Membrane sphingolipids as essential molecular signals for Bacteroides survival in the intestine.
ABSTRACT: As predominant intestinal symbiotic bacteria, Bacteroides are essential in maintaining the health of the normal mammalian host; in return, the host provides a niche with plentiful nutrients for the symbionts. However, the intestinal environment is replete with chemical, physical, and biological challenges that require mechanisms for prompt and adept sensing of and responses to stress if the bacteria are to survive. Herein we propose that to persist in the intestine Bacteroides take advantage of their unusual bacterial sphingolipids to mediate signaling pathways previously known to be available only to higher organisms. Sphingolipids convey diverse signal transduction and stress response pathways and have profound physiological impacts demonstrated in a variety of eukaryotic cell types. We propose a mechanism by which the formation of specific sphingolipid membrane microdomains initiates signaling cascades that facilitate survival strategies within the bacteria. Our preliminary data suggest that sphingolipid signaling plays an important role in Bacteroides physiology, enabling these bacteria to persist in the intestine and to perform other functions related to symbiosis.
Project description:Sphingolipids are structural membrane components and important eukaryotic signaling molecules. Sphingolipids regulate inflammation and immunity and were recently identified as the most differentially abundant metabolite in stool from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Commensal bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum also produce sphingolipids, but the impact of these metabolites on host pathways is largely uncharacterized. To determine whether bacterial sphingolipids modulate intestinal health, we colonized germ-free mice with a sphingolipid-deficient Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain. A lack of Bacteroides-derived sphingolipids resulted in intestinal inflammation and altered host ceramide pools in mice. Using lipidomic analysis, we described a sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway and revealed a variety of Bacteroides-derived sphingolipids including ceramide phosphoinositol and deoxy-sphingolipids. Annotating Bacteroides sphingolipids in an IBD metabolomic dataset revealed lower abundances in IBD and negative correlations with inflammation and host sphingolipid production. These data highlight the role of bacterial sphingolipids in maintaining homeostasis and symbiosis in the gut.
Project description:Therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially a subset known as locally advanced rectal cancer, is challenged by progression and recurrence. Sphingolipids, a lipid subtype with vital roles in cellular function, play an important role in CRC and impact on therapeutic outcomes. In this review we discuss how dietary sphingolipids or the gut microbiome via alterations in sphingolipids influence CRC carcinogenesis. In addition, we discuss the expression of sphingolipid enzymes in the gastro-intestinal tract, their alterations in CRC, and the implications for therapy responsiveness. Lastly, we highlight some novel therapeutics that target sphingolipid signaling and have potential applications in the treatment of CRC. Understanding how sphingolipid metabolism impacts cell death susceptibility and drug resistance will be critical toward improving therapeutic outcomes.
Project description:While the human gut microbiota are suspected to produce diffusible small molecules that modulate host signaling pathways, few of these molecules have been identified. Species of Bacteroides and their relatives, which often comprise >50% of the gut community, are unusual among bacteria in that their membrane is rich in sphingolipids, a class of signaling molecules that play a key role in inducing apoptosis and modulating the host immune response. Although known for more than three decades, the full repertoire of Bacteroides sphingolipids has not been defined. Here, we use a combination of genetics and chemistry to identify the sphingolipids produced by Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. We constructed a deletion mutant of BF2461, a putative serine palmitoyltransferase whose yeast homolog catalyzes the committed step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We show that the ?2461 mutant is sphingolipid deficient, enabling us to purify and solve the structures of three alkaline-stable lipids present in the wild-type strain but absent from the mutant. The first compound was the known sphingolipid ceramide phosphorylethanolamine, and the second was its corresponding dihydroceramide base. Unexpectedly, the third compound was the glycosphingolipid ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer(Bf)), which is structurally related to a sponge-derived sphingolipid (?-GalCer, KRN7000) that is the prototypical agonist of CD1d-restricted natural killer T (iNKT) cells. We demonstrate that ?-GalCer(Bf) has similar immunological properties to KRN7000: it binds to CD1d and activates both mouse and human iNKT cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our study reveals BF2461 as the first known member of the Bacteroides sphingolipid pathway, and it indicates that the committed steps of the Bacteroides and eukaryotic sphingolipid pathways are identical. Moreover, our data suggest that some Bacteroides sphingolipids might influence host immune homeostasis.
Project description:Coevolution of beneficial microorganisms with the mammalian intestine fundamentally shapes mammalian physiology. Here, we report that the intestinal microbe Bacteroides fragilis modifies the homeostasis of host invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells by supplementing the host's endogenous lipid antigen milieu with unique inhibitory sphingolipids. The process occurs early in life and effectively impedes iNKT cell proliferation during neonatal development. Consequently, total colonic iNKT cell numbers are restricted into adulthood, and hosts are protected against experimental iNKT cell-mediated, oxazolone-induced colitis. In studies with neonatal mice lacking access to bacterial sphingolipids, we found that treatment with B. fragilis glycosphingolipids-exemplified by an isolated peak (MW = 717.6) called GSL-Bf717-reduces colonic iNKT cell numbers and confers protection against oxazolone-induced colitis in adulthood. Our results suggest that the distinctive inhibitory capacity of GSL-Bf717 and similar molecules may prove useful in the treatment of autoimmune and allergic disorders in which iNKT cell activation is destructive.
Project description:Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide and this has largely been driven by the increase in metabolic disease in recent decades. Metabolic disease alters metabolism, distribution, and profiles of sphingolipids in multiple organs and tissues; as such, sphingolipid metabolism and signaling have been vigorously studied as contributors to metabolic pathophysiology in various pathological outcomes of obesity, including cardiovascular disease. Much experimental evidence suggests that targeting sphingolipid metabolism may be advantageous in the context of cardiometabolic disease. The heart, however, is a structurally and functionally complex organ where bioactive sphingolipids have been shown not only to mediate pathological processes, but also to contribute to essential functions in cardiogenesis and cardiac function. Additionally, some sphingolipids are protective in the context of ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition to mechanistic contributions, untargeted lipidomics approaches used in recent years have identified some specific circulating sphingolipids as novel biomarkers in the context of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize recent literature on both deleterious and beneficial contributions of sphingolipids to cardiogenesis and myocardial function as well as recent identification of novel sphingolipid biomarkers for cardiovascular disease risk prediction and diagnosis.
Project description:Sphingolipids are ubiquitous building blocks of eukaryotic cell membranes that function as signaling molecules for regulating a diverse range of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, growth, survival, immune-cell trafficking, vascular and epithelial integrity, and inflammation. Recently, several studies have highlighted the pivotal role of sphingolipids in neuroinflammatory regulation. Sphingolipids have multiple functions, including induction of the expression of various inflammatory mediators and regulation of neuroinflammation by directly effecting the cells of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence points to sphingolipid engagement in neuroinflammatory disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Abnormal sphingolipid alterations, which involves an increase in ceramide and a decrease in sphingosine kinase, are observed during neuroinflammatory disease. These trends are observed early during disease development, and thus highlight the potential of sphingolipids as a new therapeutic and diagnostic target for neuroinflammatory diseases. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(1): 28-34].
Project description:rs07-05_sphingolipids-cold - sphingo-1 - The cold choc response seems to be partly triggered by Sphingolipid species. To date no gene response as been associated to sphingolipid signaling pathway in plant. Our aim is to identify among the cold induced genes the ones regulated by sphingolipids and to try to define a sphingolipid pathway specific group of genes. - 7ml of 5 days-old cells suspensions were incubated in presence of different sphingolipid pathway inhibitors, 30 min to 2 hours depending in the coumpound (all were resuspended in DMSO and control were done with DMSO). Then a 30 min cold choc was applied before cells were harvested and frozen in cold nitrogen. RNA were then extracted. FB1 and DMS were from Alexis , Myr from Cayman, TSP from matreya. 6 dye-swap - treated vs untreated comparison
Project description:Sphingolipids comprise a highly diverse and complex class of molecules that serve as both structural components of cellular membranes and signaling molecules capable of eliciting apoptosis, differentiation, chemotaxis, and other responses in mammalian cells. Comprehensive or "sphingolipidomic" analyses (structure specific, quantitative analyses of all sphingolipids, or at least all members of a critical subset) are required in order to elucidate the role(s) of sphingolipids in a given biological context because so many of the sphingolipids in a biological system are inter-converted structurally and metabolically. Despite the experimental challenges posed by the diversity of sphingolipid-regulated cellular responses, the detection and quantitation of multiple sphingolipids in a single sample has been made possible by combining classical analytical separation techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with state-of-the-art tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques. As part of the Lipid MAPS consortium an internal standard cocktail was developed that comprises the signaling metabolites (i.e. sphingoid bases, sphingoid base-1-phosphates, ceramides, and ceramide-1-phosphates) as well as more complex species such as mono- and di-hexosylceramides and sphingomyelin. Additionally, the number of species that can be analyzed is growing rapidly with the addition of fatty acyl Co-As, sulfatides, and other complex sphingolipids as more internal standards are becoming available. The resulting LC-MS/MS analyses are one of the most analytically rigorous technologies that can provide the necessary sensitivity, structural specificity, and quantitative precision with high-throughput for "sphingolipidomic" analyses in small sample quantities. This review summarizes historical and state-of-the-art analytical techniques used for the identification, structure determination, and quantitation of sphingolipids from free sphingoid bases through more complex sphingolipids such as sphingomyelins, lactosylceramides, and sulfatides including those intermediates currently considered sphingolipid "second messengers". Also discussed are some emerging techniques and other issues remaining to be resolved for the analysis of the full sphingolipidome.
Project description:Sphingolipids and their phosphorylated derivatives are ubiquitous bio-active components of cells. They are structural elements in the lipid bilayer and contribute to the dynamic nature of the membrane. They have been implicated in many cellular processes in yeast and animal cells, including aspects of signaling, apoptosis, and senescence. Although sphingolipids have a better defined role in animal systems, they have been shown to be central to many essential processes in plants including but not limited to, pollen development, signal transduction and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. A fuller understanding of the roles of sphingolipids within plants has been facilitated by classical biochemical studies and the identification of mutants of model species. Recently the development of powerful mass spectrometry techniques hailed the advent of the emerging field of lipidomics enabling more accurate sphingolipid detection and quantitation. This review will consider plant sphingolipid biosynthesis and function in the context of these new developments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.