295R cells ChIPed with Upstate Millipore 07-618 anti-SF-1 antibody vs input chromatin. Two full experiments were analysed (biological replicates): 2 SF-1 ChIP arrays, 2 input control arrays
Project description:Deficiency of adrenal 4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1; NR5A1) impairs adrenal development in a dose-dependent manner, whereas overexpression of Ad4BP/SF-1 is associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Despite its essential roles in adrenal development, the mechanism(s) by which Ad4BP/SF-1 regulates this process remain incompletely understood. We previously identified a fetal adrenal enhancer (FAdE) that stimulates Ad4BP/SF-1 expression in the fetal adrenal gland by a two-step mechanism in which homeobox proteins initiate Ad4BP/SF-1 expression, which then maintains FAdE activity in an autoregulatory loop. In the present study, we examined the effect of transgenic expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 controlled by FAdE on adrenal development. When Ad4BP/SF-1 was overexpressed using a FAdE-Ad4BP/SF-1 transgene, FAdE activity expanded outside of its normal field, resulting in increased adrenal size and the formation of ectopic adrenal tissue in the thorax. The increased size of the adrenal gland did not result from a corresponding increase in cell proliferation, suggesting rather that the increased levels of Ad4BP/SF-1 may divert uncommitted precursors to the steroidogenic lineage. The effects of FAdE-controlled Ad4BP/SF-1 overexpression in mice provide a novel model of ectopic adrenal formation that further supports the critical role of Ad4BP/SF-1 in the determination of steroidogenic cell fate in vivo.
Project description:POD-1/TCF21 may play a crucial role in adrenal and gonadal homeostasis and represses Sf-1/SF-1 expression in adrenocortical tumor cells. SF-1 and LRH-1 are members of the Fzt-F1 subfamily of nuclear receptors. LRH-1 is involved in several biological processes, and both LRH-1 and its repressor SHP are involved in many types of cancer. In order to assess whether POD-1 can regulate LRH-1 via the same mechanism that regulates SF-1, we analyzed the endogenous mRNA levels of POD-1, SHP, and LRH-1 in hepatocarcinoma and adrenocortical tumor cells using qRT-PCR. Hereafter, these tumor cells were transiently transfected with pCMVMycPod-1, and the effect of POD-1 overexpression on E-box elements in the LRH-1 and SHP promoter region were analyzed by ChIP assay. Also, Cyclin E1 protein expression was analyzed to detect cell cycle progression. We found that POD-1 overexpression significantly decreased SHP/SHP mRNA and protein levels through POD-1 binding to the E-box sequence in the SHP promoter. Decreased SHP expression affected LRH-1 regulation and increased Cyclin E1. These findings show that POD-1/TCF21 regulates SF-1 and LRH-1 by distinct mechanisms, contributing to the understanding of POD-1 involvement and its mechanisms of action in adrenal and liver tumorigenesis, which could lead to the discovery of relevant biomarkers.
Project description:The orphan nuclear receptor Steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a critical regulator of development and homeostasis of the adrenal cortex and gonads. We recently showed that a complex containing E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF31 and the known SF-1 corepressor DAX-1 (NR0B1) interacts with SF-1 on target promoters and represses transcription of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) genes. To further evaluate the role of SF-1 in the adrenal cortex and the involvement of RNF31 in SF-1-dependent pathways, we performed genome-wide gene-expression analysis of adrenocortical NCI-H295R cells where SF-1 or RNF31 had been knocked down using RNA interference. We find RNF31 to be deeply connected to cholesterol metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis, strengthening its role as an SF-1 coregulator. We also find intriguing evidence of negative crosstalk between SF-1 and both transforming growth factor (TGF) ? and Wnt/?-catenin signaling. This crosstalk could be of importance for adrenogonadal development, maintenance of adrenocortical progenitor cells and the development of adrenocortical carcinoma. Finally, the SF-1 gene profile can be used to distinguish malignant from benign adrenocortical tumors, a finding that implicates SF-1 in the development of malignant adrenocortical carcinoma.
Project description:CONTEXT:Disorders of adrenal development result in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular basis of human adrenal development, and many forms of disease, is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVES:We evaluated the role of two new candidate genes, CBP/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich C-terminal domain, 2 (CITED2), and pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (PBX1), in human adrenal development and disease. DESIGN:CITED2 and PBX1 expression in early human fetal adrenal development was assessed using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The regulation of CITED2 and PBX1 by steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenital, critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1 (DAX1) was evaluated in NCI-H295R human adrenocortical tumor cells by studying promoter regulation. Finally, mutational analysis of CITED2 and PBX1 was performed in patients with primary adrenal disorders. RESULTS:CITED2 and PBX1 are expressed in the human fetal adrenal gland during early development. Both genes are activated by SF-1 in a dose-dependent manner in NCI-H295R cells, and, surprisingly, PBX1 is synergistically activated by SF-1 and DAX1. Mutational analysis failed to reveal significant coding sequence changes in individuals with primary adrenal disorders. CONCLUSIONS:CITED2 and PBX1 are likely to be important mediators of adrenal development and function in humans, but mutations in these genes are not common causes of adrenal failure in patients in whom a molecular diagnosis remains unknown. The positive interaction between DAX1 and SF-1 in regulating PBX1 may be an important mechanism in this process.
Project description:Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is important for expression of genes involved in sexual differentiation, testicular and adrenal development, and hormone synthesis and regulation. To better understand the mechanisms required for SF-1 production, we employed transient transfection analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to characterize the elements and proteins required for transcriptional activity of the SF-1 proximal promoter in testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells and adrenocortical cells. Direct comparison of SF-1-promoter activity in testis and adrenal cell types established that a similar set of regulatory elements (an E box, CCAAT box, and Sp1-binding sites) is required for proximal promoter activity in these cells. Further evaluation of the E box and CCAAT box revealed a novel synergism between the two elements and identified functionally important bases within the elements. Importantly, DNA/protein-binding studies uncovered new proteins interacting with the E box and CCAAT box. Thus, in addition to the previously identified USF and NF-Y proteins, newly described complexes, having migration properties that differed between Sertoli and Leydig cells, were observed bound to the E box and CCAAT box. Transient transfection analysis also identified several Sp1/Sp3-binding elements important for expression of SF-1 in the testis, one of which was previously described for expression in the adrenal gland whereas the other two were newly disclosed elements.
Project description:This review summarizes key knowledge regarding the development, growth, and growth disorders of the adrenal cortex from a molecular perspective. The adrenal gland consists of two distinct regions: the cortex and the medulla. During embryological development and transition to the adult adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex acquires three different structural and functional zones. Significant progress has been made in understanding the signaling and molecules involved during adrenal cortex zonation. Equally significant is the knowledge obtained regarding the action of peptide factors involved in the maintenance of zonation of the adrenal cortex, such as peptides derived from proopiomelanocortin processing, adrenocorticotropin and N-terminal proopiomelanocortin. Findings regarding the development, maintenance and growth of the adrenal cortex and the molecular factors involved has improved the scientific understanding of disorders that affect adrenal cortex growth. Hypoplasia, hyperplasia and adrenocortical tumors, including adult and pediatric adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas, are described together with findings regarding molecular and pathway alterations. Comprehensive genomic analyses of adrenocortical tumors have shown gene expression profiles associated with malignancy as well as methylation alterations and the involvement of miRNAs. These findings provide a new perspective on the diagnosis, therapeutic possibilities and prognosis of adrenocortical disorders.
Project description:Bilateral adrenalectomy forces the patient to undergo glucocorticoid replacement therapy and bear a lifetime risk of adrenal crisis. Adrenal autotransplantation is considered useful to avoid adrenal crisis and glucocorticoid replacement therapy. However, the basic process of regeneration in adrenal autografts is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the essential regeneration factors in rat adrenocortical autografts, with a focus on the factors involved in adrenal development and steroidogenesis, such as Hh signalling. A remarkable renewal in cell proliferation and increase in Cyp11b1, which encodes 11-beta-hydroxylase, occurred in adrenocortical autografts from 2-3 weeks after autotransplantation. Serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were almost recovered to sham level at 4 weeks after autotransplantation. The adrenocortical autografts showed increased Dhh expression at 3 weeks after autotransplantation, but not Shh, which is the only Hh family member to have been reported to be expressed in the adrenal gland. Increased Gli1 expression was also found in the regenerated capsule at 3 weeks after autotransplantation. Dhh and Gli1 might function in concert to regenerate adrenocortical autografts. This is the first report to clearly show Dhh expression and its elevation in the adrenal gland.
Project description:Encapsulation of primary bovine adrenocortical cells in alginate is an efficacious model of a bioartificial adrenal cortex. Such a bioartificial adrenal cortex can be used for the restoration of lost adrenal function in vivo as well as for in vitro modeling of the adrenal microenvironment and for investigation of cell-cell interactions in the adrenals. The aim of this work was the optimization of a bioartificial adrenal cortex, that is the generation of a highly productive, self-regenerating, long-term functioning and immune tolerant bioartificial organ. To achieve this, it is necessary that adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells are present in the bioartificial gland, as these undifferentiated cells play important roles in the function of the mature gland. Here, we verified the presence of adrenocortical progenitors in cultures of bovine adrenocortical cells, studied the dynamics of their appearance and growth and determined the optimal time point for cell encapsulation. These procedures increased the functional life span and reduced the immunogenicity of the bioartificial adrenal cortex. This model allows the use of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist triptorelin, the neuropeptide bombesin, and retinoic acid to alter cell number and the release of cortisol over long periods of time.