Cellulosimicrobium funkei: first report of infection in a nonimmunocompromised patient and useful phenotypic tests for differentiation from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Cellulosimicrobium terreum.
ABSTRACT: Cellulosimicrobium funkei is a rare, opportunistic pathogen. We describe a case of bacteremia and possibly prosthetic valve endocarditis by this organism in a nonimmunocompromised patient. Useful phenotypic tests for differentiating C. funkei from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Cellulosimicrobium terreum include motility, raffinose fermentation, glycogen, D-xylose, and methyl-?-D-glucopyranoside assimilation, and growth at 35°C.
Project description:Despite having serious clinical manifestations, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans remain under-reported with only three genome sequences available at the time of writing. Genome sequences of C. cellulans LMG16121, C. cellulans J36 and Cellulosimicrobium sp. strain MM were used to determine distribution of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) across C. cellulans, which revealed 49 potential marker genes with known association to human infections, e.g. Fic and VbhA toxin-antitoxin system. Oligonucleotide composition-based analysis of orthologous proteins (n?=?791) across three genomes revealed significant negative correlation (P?<?0.05) between frequency of optimal codons (Fopt) and gene G+C content, highlighting the G+C-biased gene conversion (gBGC) effect across Cellulosimicrobium strains. Bayesian molecular-clock analysis performed on three virulent PAI proteins (Fic; D-alanyl-D-alanine-carboxypeptidase; transposase) dated the divergence event at 300?million years ago from the most common recent ancestor. Synteny-based annotation of hypothetical proteins highlighted gene transfers from non-pathogenic bacteria as a key factor in the evolution of PAIs. Additonally, deciphering the metagenomic islands using strain MM's genome with environmental data from the site of isolation (hot-spring biofilm) revealed (an)aerobic respiration as population segregation factor across the in situ cohorts. Using reference genomes and metagenomic data, our results highlight the emergence and evolution of PAIs in the genus Cellulosimicrobium.
Project description:Cellulosimicrobium cellulans has been reported as a rare cause of human pathogenesis. Infections mainly occur in immunocompromised patients and very often are associated with a foreign body. We report the first case of septic arthritis caused by C. cellulans in an immunocompetent patient. Our patient suffered a penetrating palm tree thorn injury to his left knee 8 weeks before admission. Although no foreign objects were found, they were suspected because previous reports suggest a frequent association with this microorganism, and open debridament was performed. Removal of foreign bodies related to this organism must be considered a high-priority treatment in these patients to achieve a complete recovery.
Project description:Introduction:Invasive infections due to Cellulosimicrobium spp. (a Gram-positive coryneform) are extremely rare. Only a few cases of bloodstream infections and endocarditis have been described, as bacteraemia due to coryneforms is usually discarded as blood culture contamination. Case presentation:A 66-year-old female, with a history of aortic valve replacement, presented with fever, left leg purpura and acute kidney injury. Multiple repeated blood cultures were positive for Cellulosimicrobium cellulans , and targeted therapy was started. At first, endocarditis was excluded by echocardiograms, and the acute nephritis was interpreted as an atypical presentation of Henoch-Shönlein purpura. High-dose prednisone was started, and after 10 weeks the patient presented again with fever, mental confusion and acute left arm ischaemia. A subsequent echocardiogram and radiolabelled leukocyte scintigraphic evaluation revealed aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis with periprosthetic abscess and arterial brachial thrombosis. The patient deceased, and the autoptic examination confirmed an aortic valve periprosthetic abscess and revealed multiple arterial thromboses and septic embolisms in the kidneys, brain, spleen and myocardium. Conclusion:Isolation of coryneform bacteria on blood culture should not always be discarded as blood culture contamination. In the case of endocarditis due to Cellulosimicrobium spp., the removal of any prosthetic material, along with prolonged in vitro active antimicrobial therapy, should be pursued in order to reduce persistence or relapses of infection.
Project description:Two experiments were conducted to screen microorganisms with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) removal potential from soils and to evaluate their ability in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1 in ducklings. In experiment 1, we screened 11 isolates that showed the AFB1 biodegradation ability, and the one exhibited the highest AFB1 removal ability (97%) was characterized and identified as Cellulosimicrobium funkei (C.?funkei). In experiment 2, 80 day-old Cherry Valley ducklings were divided into four groups with four replicates of five birds each and were used in a 2 by 2 factorial trial design, in which the main factors included administration of AFB1 versus solvent and C.?funkei versus solvent for 2 weeks. The AFB1 treatment significantly decreased the body weight gain, feed intake and impaired feed conversion ratio. AFB1 also decreased serum albumin and total protein concentration, while it increased activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and liver damage in the ducklings. Supplementation of C.?funkei alleviated the adverse effects of AFB1 on growth performance, and provided protective effects on the serum biochemical indicators, and decreased hepatic injury in the ducklings. Conclusively, our results suggest that the novel isolated C.?funkei strain could be used to mitigate the negative effects of aflatoxicosis in ducklings.
Project description:Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (also known with the synonyms Cellulomonas cellulans, Oerskovia xanthineolytica, and Arthrobacter luteus) is an actinomycete that excretes yeast cell wall lytic enzyme complexes containing endo-beta-1,3-glucanases [EC 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168] as key constituents. Three genes encoding endo-beta-1,3-glucanases from two C. cellulans strains have been cloned and characterised over the past years. The betaglII and betaglIIA genes from strain DSM 10297 (also known as O. xanthineolytica LL G109) encoded proteins of 40.8 and 28.6 kDa, respectively, whereas the beta-1,3-glucanase gene from strain ATCC 21606 (also known as A. luteus 73-14) encoded a 54.5 kDa protein. Alignment of their deduced amino acid sequences reveal that betaglII and betaglIIA have catalytic domains assigned to family 16 of glycosyl hydrolases, whereas the catalytic domain from the 54.5 kDa glucanase belongs to family 64. Notably, both betaglII and the 54.5 kDa beta-1,3-glucanase are multidomain proteins, having a lectin-like C-terminal domain that has been assigned to family 13 of carbohydrate binding modules, and that confers to beta-1,3-glucanases the ability to lyse viable yeast cells. Furthermore, betaglII may also undergo posttranslational proteolytic processing of its C-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated enzyme retaining its glucanase activity but with very low yeast-lytic activity. In this review, the diversity in terms of structural and functional characteristics of the C. cellulans beta-1,3-glucanases has been compiled and compared.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Lignocellulose is a renewable and enormous biomass resource, which can be degraded efficiently by a range of cocktails of carbohydrate-active enzymes secreted by termite gut symbiotic bacteria. There is an urgent need to find enzymes with novel characteristics for improving the conversion processes in the production of lignocellulosic-based products. Although various studies dedicated to the genus <i>Cellulosimicrobium</i> as gut symbiont<i>,</i> genetic potential related to plant biomass-acting enzymes and exopolysaccharides production has been fully untapped to date.<h4>Methods</h4>The cellulolytic bacterial strain MP1 was isolated from termite guts and identified to the species level by phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic analysis. To further explore genes related to cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, the draft genome of strain MP1 was obtained by using whole-genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation through the Illumina platform. Lignocellulose degrading enzymes and levan production in the liquid medium were also examined to shed light on bacterial activities.<h4>Results</h4>Among 65 isolates obtained, the strain MP1 was the most efficient cellulase producer with cellulase activity of 0.65 ± 0.02 IU/ml. The whole genome analysis depicted that strain MP1 consists of a circular chromosome that contained 4,580,223 bp with an average GC content of 73.9%. The genome comprises 23 contigs including 67 rRNA genes, three tRNA genes, a single tmRNA gene, and 4,046 protein-coding sequences. In support of the phenotypic identification, the 16S rRNA gene sequence, average nucleotide identity, and whole-genome-based taxonomic analysis demonstrated that the strain MP1 belongs to the species <i>Cellulosimicrobium cellulans</i>. A total of 30 genes related to the degradation of cellulases and hemicellulases were identified in the <i>C. cellulans</i> MP1 genome. Of note, the presence of <i>sacC1-levB-sacC2-ls</i> operon responsible for levan and levan-type fructooligosaccharides biosynthesis was detected in strain MP1 genome, but not with closely related <i>C. cellulans</i> strains, proving this strain to be a potential candidate for further studies. Endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and xylanase were achieved by using cheaply available agro-residues such as rice bran and sugar cane bagasse. The maximum levan production by <i>C. cellulans</i> MP1 was 14.8 ± 1.2 g/l after 20 h of cultivation in media containing 200 g/l sucrose. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first genome-based analysis of a <i>Cellulosimicrobium</i> species which focuses on lignocellulosic enzymes and levan biosynthesis, illustrating that the <i>C. cellulans</i> MP1 has a great potential to be an efficient platform for basic research and industrial exploitation.
Project description:Ulcerations appeared on the tongue of a 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. Histological findings of the biopsy specimen and the fact that the patient had resided in Louisiana led us to suspect "American histoplasmosis". A new ulcer appeared while the patient was being treated with itraconazole, and the gene for 16S rRNA of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans was amplified. The lesions healed during treatment with oral penicillin and azithromycin.