ABSTRACT: Cu/O2 intermediates in biological, homogeneous, and heterogeneous catalysts exhibit unique spectral features that reflect novel geometric and electronic structures that make significant contributions to reactivity. This review considers how the respective intermediate electronic structures overcome the spin-forbidden nature of O2 binding, activate O2 for electrophilic aromatic attack and H-atom abstraction, catalyze the 4 e- reduction of O2 to H2O, and discusses the role of exchange coupling between Cu ions in determining reactivity.
Project description:Synthesis of small-molecule Cu2 O2 adducts has provided insight into the related biological systems and their reactivity patterns including the interconversion of the Cu(II) 2 (?-?(2) :?(2) -peroxo) and Cu(III) 2 (?-oxo)2 isomers. In this study, absorption spectroscopy, kinetics, and resonance Raman data show that the oxygenated product of [(BQPA)Cu(I) ](+) initially yields an "end-on peroxo" species, that subsequently converts to the thermodynamically more stable "bis-?-oxo" isomer (Keq =3.2 at -90?°C). Calibration of density functional theory calculations to these experimental data suggest that the electrophilic reactivity previously ascribed to end-on peroxo species is in fact a result of an accessible bis-?-oxo isomer, an electrophilic Cu2 O2 isomer in contrast to the nucleophilic reactivity of binuclear Cu(II) end-on peroxo species. This study is the first report of the interconversion of an end-on peroxo to bis-?-oxo species in transition metal-dioxygen chemistry.
Project description:We report the isolation of a room temperature stable dipyrromethene Cu(O2) complex featuring a side-on O2 coordination. Reactivity studies highlight the unique ability of the dioxygen adduct for both hydrogen-atom abstraction and acid/base chemistry towards phenols, demonstrating that side-on superoxide species can be reactive entities.
Project description:Copper-dioxygen interactions are of intrinsic importance in a wide range of biological and industrial processes. Here, we present detailed kinetic/thermodynamic studies on the O(2)-binding and arene hydroxylation reactions of a series of xylyl-bridged binuclear copper(I) complexes, where the effects of ligand electronic and structural elements on these reactions are investigated. Ligand 4-pyridyl substituents influence the reversible formation of side-on bound ?-?(2):?(2)-peroxodicopper(II) complexes, with stronger donors leading to more rapid formation and greater thermodynamic stability of product complexes [Cu(II) (2)((R)XYL)(O(2) (2-))](2+). An interaction of the latter with the xylyl ?-system is indicated. Subsequent peroxo electrophilic attack on the arene leads to C-H activation and oxygenation with hydroxylated products [Cu(II) (2)((R)XYLO(2-))((-)OH)](2+) being formed. A related unsymmetrical binucleating ligand was also employed. Its corresponding O(2)-adduct [Cu(II) (2)(UN)(O(2) (2-))](2+) is more stable, but primarily because the subsequent decay by hydroxylation is in a relative sense slower. The study emphasizes how ligand electronic effects can and do influence and tune copper(I)-dioxygen complex formation and subsequent reactivity.
Project description:Binuclear non-heme iron enzymes activate O2 for diverse chemistries that include oxygenation of organic substrates and hydrogen atom abstraction. This process often involves the formation of peroxo-bridged biferric intermediates, only some of which can perform electrophilic reactions. To elucidate the geometric and electronic structural requirements to activate peroxo reactivity, the active peroxo intermediate in 4-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) has been characterized spectroscopically and computationally. A magnetic circular dichroism study of reduced AurF shows that its electronic and geometric structures are poised to react rapidly with O2. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic definition of the peroxo intermediate formed in this reaction shows that the active intermediate has a protonated peroxo bridge. Density functional theory computations on the structure established here show that the protonation activates peroxide for electrophilic/single-electron-transfer reactivity. This activation of peroxide by protonation is likely also relevant to the reactive peroxo intermediates in other binuclear non-heme iron enzymes.
Project description:Supported atomic metal sites have discrete molecular orbitals. Precise control over the energies of these sites is key to achieving novel reaction pathways with superior selectivity. Here, we achieve selective oxygen (O2) activation by utilising a framework of cerium (Ce) cations to reduce the energy of 3d orbitals of isolated copper (Cu) sites. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and density-functional theory simulations are used to demonstrate that a [Cu(I)O2]3- site selectively adsorbs molecular O2, forming a rarely reported electrophilic ?2-O2 species at 298?K. Assisted by neighbouring Ce(III) cations, ?2-O2 is finally reduced to two O2-, that create two Cu-O-Ce oxo-bridges at 453?K. The isolated Cu(I)/(II) sites are ten times more active in CO oxidation than CuO clusters, showing a turnover frequency of 0.028?±?0.003?s-1 at 373?K and 0.01?bar PCO. The unique electronic structure of [Cu(I)O2]3- site suggests its potential in selective oxidation.
Project description:We report the Cu(I)/O2 chemistry of complexes derived from the macrocylic ligands 14-TMC (1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) and 12-TMC (1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane). While [(14-TMC)Cu(I)](+) is unreactive towards dioxygen, the smaller analog [(12-TMC)Cu(I)(CH3CN)](+) reacts with O2 to give a side-on bound peroxo-dicopper(II) species ((S)P), confirmed by spectroscopic and computational methods. Intriguingly, 12-TMC as a N4 donor ligand generates (S)P species, thus in contrast with the previous observation that such species are generated by N2 and N3 ligands. In addition, the reactivity of this macrocyclic side-on peroxo-dicopper(II) differs from typical (S)P species, because it reacts only with acid to release H2O2, in contrast with the classic reactivity of Cu2O2 cores. Kinetics and computations are consistent with a protonation mechanism whereby the TMC acts as a hemilabile ligand and shuttles H(+) to an isomerized peroxo core.
Project description:This study describes the O2 reactivity of a series of high-spin mononuclear Fe(II) complexes each containing the facially coordinating tris(4,5-diphenyl-1-methylimidazol-2-yl)phosphine ((Ph2)TIP) ligand and one of the following bidentate, redox-active ligands: 4-tert-butylcatecholate ((tBu)CatH(-)), 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-aminophenolate ((tBu2)APH(-)), or 4-tert-butyl-1,2-phenylenediamine ((tBu)PDA). The preparation and X-ray structural characterization of [Fe(2+)((Ph2)TIP)((tBu)CatH)]OTf, OTf and [Fe(2+)((Ph2)TIP)((tBu)PDA)](OTf)2, (OTf)2 are described here, whereas [Fe(2+)((Ph2)TIP)((tBu2)APH)]OTf, OTf was reported in our previous paper [Bittner et al., Chem.-Eur. J. 2013, 19, 9686-9698]. These complexes mimic the substrate-bound active sites of nonheme iron dioxygenases, which catalyze the oxidative ring-cleavage of aromatic substrates like catechols and aminophenols. Each complex is oxidized in the presence of O2, and the geometric and electronic structures of the resulting complexes were examined with spectroscopic (absorption, EPR, Mössbauer, resonance Raman) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Complex OTf reacts rapidly with O2 to yield the ferric-catecholate species [Fe(3+)((Ph2)TIP)((tBu)Cat)](+) (3(ox)), which undergoes further oxidation to generate an extradiol cleavage product. In contrast, complex (2+) experiences a two-electron (2e(-)), ligand-based oxidation to give [Fe(2+)((Ph2)TIP)((tBu)DIBQ)](2+) (4(ox)), where DIBQ is o-diiminobenzoquinone. The reaction of (+) with O2 is also a 2e(-) process, yet in this case both the Fe center and (tBu2)AP ligand are oxidized; the resulting complex (2(ox)) is best described as [Fe(3+)((Ph2)TIP)((tBu2)ISQ)](+), where ISQ is o-iminobenzosemiquinone. Thus, the oxidized complexes display a remarkable continuum of electronic structures ranging from [Fe(3+)(L(2-))](+) (3(ox)) to [Fe(3+)(L(•-))](2+) (2(ox)) to [Fe(2+)(L(0))](2+) (4(ox)). Notably, the O2 reaction rates vary by a factor of 10(5) across the series, following the order (+) > (+) > (2+), even though the complexes have similar structures and Fe(3+/2+) redox potentials. To account for the kinetic data, we examined the relative abilities of the title complexes to bind O2 and participate in H-atom transfer reactions. We conclude that the trend in O2 reactivity can be rationalized by accounting for the role of proton transfer(s) in the overall reaction.
Project description:The nature of the ligand is an important aspect of controlling the structure and reactivity in coordination chemistry. In connection with our study of heme-copper-oxygen reactivity relevant to cytochrome c oxidase dioxygen-reduction chemistry, we compare the molecular and electronic structures of two high-spin heme-peroxo-copper [Fe(III)O(2)(2-)Cu(II)](+) complexes containing N(4) tetradentate (1) or N(3) tridentate (2) copper ligands. Combining previously reported and new resonance Raman and EXAFS data coupled to density functional theory calculations, we report a geometric structure and more complete electronic description of the high-spin heme-peroxo-copper complexes 1 and 2, which establish mu-(O(2)(2-)) side-on to the Fe(III) and end-on to Cu(II) (mu-eta(2):eta(1)) binding for the complex 1 but side-on/side-on (mu-eta(2):eta(2)) mu-peroxo coordination for the complex 2. We also compare and summarize the differences and similarities of these two complexes in their reactivity toward CO, PPh(3), acid, and phenols. The comparison of a new X-ray structure of mu-oxo complex 2a with the previously reported 1a X-ray structure, two thermal decomposition products respectively of 2 and 1, reveals a considerable difference in the Fe-O-Cu angle between the two mu-oxo complexes ( angleFe-O-Cu = 178.2 degrees in 1a and angleFe-O-Cu = 149.5 degrees in 2a). The reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of an exogenous nitrogen-donor axial base leads to the formation of a distinctive low-temperature-stable, low-spin heme-dioxygen-copper complex (2b), but under the same conditions, the addition of an axial base to 1 leads to the dissociation of the heme-peroxo-copper assembly and the release of O(2). 2b reacts with phenols performing H-atom (e(-) + H(+)) abstraction resulting in O-O bond cleavage and the formation of high-valent ferryl [Fe(IV)=O] complex (2c). The nature of 2c was confirmed by a comparison of its spectroscopic features and reactivity with those of an independently prepared ferryl complex. The phenoxyl radical generated by the H-atom abstraction was either (1) directly detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using phenols that produce stable radicals or (2) indirectly detected by the coupling product of two phenoxyl radicals.
Project description:Strategies for O2 activation by copper enzymes were recently expanded to include mononuclear Cu sites, with the discovery of the copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases, also classified as auxiliary-activity enzymes 9-11 (AA9-11). These enzymes are finding considerable use in industrial biofuel production. Crystal structures of polysaccharide monooxygenases have emerged, but experimental studies are yet to determine the solution structure of the Cu site and how this relates to reactivity. From X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies, we observed a change from four-coordinate Cu(II) to three-coordinate Cu(I) of the active site in solution, where three protein-derived nitrogen ligands coordinate the Cu in both redox states, and a labile hydroxide ligand is lost upon reduction. The spectroscopic data allowed for density functional theory calculations of an enzyme active site model, where the optimized Cu(I) and (II) structures were consistent with the experimental data. The O2 reactivity of the Cu(I) site was probed by EPR and stopped-flow absorption spectroscopies, and a rapid one-electron reduction of O2 and regeneration of the resting Cu(II) enzyme were observed. This reactivity was evaluated computationally, and by calibration to Cu-superoxide model complexes, formation of an end-on Cu-AA9-superoxide species was found to be thermodynamically favored. We discuss how this thermodynamically difficult one-electron reduction of O2 is enabled by the unique protein structure where two nitrogen ligands from His1 dictate formation of a T-shaped Cu(I) site, which provides an open coordination position for strong O2 binding with very little reorganization energy.
Project description:A chromium(I) dinitrogen complex reacts rapidly with O2 to form the mononuclear dioxo complex [Tp(tBu,Me)Cr(V)(O)2] (Tp(tBu,Me) = hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)borate), whereas the analogous reaction with sulfur stops at the persulfido complex [Tp(tBu,Me)Cr(III)(S2)]. The transformation of the putative peroxo intermediate [Tp(tBu,Me)Cr(III)(O2)] (S = 3/2) into [Tp(tBu,Me)Cr(V)(O)2] (S = 1/2) is spin-forbidden. The minimum-energy crossing point for the two potential energy surfaces has been identified. Although the dinuclear complex [(Tp(tBu,Me)Cr)2(?-O)2] exists, mechanistic experiments suggest that O2 activation occurs on a single metal center, by an oxidative addition on the quartet surface followed by crossover to the doublet surface.