Convergent assembly and surface modification of multifunctional dendrimers by three consecutive click reactions.
ABSTRACT: Multifunctional dendrimers bearing two or more surface functionalities have the promise to provide smart drug delivery devices that can for example combine tissue targeting and imaging or be directed more precisely to a specific tissue or cell type. We have developed a concise synthetic methodology for efficient dendrimer assembly and heterobifunctionalization based on three sequential azide-alkyne cycloadditions. The methodology is compatible with biologically important compounds rich in chemical functionalities such as peptides, carbohydrates, and fluorescent tags. In the approach, a strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) between polyester dendrons modified at the focal point with an azido and 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) moiety provided dendrimers bearing terminal and TMS-protected (TMS=trimethylsilyl) alkynes at the periphery. The terminal alkynes were outfitted with azido-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains or galactosyl residues by using Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC). Next, a one-pot TMS deprotection and second click reaction of the resulting terminal alkyne with azido-containing compounds gave multifunctional dendrimers bearing complex biologically active moieties at the periphery.
Project description:The synthesis of new multivalent architectures based on a trihydroxypiperidine ?-fucosidase inhibitor is reported herein. Tetravalent and nonavalent dendrimers were obtained by means of the click chemistry approach involving the copper azide-alkyne-catalyzed cycloaddition (CuAAC) between suitable scaffolds bearing terminal alkyne moieties and an azido-functionalized piperidine as the bioactive moiety. A preliminary biological investigation is also reported towards commercially available and human glycosidases.
Project description:Herein, we present a facile synthesis of three azide-functionalized fluorophores and their covalent attachment as triazoles in Huisgen-type cycloadditions with model alkynes. Besides two <i>ortho</i>- and <i>para</i>-bromo-substituted benzaldehydes, the azide functionalization of a fluorene-based structure will be presented. The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) of the so-synthesized azide-functionalized bromocarbaldehydes with terminal alkynes, exhibiting different degrees of steric demand, was performed in high efficiency. Finally, we investigated the photophysical properties of the azide-functionalized arenes and their covalently linked triazole derivatives to gain deeper insight towards the effect of these covalent linkers on the emission behavior.
Project description:Bioorthogonal tools enable cell-type-specific proteomics, a prerequisite to understanding biological processes in multicellular organisms. Here we report two engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for mammalian bioorthogonal labeling: a tyrosyl ( ScTyrY43G) and a phenylalanyl ( MmPheT413G) tRNA synthetase that incorporate azide-bearing noncanonical amino acids specifically into the nascent proteomes of host cells. Azide-labeled proteins are chemoselectively tagged via azide-alkyne cycloadditions with fluorophores for imaging or affinity resins for mass spectrometric characterization. Both mutant synthetases label human, hamster, and mouse cell line proteins and selectively activate their azido-bearing amino acids over 10-fold above the canonical. ScTyrY43G and MmPheT413G label overlapping but distinct proteomes in human cell lines, with broader proteome coverage upon their coexpression. In mice, ScTyrY43G and MmPheT413G label the melanoma tumor proteome and plasma secretome. This work furnishes new tools for mammalian residue-specific bioorthogonal chemistry, and enables more robust and comprehensive cell-type-specific proteomics in live mammals.
Project description:Monofunctionalized polyamide-based dendrimers containing either a terminal azide or alkyne moiety have been designed and synthesized via a convergent synthetic approach. The monofunctionalization allows for the single attachment of a functional moiety in quantitative yields by using 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, thereby opening the possibility for targeted dendrimer functionalization.
Project description:A convenient Cadiot-Chodkiewicz protocol that facilitates the use of low molecular weight alkyne coupling partners is described. The method entails an in situ elimination from a dibromoolefin precursor and immediate subjection to copper-catalyzed conditions, circumventing the hazards of volatile brominated alkynes. The scope of this method is described, and the internal 1,3-diyne products are preliminarily evaluated in ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions.
Project description:Copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC or click chemistry) are convenient methods to easily couple various pharmacophores or bioactive molecules. A new series of 1,2,3-triazole-linked nucleoside-amino acid conjugates have been designed and synthesized in 57-76% yields using CuAAC. The azido group was introduced on the 5'-position of uridine or the acyclic analogue using the tosyl-azide exchange method and alkylated serine or proparylglycine was the alkyne. Modeling studies of the conjugates in the active site of LpxC indicate they have promise as antibacterial agents.
Project description:The combination of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and click chemistry has created unprecedented opportunities for controlled syntheses of functional polymers. ATRP of azido-bearing methacrylate monomers (e.g. 2-(2-(2-azidoethyoxy)ethoxy)ethyl methacrylate, AzTEGMA), however, proceeded with poor control at commonly adopted temperature of 50 °C, resulting in significant side reactions. By lowering reaction temperature and monomer concentrations, well-defined pAzTEGMA with significantly reduced polydispersity were prepared within a reasonable timeframe. Upon subsequent functionalization of the side chains of pAzTEGMA via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry, functional polymers with number-average molecular weights (Mn) up to 22 kDa with narrow polydispersity (PDI < 1.30) were obtained. Applying the optimized polymerization condition, we also grafted pAzTEGMA brushes from Ti6Al4 substrates by surface-initiated ATRP (SI-ATRP), and effectively functionalized the azide-terminated side chains with hydrophobic and hydrophilic alkynes by CuAAC. The well-controlled ATRP of azido-bearing methacrylates and subsequent facile high-density functionalization of the side chains of the polymethacrylates via CuAAC offers a useful tool for engineering functional polymers or surfaces for diverse applications.
Project description:We report here a synthetic route to oxime, azide and nitrone-bearing copolymers via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer copolymerization of 4-vinylbenzaldehyde and 1-(chloromethyl)-4-vinylbenzene with styrene. The azide and nitrone moieties could be employed in strain-promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions with various functionalized dibenzocyclooctynols (DIBO) for metal-free post-functionalization of the polymers. In situ oxidation of the oximes with hypervalent iodine gave nitrile oxides, which could also be employed as 1,3-dipoles for facile cycloadditions with DIBO derivatives. Kinetic measurements demonstrated that the pendant nitrile oxides reacted approximately twenty times faster compared to similar cycloadditions with azides. A block copolymer, containing azide and oxime groups in segregated blocks, served as a scaffold for attachment of hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties by sequential strain-promoted alkyne-azide and strain-promoted alkyne-nitrile oxide cycloadditions. This sequential bi-functionalization approach made it possible to prepare in a controlled manner multi-functional polymers that could self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures.
Project description:Incorporation of 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate as a covalent scaffold in the axis of a 30-membered all-carbon macrocycle provides access to a modular series of rotaxanes. Installment of tethered alkynes or azides onto the terephthalic phenolic hydroxyl functionalities, which are situated at opposite sides of the macrocycle, gives versatile prerotaxane building blocks. The corresponding rotaxanes are obtained by introduction of bulky stoppering ("capping") units at the tethers and subsequent cleavage of the covalent ring/thread ester linkages. Extension of this strategy via coupling of two prerotaxanes bearing complementary linker functionalities (i.e., azide and alkyne) and follow-up attachment of stopper groups provide efficient access to [n]rotaxanes. The applicability and modular nature of this novel approach were demonstrated by the synthesis of a series of -, -, and rotaxanes. Furthermore, it is shown that the prerotaxanes allow late-stage functionalization of the ring fragment introducing further structural diversity.
Project description:The diazo group has untapped utility in chemical biology. The tolerance of stabilized diazo groups to cellular metabolism is comparable to that of azido groups. However, chemoselectivity has been elusive, as both groups undergo 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions with strained alkynes. Removing strain and tuning dipolarophile electronics yields diazo group selective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions that can be performed in the presence of an azido group. For example, diazoacetamide but not its azido congener react with dehydroalanine residues, as in the natural product nisin.