Visualizing active-site dynamics in single crystals of HePTP: opening of the WPD loop involves coordinated movement of the E loop.
ABSTRACT: Phosphotyrosine hydrolysis by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involves substrate binding by the PTP loop and closure over the active site by the WPD loop. The E loop, located immediately adjacent to the PTP and WPD loops, is conserved among human PTPs in both sequence and structure, yet the role of this loop in substrate binding and catalysis is comparatively unexplored. Hematopoietic PTP (HePTP) is a member of the kinase interaction motif (KIM) PTP family. Compared to other PTPs, KIM-PTPs have E loops that are unique in both sequence and structure. In order to understand the role of the E loop in the transition between the closed state and the open state of HePTP, we identified a novel crystal form of HePTP that allowed the closed-state-to-open-state transition to be observed within a single crystal form. These structures, which include the first structure of the HePTP open state, show that the WPD loop adopts an 'atypically open' conformation and, importantly, that ligands can be exchanged at the active site, which is critical for HePTP inhibitor development. These structures also show that tetrahedral oxyanions bind at a novel secondary site and function to coordinate the PTP, WPD, and E loops. Finally, using both structural and kinetic data, we reveal a novel role for E-loop residue Lys182 in enhancing HePTP catalytic activity through its interaction with Asp236 of the WPD loop, providing the first evidence for the coordinated dynamics of the WPD and E loops in the catalytic cycle, which, as we show, is relevant to multiple PTP families.
Project description:Hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP) is one of three members of the kinase interaction motif (KIM) phosphatase family which also includes STEP and PCPTP1. The KIM-PTPs are characterized by a 15 residue sequence, the KIM, which confers specific high-affinity binding to their only known substrates, the MAP kinases Erk and p38, an interaction which is critical for their ability to regulate processes such as T cell differentiation (HePTP) and neuronal signaling (STEP). The KIM-PTPs are also characterized by a unique set of residues in their PTP substrate binding loops, where 4 of the 13 residues are differentially conserved among the KIM-PTPs as compared to more than 30 other class I PTPs. One of these residues, T106 in HePTP, is either an aspartate or asparagine in nearly every other PTP. Using multiple techniques, we investigate the role of these KIM-PTP specific residues in order to elucidate the molecular basis of substrate recognition by HePTP. First, we used NMR spectroscopy to show that Erk2-derived peptides interact specifically with HePTP at the active site. Next, to reveal the molecular details of this interaction, we solved the high-resolution three-dimensional structures of two distinct HePTP-Erk2 peptide complexes. Strikingly, we were only able to obtain crystals of these transient complexes using a KIM-PTP specific substrate-trapping mutant, in which the KIM-PTP specific residue T106 was mutated to an aspartic acid (T106D). The introduced aspartate side chain facilitates the coordination of the bound peptides, thereby stabilizing the active dephosphorylation complex. These structures establish the essential role of HePTP T106 in restricting HePTP specificity to only those substrates which are able to interact with KIM-PTPs via the KIM (e.g., Erk2, p38). Finally, we describe how this interaction of the KIM is sufficient for overcoming the otherwise weak interaction at the active site of KIM-PTPs.
Project description:The protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) PTP-SL, STEP and HePTP are mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) substrates and regulators that bind to MAPKs through a kinase-interaction motif (KIM) located in their non-catalytic regulatory domains. We have found that the binding of these PTPs to the MAPKs extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and p38alpha is differentially determined by the KIM-adjacent C-terminal regions of the PTPs, which have been termed kinase-specificity sequences, and is influenced by reducing agents. Under control conditions, PTP-SL bound preferentially to ERK1/2, whereas STEP and HePTP bound preferentially to p38alpha. Under reducing conditions, the association of p38alpha with STEP or HePTP was impaired, whereas the association with PTP-SL was unaffected. On the other hand, the association of ERK1/2 with HePTP was increased under reducing conditions, whereas the association with STEP or PTP-SL was unaffected. In intact cells, PTP-SL and STEP distinctively regulated the kinase activity and the nuclear translocation of ERK1/2 and p38alpha. Our results suggest that intracellular redox conditions could modulate the activity and subcellular location of ERK1/2 and p38alpha by controlling their association with their regulatory PTPs.
Project description:The kinase interaction motif (KIM) family of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) includes hematopoietic protein-tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP), striatal-enriched protein-tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R (PTPRR). KIM-PTPs bind and dephosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and thereby critically modulate cell proliferation and differentiation. PTP activity can readily be diminished by reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g. H2O2, which oxidize the catalytically indispensable active-site cysteine. This initial oxidation generates an unstable sulfenic acid intermediate that is quickly converted into either a sulfinic/sulfonic acid (catalytically dead and irreversible inactivation) or a stable sulfenamide or disulfide bond intermediate (reversible inactivation). Critically, our understanding of ROS-mediated PTP oxidation is not yet sufficient to predict the molecular responses of PTPs to oxidative stress. However, identifying distinct responses will enable novel routes for PTP-selective drug design, important for managing diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we performed a detailed biochemical and molecular study of all KIM-PTP family members to determine their H2O2 oxidation profiles and identify their reversible inactivation mechanism(s). We show that despite having nearly identical 3D structures and sequences, each KIM-PTP family member has a unique oxidation profile. Furthermore, we also show that whereas STEP and PTPRR stabilize their reversibly oxidized state by forming an intramolecular disulfide bond, HePTP uses an unexpected mechanism, namely, formation of a reversible intermolecular disulfide bond. In summary, despite being closely related, KIM-PTPs significantly differ in oxidation profiles. These findings highlight that oxidation protection is critical when analyzing PTPs, for example, in drug screening.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) catalytic domains undergo a series of conformational changes in order to mediate dephosphorylation of their tyrosine phosphorylated substrates. An important conformational change occurs in the Tryptophan-Proline-Aspartic acid (WPD) loop, which contains the conserved catalytic aspartate. Upon substrate binding, the WPD loop transitions from the 'open' to the 'closed' state, thus allowing optimal positioning of the catalytic aspartate for substrate dephosphorylation. The dynamics of WPD loop conformational changes have previously been studied for PTP1B, HePTP, and the bacterial phosphatase YopH, but have not yet been comprehensively studied for the nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 (PTPN6). To structurally describe the changes in WPD loop conformation in SHP-1, we have determined the 1.4 Å crystal structure of the catalytic domain of SHP-1 in the Apo state and the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the SHP-1 catalytic domain in complex with a phosphate ion. We provide structural analysis for the WPD loop closed state of SHP phosphatases and the conformational changes that occur upon WPD loop closure.
Project description:The movement of a conserved protein loop (the WPD-loop) is important in catalysis by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Using kinetics, isotope effects, and X-ray crystallography, the different effects arising from mutation of the conserved tryptophan in the WPD-loop were compared in two PTPs, the human PTP1B, and the bacterial YopH from Yersinia. Mutation of the conserved tryptophan in the WPD-loop to phenylalanine has a negligible effect on k(cat) in PTP1B and full loop movement is maintained. In contrast, the corresponding mutation in YopH reduces k(cat) by two orders of magnitude and the WPD loop locks in an intermediate position, disabling general acid catalysis. During loop movement the indole moiety of the WPD-loop tryptophan moves in opposite directions in the two enzymes. Comparisons of mammalian and bacterial PTPs reveal differences in the residues forming the hydrophobic pocket surrounding the conserved tryptophan. Thus, although WPD-loop movement is a conserved feature in PTPs, differences exist in the molecular details, and in the tolerance to mutation, in PTP1B compared to YopH. Despite high structural similarity of the active sites in both WPD-loop open and closed conformations, differences are identified in the molecular details associated with loop movement in PTPs from different organisms.
Project description:Catalysis in protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involves movement of a protein loop called the WPD loop that brings a conserved aspartic acid into the active site to function as a general acid. Mutation of the tryptophan in the WPD loop of the PTP YopH to any other residue with a planar, aromatic side chain (phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) disables general acid catalysis. Crystal structures reveal these conservative mutations leave this critical loop in a catalytically unproductive, quasi-open position. Although the loop positions in crystal structures are similar for all three conservative mutants, the reasons inhibiting normal loop closure differ for each mutant. In the W354F and W354Y mutants, steric clashes result from six-membered rings occupying the position of the five-membered ring of the native indole side chain. The histidine mutant dysfunction results from new hydrogen bonds stabilizing the unproductive position. The results demonstrate how even modest modifications can disrupt catalytically important protein dynamics. Crystallization of all the catalytically compromised mutants in the presence of vanadate gave rise to vanadate dimers at the active site. In W354Y and W354H, a divanadate ester with glycerol is observed. Such species have precedence in solution and are known from the small molecule crystal database. Such species have not been observed in the active site of a phosphatase, as a functional phosphatase would rapidly catalyze their decomposition. The compromised functionality of the mutants allows the trapping of species that undoubtedly form in solution and are capable of binding at the active sites of PTPs, and, presumably, other phosphatases. In addition to monomeric vanadate, such higher-order vanadium-based molecules are likely involved in the interaction of vanadate with PTPs in solution.
Project description:Methods for activating signaling enzymes hold significant potential for the study of cellular signal transduction. Here we present a strategy for engineering chemically activatable protein tyrosine phosphatases (actPTPs). To generate actPTP1B, we introduced three cysteine point mutations in the enzyme's WPD loop. Biarsenical compounds were screened for the capability to bind actPTP1B's WPD loop and increase its phosphatase activity. We identified AsCy3-EDT2 as a robust activator that selectively targets actPTP1B in proteomic mixtures and intact cells. Introduction of the corresponding mutations in T-cell PTP also generates an enzyme (actTCPTP) that is strongly activated by AsCy3-EDT2 . Given the conservation of WPD-loop structure among the classical PTPs, our results potentially provide the groundwork of a widely generalizable approach for generating actPTPs as tools for elucidating PTP signaling roles as well as connections between dysregulated PTP activity and human disease.
Project description:The mitogen-activation protein kinase ERK2 is tightly regulated by multiple phosphatases, including those of the kinase interaction motif (KIM) PTP family (STEP, PTPSL and HePTP). Here, we use small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to show that the ERK2:STEP complex is compact and that residues outside the canonical KIM motif of STEP contribute to ERK2 binding. Furthermore, we analyzed the interaction of PTPSL with ERK2 showing that residues outside of the canonical KIM motif also contribute to ERK2 binding. The integration of this work with previous studies provides a quantitative and structural map of how the members of a single family of regulators, the KIM-PTPs, differentially interact with their corresponding MAPKs, ERK2 and p38?.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a critical role in regulating cellular functions by selectively dephosphorylating their substrates. Here we present 22 human PTP crystal structures that, together with prior structural knowledge, enable a comprehensive analysis of the classical PTP family. Despite their largely conserved fold, surface properties of PTPs are strikingly diverse. A potential secondary substrate-binding pocket is frequently found in phosphatases, and this has implications for both substrate recognition and development of selective inhibitors. Structural comparison identified four diverse catalytic loop (WPD) conformations and suggested a mechanism for loop closure. Enzymatic assays revealed vast differences in PTP catalytic activity and identified PTPD1, PTPD2, and HDPTP as catalytically inert protein phosphatases. We propose a "head-to-toe" dimerization model for RPTPgamma/zeta that is distinct from the "inhibitory wedge" model and that provides a molecular basis for inhibitory regulation. This phosphatome resource gives an expanded insight into intrafamily PTP diversity, catalytic activity, substrate recognition, and autoregulatory self-association.
Project description:A central challenge of chemical biology is the development of small-molecule tools for controlling protein activity in a target-specific manner. Such tools are particularly useful if they can be systematically applied to the members of large protein families. Here we report that protein tyrosine phosphatases can be systematically 'sensitized' to target-specific inhibition by a cell-permeable small molecule, Fluorescein Arsenical Hairpin Binder (FlAsH), which does not inhibit any wild-type PTP investigated to date. We show that insertion of a FlAsH-binding peptide at a conserved position in the PTP catalytic-domain's WPD loop confers novel FlAsH sensitivity upon divergent PTPs. The position of the sensitizing insertion is readily identifiable from primary-sequence alignments, and we have generated FlAsH-sensitive mutants for seven different classical PTPs from six distinct subfamilies of receptor and non-receptor PTPs, including one phosphatase (PTP-PEST) whose three-dimensional catalytic-domain structure is not known. In all cases, FlAsH-mediated PTP inhibition was target specific and potent, with inhibition constants for the seven sensitized PTPs ranging from 17 to 370 nM. Our results suggest that a substantial fraction of the PTP superfamily will be likewise sensitizable to allele-specific inhibition; FlAsH-based PTP targeting thus potentially provides a rapid, general means for selectively targeting PTP activity in cell-culture- or model-organism-based signaling studies.