Persistent infection or successive reinfection of deer mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis.
ABSTRACT: Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice.
Project description:We report the case of a patient hospitalized with endocarditis. The etiological diagnosis of Bartonella was suggested by detection of high titers of antibodies by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Two different nested PCRs performed on sera identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis by sequencing.
Project description:We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA.
Project description:Bartonella proteins that elicit an antibody response during an infection are poorly defined; therefore, to characterize antigens recognized by the host, a Bartonella genomic expression library was screened with serum from an infected mouse. This process led to the discovery of a Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis gene encoding a 382-kDa protein, part of a gene family encoding large proteins, each containing multiple regions of repetitive segments. The genes were termed brpA to -C (bartonella repeat protein) and bore significant similarity to genes encoding the BadA adhesin protein and members of the variably expressed outer membrane protein family of proteins from Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, respectively.
Project description:Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting humans, domestic mammals and wildlife. Ninety-seven red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 8 European badgers (Meles meles), 6 Eurasian wolves (Canis lupus), 6 European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), 3 beech martens (Martes foina) and 2 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Italian Nature Conservatory Parks were investigated for Bartonella infection. Several Bartonella species (9.84%; 95% CI: 4.55-15.12), including zoonotic ones, were molecularly detected among wolves (83.3%; 95% CI: 51-100.00), foxes (4.12%; 95% CI: 0.17-8.08), hedgehogs (33.33%; 95% CI: 0.00-71.05) and a roe deer. Bartonella rochalimae was the most common Bartonella species (i.e. in 4 foxes and 2 wolves) detected. Candidatus B. merieuxii and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii were identified for the first time in wolves. Furthermore, Bartonella schoenbuchensis was identified in a roe deer and a new clone with phylogenetic proximity to B. clarridgeiae was detected in European hedgehogs. Zoonotic and other Bartonella species were significantly more frequent in Eurasian wolves (p < .0001), than in other free-ranging wild mammals, representing a potential reservoir for infection in humans and domestic animals.
Project description:Testing for vector-borne pathogens in livestock is largely reliant upon blood and tissue. The role of biopsy samples remains poorly explored for detecting tick-borne bacteria in animals. In a 2-year survey, animals of veterinary importance from farms throughout the northern part of Greece were routinely checked for the presence of biopsy samples. Where detected, either a portion or a biopsy was collected together with whole blood samples and any ticks at the site of the biopsy sample. Molecular testing was carried out by real-time PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer gene of Bartonella species. A total of 68 samples (28 blood samples, 28 biopsy samples and 12 ticks (nine Rhipicephalus bursa and three Rhipicephalus turanicus)) were collected from goats (64 samples) and cattle (four samples). Eight (11.8%) of the 68 samples were positive for Bartonella species. Of the biopsy and whole blood samples, four (14.3%) of each type were positive for Bartonella species. None of the ticks tested positive for Bartonella species. All pairs of positive biopsy samples/whole blood samples originated from the same animals. Positive samples were identified as Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Although many more samples from a much wider spectrum of animal species is required before concluding upon the merit of biopsy samples in the study of tick-borne diseases, the significance of our finding warrants further study, both for clinical consequences in small ruminants and for those humans who are farming infected animals.
Project description:Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from 66 dogs at two locations near Hamedan, Iran. Twenty dogs were rescued stray dogs and 46 dogs were from a breeding colony, with many of them infested with fleas, ticks, or lice. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Seroprevalence was 74.2% (range: 65.2-95%). Bartonella DNA amplification and sequencing identified B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii type III in seven dogs, including five rescued dogs. Two dogs were infected with Bartonella rochalimae and three dogs with Candidatus B. merieuxii, including two of the stray dogs coinfected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Rescued stray dogs were 10 times (odds ratio (OR) = 10.13, 95% CI: 1.24-82.7; P = 0.03) more likely to be seropositive and eight times (OR = 8.82, 95% CI: 2.68-29.11; P = 0.0004) more likely to be flea-infested than breeding dogs, confirming that arthropod infestation is a major risk factor for these infections.
Project description:Currently, 19 species are recognized in the genus Bartonella, 7 of which are involved in an increasing variety of human diseases. Development of molecular tools for detection, identification, and subtyping of strains and isolates has promoted research on Bartonella spp. We amplified and sequenced the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the N-terminal region of the cell division protein for 13 Bartonella species: Bartonella alsatica, B. birtlesii, B. doshiae, B. elizabethae, B. grahami, B. koehlerae, B. schoenbuchensis, B. taylorii, B. tribocorum, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, and B. bovis Bermond et al.("B. weissii"). Phylogenetically derived trees revealed four statistically supported groups, indicating that sequencing of the ftsZ gene is a useful tool for identifying evolutionary relationships among Bartonella species. Furthermore, we amplified and sequenced the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the C-terminal region of the protein for 4 B. bacilliformis isolates, 14 B. clarridgeiae isolates, 14 B. quintana isolates, and 30 B. henselae isolates that were obtained from different geographic regions, hosts, and clinical specimens. B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana sequences were highly conserved, while those of the four B. bacilliformis isolates differed from the type strain at 5 positions. Among B. henselae strains isolated from cats and patients, only two genotypes were detected: Houston and Marseille. Among 80 clinical samples we detected Bartonella spp. in 35 (43.75%) and found the assay to be comparable to that of a combined intergenic-spacer-region- and pap31-based PCR assay. Our results show the usefulness of the portion of the ftsZ gene encoding the C-terminal region for diagnosis of Bartonella infections. More samples should be tested to study its usefulness for epidemiological investigations.
Project description:Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55-31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World.
Project description:Several Bartonella species have now been implicated as human pathogens. The recovery of these fastidious organisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory remains difficult, and current methods are still relatively insensitive. Thus, the bartonellae are good candidates for detection by PCR. We have developed a PCR assay which uses a single primer pair targeting the riboflavin synthase gene (ribC) and detected six Bartonella species that have been implicated in human disease, B. henselae, B. quintana, B. bacilliformis, B. clarridgeiae, B. elizabethae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Species identification is achieved simply by restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicon. This PCR assay appears to be specific for the Bartonella genus because it failed to amplify DNA from several other bacterial species.