Methylation of TFPI2 in stool DNA: a potential novel biomarker for the detection of colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: We have used a gene expression array-based strategy to identify the methylation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2), a potential tumor suppressor gene, as a frequent event in human colorectal cancers (CRC). TFPI2 belongs to the recently described group of embryonic cell Polycomb group (PcG)-marked genes that may be predisposed to aberrant DNA methylation in early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. Aberrant methylation of TFPI2 was detected in almost all CRC adenomas (97%, n = 56) and stages I to IV CRCs (99%, n = 115). We further explored the potential of TFPI2 as a biomarker for the early detection of CRC using stool DNA-based assays in patients with nonmetastatic CRC and average-risk noncancer controls who were candidates for screening. TFPI2 methylation was detected in stool DNA from stage I to III CRC patients with a sensitivity of 76% to 89% and a specificity of 79% to 93%. Detection of TFPI2 methylation in stool DNA may act as a useful adjunct to the noninvasive strategies for screening of CRCs in the future.
Project description:Gastrointestinal cancer is a prevalent disease with high morbidity and mortality. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) gene could protect the extracellular matrix of cancer cells from degradation and tumor invasion. The goal of our study was to estimate the diagnostic value of TFPI2 hypermethylation in gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). TFPI2 methylation was measured by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (qMSP) method in 114 GC and 80 CRC tissues and their paired non-tumor tissues. Our results showed that TFPI2 methylation was significantly higher in tumor tissues (GC: 29.940% vs. 12.785%, P < 0.001; CRC: 26.930% vs. 5.420%, P < 0.001). The methylation level of TFPI2 in colorectal tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in colorectal normal tissues (26.930% versus 0.002%, P < 0.00001). In GC, TFPI2 hypermethylation yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.762 (95% CI: 0.696-0.828) with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 83%. In CRC, TFPI2 hypermethylation yielded an AUC of 0.759 (95% CI: 0.685-0.834) with a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 84%. Similarly, TCGA data also supported TFPI2 hypermethylation was a promising diagnostic marker for GC and CRC. Moreover, the dual-luciferase reporter assay showed TFPI2 fragment could upregulate gene expression (fold change = 5, P = 0.005). Data mining further indicated that TFPI2 expression in CRC cell lines was significantly increased after 5'-AZA-deoxycytidine treatment (fold change > 1.37). In conclusion, TFPI2 hypermethylation might be a promising diagnostic biomarker for GC and CRC.
Project description:Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) is a Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor, which plays an important role in the etiology of human malignancies. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modification of the genome that is involved in regulating many cellular processes. In addition to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, DNA methylation may play a role in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Methylation of 22 CpG sites in the promoter region of the TFPI2 gene was detected by MassARRAY spectrometry and a gene mass spectrogram was drawn using MALDI-TOF MS. HPV16 was detected by PCR. We show that aberrant methylation of TFPI2 is present in a higher proportion of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) clinical samples as compared to normal cervical samples in Uygur and Han. Across the four pathologic lesions of the progression of cervical cancer, ICC showed the highest level of aberrant methylation, and with a stronger correlation between CpG site and lesion grade in Uygur than in Han. Moreover, a difference in TFPI2 methylation between Uygur patients positive and negative for HPV16 infection was observed at CpG_6 (P = 0.028) and CpG_15 (P = 0.007). Altogether, these results indicate that DNA methylation of TFPI2 may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer and that the differential methylation of TFPI2 may at least partially explain the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between Uygur and Han women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening can effectively reduce disease-related mortality by detecting CRC at earlier stages. We have previously demonstrated that the presence of SDC2 methylation in stool DNA is significantly associated with the occurrence of CRC regardless of clinical stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of stool DNA-based SDC2 methylation test for CRC. METHODS:Aberrant SDC2 methylation in stool-derived DNA was measured by linear target enrichment (LTE)-quantitative methylation-specific real-time PCR (qMSP). Duplicate reactions of meSDC2 LTE-qMSP test were performed for stool samples obtained from CRC patients representing all stages (0-IV) and asymptomatic individuals who were subsequently underwent colonoscopy examination. To determine the diagnostic value of test in CRC and control groups, sensitivity and specificity were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS:Of 585 subjects who could be evaluated, 245 had CRC, 44 had various sizes of adenomatous polyps, and 245 had negative colonoscopy results. Stool DNA-based meSDC2 LTE-qMSP showed an overall sensitivity of 90.2% with AUC of 0.902 in detecting CRC (0-IV) not associated with tumor stage, location, sex, or age (P?>?0.05), with a specificity of 90.2%. Sensitivity for detecting early stages (0-II) was 89.1% (114/128). This test also detected 66.7% (2/3) and 24.4% (10/41) of advanced and non-advanced adenomas, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Results of this study validated the capability of stool DNA based-SDC2 methylation test by LTE-qMSP for early detection of CRC patient with high specificity. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03146520 , Registered 10 May 2017, Retrospectively registered; however, control arm was prospectively registered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:DNA methylation biomarkers in stool may have applications in early colorectal cancer (CRC) detection; however, their association with stages of CRC carcinogenesis or their performance in detecting various stages is unclear. We aimed to systematically review the evidence for DNA methylation markers in stool for risk stratification or detection of specific CRC stages, as well as precursors of CRC. METHODS:We conducted a systematic search in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge to identify relevant studies published until 14th January 2020. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study population characteristics, candidate genes, methylation measurement methods, odds ratios (ORs), overall and stage-specific sensitivities, specificities, areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve, and p-values for statistical significance for OR and for association of methylation levels with stage. RESULTS:Twenty-seven studies that reported stage-specific associations or performances of fecal DNA methylation markers for detecting colorectal neoplasms were identified. All studies used methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction for assessing methylation levels in the promoter or exon 1 regions of targeted genes. However, most studies were underpowered and limited by their case-control design. Furthermore, the stage-specific associations or sensitivities were validated for two markers (hypermethylation of GATA4 and VIM) only. CONCLUSION:Methylation markers in stool may be useful for detection of CRC precursors or CRC staging, but promising candidate markers need to be validated in longitudinal studies on large screening populations, performing epigenome-wide analyses. Identification of stage-specific DNA methylation biomarkers in stool could boost current strategies towards early detection and enable different approaches to precision medicine for CRC.
Project description:CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) is one of the underlying mechanisms in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to define a methylome signature in CRC through a methylation microarray analysis and a compilation of promising CIMP markers from the literature. Illumina HumanMethylation27 (IHM27) array data was generated and analyzed based on statistical differences in methylation data (1st approach) or based on overall differences in methylation percentages using lower 95% CI (2nd approach). Pyrosequencing was performed for the validation of nine genes. A meta-analysis was used to identify CIMP and non-CIMP markers that were hypermethylated in CRC but did not yet make it to the CIMP genes' list. Our 1st approach for array data analysis demonstrated the limitations in selecting genes for further validation, highlighting the need for the 2nd bioinformatics approach to adequately select genes with differential aberrant methylation. A more comprehensive list, which included non-CIMP genes, such as APC, EVL, CD109, PTEN, TWIST1, DCC, PTPRD, SFRP1, ICAM5, RASSF1A, EYA4, 30ST2, LAMA1, KCNQ5, ADHEF1, and TFPI2, was established. Array data are useful to categorize and cluster colonic lesions based on their global methylation profiles; however, its usefulness in identifying robust methylation markers is limited and rely on the data analysis method. We have identified 16 non-CIMP-panel genes for which we provide rationale for inclusion in a more comprehensive characterization of CIMP+ CRCs. The identification of a definitive list for methylome specific genes in CRC will contribute to better clinical management of CRC patients.
Project description:DNA hypermethylation is a common epigenetic abnormality in colorectal cancers (CRCs) and a promising class of CRC screening biomarkers. We conducted a genome-wide search for novel neoplasia-specific hypermethylation events in the colon. We applied methylation microarray analysis to identify loci hypermethylated in 17 primary CRCs relative to eight non-neoplastic colonic mucosae (NCs) from neoplasia-free subjects. These CRC-associated hypermethylation events were then individually evaluated for their ability to discriminate neoplastic from non-neoplastic cases, based on real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) assays in 113 colonic tissues: 51 CRCs, nine adenomas, 19 NCs from CRC patients (CRC-NCs), and 34 NCs from neoplasia-free subjects (control NCs). A strict microarray data filtering identified 169 candidate CRC-associated hypermethylation events. Fourteen of these 169 loci were evaluated using qMSP assays. Ten of these 14 methylation events significantly distinguished CRCs from age-matched control NCs (P<0.05 by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis); methylation of visual system homeobox 2 (VSX2) achieved the highest discriminative accuracy (83.3% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity, P<1×10(-6)), followed by BEN domain containing 4 (BEND4), neuronal pentraxin I (NPTX1), ALX homeobox 3 (ALX3), miR-34b, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), BTG4, homer homolog 2 (HOMER2), zinc finger protein 583 (ZNF583), and gap junction protein, gamma 1 (GJC1). Adenomas were significantly discriminated from control NCs by hypermethylation of VSX2, BEND4, NPTX1, miR-34b, GLP1R, and HOMER2 (P<0.05). CRC-NCs were significantly distinguished from control NCs by methylation of ALX3 (P<1×10(-4)). In conclusion, systematic methylome-wide analysis has identified ten novel methylation events in neoplastic and non-neoplastic colonic mucosae from CRC patients. These potential biomarkers significantly discriminate CRC patients from controls. Thus, they merit further evaluation in stool- and circulating DNA-based CRC detection studies.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by genome-wide alterations to DNA methylation that influence gene expression and genomic stability. Less is known about the extent to which methylation is disrupted in the earliest stages of CRC development. In this study, we have combined laser-capture microdissection with reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to identify cancer-associated DNA methylation changes in human aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the earliest putative precursor to CRC. Using this approach, methylation profiles have been generated for 10 KRAS-mutant ACF and 10 CRCs harboring a KRAS mutation, as well as matched samples of normal mucosa. Of 811 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) identified in ACF, 537 (66%) were hypermethylated and 274 (34%) were hypomethylated. DMRs located within intergenic regions were heavily enriched for AP-1 transcription factor binding sites and were frequently hypomethylated. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis demonstrated that DMRs associated with promoters were enriched for genes involved in intestinal development, including homeobox genes and targets of the Polycomb repressive complex 2. Consistent with their role in the earliest stages of colonic neoplasia, 75% of the loci harboring methylation changes in ACF were also altered in CRC samples, though the magnitude of change at these sites was lesser in ACF. Although aberrant promoter methylation was associated with altered gene expression in CRC, this was not the case in ACF, suggesting the insufficiency of methylation changes to modulate gene expression in early colonic neoplasia. Altogether, these data demonstrate that DNA methylation changes, including significant hypermethylation, occur more frequently in early colonic neoplasia than previously believed, and identify epigenomic features of ACF that may provide new targets for cancer chemoprevention or lead to the development of new biomarkers for CRC risk.
Project description:Aberrant DNA methylation has been widely investigated in sporadic colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), and extensive work has been performed to characterize different methylation profiles of CRC. Less information is available about the role of epigenetics in hereditary CRC and about the possible clinical use of epigenetic biomarkers in CRC, regardless of the etiopathogenesis. Long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation and gene-specific hypermethylation of 38 promoters were analyzed in multicenter series of 220 CRCs including 71 Lynch (Lynch colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability (LS-MSI)), 23 CRCs of patients under 40 years in which the main inherited CRC syndromes had been excluded (early-onset colorectal cancer with microsatellite stability (EO-MSS)), and 126 sporadic CRCs, comprising 28 cases with microsatellite instability (S-MSI) and 98 that were microsatellite stable (S-MSS). All tumor methylation patterns were integrated with clinico-pathological and genetic characteristics, namely chromosomal instability (CIN), TP53 loss, BRAF, and KRAS mutations.LS-MSI mainly showed absence of extensive DNA hypo- and hypermethylation. LINE-1 hypomethylation was observed in a subset of LS-MSI that were associated with the worse prognosis. Genetically, they commonly displayed G:A transition in the KRAS gene and absence of a CIN phenotype and of TP53 loss. S-MSI exhibited a specific epigenetic profile showing low rates of LINE-1 hypomethylation and extensive gene hypermethylation. S-MSI were mainly characterized by MLH1 methylation, BRAF mutation, and absence of a CIN phenotype and of TP53 loss. By contrast, S-MSS showed a high frequency of LINE-1 hypomethylation and of CIN, and they were associated with a worse prognosis. EO-MSS were a genetically and epigenetically heterogeneous group of CRCs. Like LS-MSI, some EO-MSS displayed low rates of DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and frequent G:A transitions in the KRAS gene, suggesting that a genetic syndrome might still be unrevealed in these patients. By contrast, some EO-MSS showed similar features to those observed in S-MSS, such as LINE-1 hypomethylation, CIN, and TP53 deletion. In all four classes, hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 was very common.Aberrant DNA methylation analysis allows the identification of different subsets of CRCs. This study confirms the potential utility of methylation tests for early detection of CRC and suggests that LINE-1 hypomethylation may be a useful prognostic marker in both sporadic and inherited CRCs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is accompanied by extensive epigenetic changes, including frequent regional hypermethylation particularly of gene promoter regions. Specific genes, including SEPT9, VIM1 and TMEFF2 become methylated in a high fraction of cancers and diagnostic assays for detection of cancer-derived methylated DNA sequences in blood and/or fecal samples are being developed. There is considerable potential for the development of new DNA methylation biomarkers or panels to improve the sensitivity and specificity of current cancer detection tests. METHODS: Combined epigenomic methods - activation of gene expression in CRC cell lines following DNA demethylating treatment, and two novel methods of genome-wide methylation assessment - were used to identify candidate genes methylated in a high fraction of CRCs. Multiplexed amplicon sequencing of PCR products from bisulfite-treated DNA of matched CRC and non-neoplastic tissue as well as healthy donor peripheral blood was performed using Roche 454 sequencing. Levels of DNA methylation in colorectal tissues and blood were determined by quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP). RESULTS: Combined analyses identified 42 candidate genes for evaluation as DNA methylation biomarkers. DNA methylation profiles of 24 of these genes were characterised by multiplexed bisulfite-sequencing in ten matched tumor/normal tissue samples; differential methylation in CRC was confirmed for 23 of these genes. qMSP assays were developed for 32 genes, including 15 of the sequenced genes, and used to quantify methylation in tumor, adenoma and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue and from healthy donor peripheral blood. 24 of the 32 genes were methylated in >50% of neoplastic samples, including 11 genes that were methylated in 80% or more CRCs and a similar fraction of adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: This study has characterised a panel of 23 genes that show elevated DNA methylation in >50% of CRC tissue relative to non-neoplastic tissue. Six of these genes (SOX21, SLC6A15, NPY, GRASP, ST8SIA1 and ZSCAN18) show very low methylation in non-neoplastic colorectal tissue and are candidate biomarkers for stool-based assays, while 11 genes (BCAT1, COL4A2, DLX5, FGF5, FOXF1, FOXI2, GRASP, IKZF1, IRF4, SDC2 and SOX21) have very low methylation in peripheral blood DNA and are suitable for further evaluation as blood-based diagnostic markers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancers (CRCs) undergo distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations. Expression of mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), a mismatch repair gene that corrects DNA replication errors, is lost in up to 15% of sporadic tumours due to mutation or, more commonly, due to DNA methylation of its promoter CpG island. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CpG island of MLH1 (MLH1-93G>A or rs1800734) is associated with CpG island hypermethylation and decreased MLH1 expression in CRC tumours. Further, in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA of both CRC cases and non-cancer controls, the variant allele of rs1800734 is associated with hypomethylation at the MLH1 shore, a region upstream of its CpG island that is less dense in CpG sites. RESULTS:To determine whether this genotype-epigenotype association is present in other tissue types, including colorectal tumours, we assessed DNA methylation in matched normal colorectal tissue, tumour, and PBMC DNA from 349 population-based CRC cases recruited from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. Using the semi-quantitative real-time PCR-based MethyLight assay, MLH1 shore methylation was significantly higher in tumour tissue than normal colon or PBMCs (P < 0.01). When shore methylation levels were stratified by SNP genotype, normal colorectal DNA and PBMC DNA were significantly hypomethylated in association with variant SNP genotype (P < 0.05). However, this association was lost in tumour DNA. Among distinct stages of CRC, metastatic stage IV CRC tumours incurred significant hypomethylation compared to stage I-III cases, irrespective of genotype status. Shore methylation of MLH1 was not associated with MSI status or promoter CpG island hypermethylation, regardless of genotype. To confirm these results, bisulfite sequencing was performed in matched tumour and normal colorectal specimens from six CRC cases, including two cases per genotype (wildtype, heterozygous, and homozygous variant). Bisulfite sequencing results corroborated the methylation patterns found by MethyLight, with significant hypomethylation in normal colorectal tissue of variant SNP allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that the normal tissue types tested (colorectum and PBMC) experience dynamic genotype-associated epigenetic alterations at the MLH1 shore, whereas tumour DNA incurs aberrant hypermethylation compared to normal DNA.