REVEILLE8 and PSEUDO-REPONSE REGULATOR5 form a negative feedback loop within the Arabidopsis circadian clock.
ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms provide organisms with an adaptive advantage, allowing them to regulate physiological and developmental events so that they occur at the most appropriate time of day. In plants, as in other eukaryotes, multiple transcriptional feedback loops are central to clock function. In one such feedback loop, the Myb-like transcription factors CCA1 and LHY directly repress expression of the pseudoresponse regulator TOC1 by binding to an evening element (EE) in the TOC1 promoter. Another key regulatory circuit involves CCA1 and LHY and the TOC1 homologs PRR5, PRR7, and PRR9. Purification of EE-binding proteins from plant extracts followed by mass spectrometry led to the identification of RVE8, a homolog of CCA1 and LHY. Similar to these well-known clock genes, expression of RVE8 is circadian-regulated with a dawn phase of expression, and RVE8 binds specifically to the EE. However, whereas cca1 and lhy mutants have short period phenotypes and overexpression of either gene causes arrhythmia, rve8 mutants have long-period and RVE8-OX plants have short-period phenotypes. Light input to the clock is normal in rve8, but temperature compensation (a hallmark of circadian rhythms) is perturbed. RVE8 binds to the promoters of both TOC1 and PRR5 in the subjective afternoon, but surprisingly only PRR5 expression is perturbed by overexpression of RVE8. Together, our data indicate that RVE8 promotes expression of a subset of EE-containing clock genes towards the end of the subjective day and forms a negative feedback loop with PRR5. Thus RVE8 and its homologs CCA1 and LHY function close to the circadian oscillator but act via distinct molecular mechanisms.
Project description:In Arabidopsis, the circadian rhythm is associated with multiple important biological processes and maintained by multiple interconnected loops that generate robust rhythms. The circadian clock central loop is a negative feedback loop composed of the core circadian clock components. TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) is highly expressed in the evening and negatively regulates the expression of CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1)/LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL). CCA1/LHY also binds to the promoter of TOC1 and represses the TOC1 expression. Our recent research revealed that the histone modification complex comprising of LYSINE-SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1 (LSD1)-LIKE 1/2 (LDL1/2) and HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 (HDA6) can be recruited by CCA1/LHY to repress TOC1 expression. In this study, we found that HDA6, LDL1, and LDL2 can interact with TOC1, and the LDL1/2-HDA6 complex is associate with TOC1 to repress the CCA1/LHY expression. Furthermore, LDL1/2-HDA6 and TOC1 co-target a subset of genes involved in the circadian rhythm. Collectively, our results indicate that the LDL1/2-HDA6 histone modification complex is important for the regulation of the core circadian clock components.
Project description:In Arabidopsis, the circadian clock central oscillator genes are important cellular components to generate and maintain circadian rhythms. There is a negative feedback loop between the morning expressed CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1)/LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL) and evening expressed TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1). CCA1 and LHY negatively regulate the expression of TOC1, while TOC1 also binds to the promoters of CCA1 and LHY to repress their expression. Recent studies indicate that histone modifications play an important role in the regulation of the central oscillators. However, the regulatory relationship between histone modifications and the circadian clock genes remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that the Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1)-like histone demethylases, LDL1 and LDL2, can interact with CCA1/LHY to repress the expression of TOC1. ChIP-Seq analysis indicated that LDL1 targets a subset of genes involved in the circadian rhythm regulated by CCA1. Furthermore, LDL1 and LDL2 interact with the histone deacetylase HDA6 and co-regulate TOC1 by histone demetylation and deacetylaion. These results provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of how the circadian clock central oscillator genes are regulated through histone modifications.
Project description:The circadian clock is a timekeeping system for regulation of numerous biological daily rhythms. One characteristic of the circadian clock is that period length remains relatively constant in spite of environmental fluctuations, such as temperature change. Here, using the curated collection of in-house small molecule chemical library (ITbM chemical library), we show that small molecule 3,4-dibromo-7-azaindole (B-AZ) lengthened the circadian period of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). B-AZ has not previously been reported to have any biological and biochemical activities. Target identification can elucidate the mode of action of small molecules, but we were unable to make a molecular probe of B-AZ for target identification. Instead, we performed other analysis, gene expression profiling that potentially reveals mode of action of molecules. Short-term treatment of B-AZ decreased the expression of four dawn- and morning-phased clock-associated genes, CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 9 (PRR9) and PRR7. Consistently, amounts of PRR5 and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) proteins, transcriptional repressors of CCA1, LHY, PRR9 and PRR7 were increased upon B-AZ treatment. B-AZ inhibited Casein Kinase 1 family (CK1) that phosphorylates PRR5 and TOC1 for targeted degradation. A docking study and molecular dynamics simulation suggested that B-AZ interacts with the ATP-binding pocket of human CK1 delta, whose amino acid sequences are highly similar to those of Arabidopsis CK1. B-AZ-induced period-lengthening effect was attenuated in prr5 toc1 mutants. Collectively, this study provides a novel and simple structure CK1 inhibitor that modulates circadian clock via accumulation of PRR5 and TOC1.
Project description:A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock.
Project description:Our computational model of the circadian clock comprised the feedback loop between LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), and a predicted, interlocking feedback loop involving TOC1 and a hypothetical component Y. Experiments based on model predictions suggested GIGANTEA (GI) as a candidate for Y. We now extend the model to include a recently demonstrated feedback loop between the TOC1 homologues PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 7 (PRR7), PRR9 and LHY and CCA1. This three-loop network explains the rhythmic phenotype of toc1 mutant alleles. Model predictions fit closely to new data on the gi;lhy;cca1 mutant, which confirm that GI is a major contributor to Y function. Analysis of the three-loop network suggests that the plant clock consists of morning and evening oscillators, coupled intracellularly, which may be analogous to coupled, morning and evening clock cells in Drosophila and the mouse.
Project description:The circadian clock provides robust, ?24 hr biological rhythms throughout the eukaryotes. The clock gene circuit in plants comprises interlocking transcriptional feedback loops, reviewed in , whereby the morning-expressed transcription factors CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) repress the expression of evening genes, notably TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1). EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) has been implicated as a repressor of light signaling to the clock [2, 3] and, paradoxically, as an activator of the light-induced genes CCA1 and LHY [4, 5]. We use cca1-11 lhy-21 elf3-4 plants to separate the repressive function of ELF3 from its downstream targets CCA1 and LHY. We further demonstrate that ELF3 associates physically with the promoter of PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 9 (PRR9), a repressor of CCA1 and LHY expression, in a time-dependent fashion. The repressive function of ELF3 is thus consistent with indirect activation of LHY and CCA1, in a double-negative connection via a direct ELF3 target, PRR9. This mechanism reconciles the functions of ELF3 in the clock network during the night and points to further effects of ELF3 during the day.
Project description:Transcriptional feedback loops constitute the molecular circuitry of the plant circadian clock. In Arabidopsis, a core loop is established between CCA1 and TOC1. Although CCA1 directly represses TOC1, the TOC1 protein has no DNA binding domains, which suggests that it cannot directly regulate CCA1. We established a functional genomic strategy that led to the identification of CHE, a TCP transcription factor that binds specifically to the CCA1 promoter. CHE is a clock component partially redundant with LHY in the repression of CCA1. The expression of CHE is regulated by CCA1, thus adding a CCA1/CHE feedback loop to the Arabidopsis circadian network. Because CHE and TOC1 interact, and CHE binds to the CCA1 promoter, a molecular linkage between TOC1 and CCA1 gene regulation is established.
Project description:The first described feedback loop of the Arabidopsis circadian clock is based on reciprocal regulation between Timing of CAB Expression 1 (TOC1) and Circadian Clock-associated 1 (CCA1)/late elongated hypocotyl (LHY). CCA1 and LHY are Myb transcription factors that bind directly to the TOC1 promoter to negatively regulate its expression. Conversely, the activity of TOC1 has remained less well characterized. Genetic data support that TOC1 is necessary for the reactivation of CCA1/LHY, but there is little description of its biochemical function. Here we show that TOC1 occupies specific genomic regions in the CCA1 and LHY promoters. Purified TOC1 binds directly to DNA through its CCT domain, which is similar to known DNA-binding domains. Chemical induction and transient overexpression of TOC1 in Arabidopsis seedlings cause repression of CCA1/LHY expression, demonstrating that TOC1 can repress direct targets, and mutation or deletion of the CCT domain prevents this repression showing that DNA-binding is necessary for TOC1 action. Furthermore, we use the Gal4/UAS system in Arabidopsis to show that TOC1 acts as a general transcriptional repressor, and that repression activity is in the pseudoreceiver domain of the protein. To identify the genes regulated by TOC1 on a genomic scale, we couple TOC1 chemical induction with microarray analysis and identify previously unexplored potential TOC1 targets and output pathways. Taken together, these results define a biochemical action for the core clock protein TOC1 and refine our perspective on how plant clocks function.
Project description:Circadian rhythms are generated by endogenous central oscillators that respond to input from the environment and regulate rhythmic outputs. In Arabidopsis, more than a dozen components that affect rhythms have been identified and used to propose models of the central oscillator. However, none has been shown to fulfill one of the expected characteristics of an oscillator component: that a pulse of its expression shifts the phase of circadian rhythms. Here we show that a pulse of the proposed oscillator components CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) causes dramatic phase shifts in rhythms of expression of the circadian reporter CAB2::LUC, as well as of the clock-associated genes TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and GIGANTEA (GI). These results demonstrate that pulses of either CCA1 or LHY are capable of resetting the circadian clock. In contrast, a pulse of TOC1 expression did not elicit phase shifts. Control of TOC1 protein level is in part posttranscriptional; thus a pulse of TOC1 protein could be induced only at times when it is already high. Our work also shows that the ethanol-inducible system can be useful for achieving relatively short (<8 h) pulses of gene expression in seedlings.
Project description:Circadian clocks enable organisms to adapt to a 24 h diurnal cycle and anticipate rhythmic changes in the environment. The Arabidopsis central oscillator contains three genes encoding core clock components. CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) reciprocally repress genes encoding each other and are critical for the generation of circadian rhythms controlling many clock outputs. A precise regulation of transcriptional events is, therefore, essential for proper circadian function. Here, we investigated histone 3 (H3) tail modifications of CCA1, LHY and TOC1 under various conditions. We found specific association of only H3K4Me3 and H3K9/14Ac with the translational start site of these three genes. These H3 marks were enriched at circadian time points of their increased transcription at different photoperiods and under free-running conditions, suggesting circadian regulation of H3 modifications. Analysis of clock-compromised CCA1-overexpressing lines provided evidence that light/dark photoperiods signal the establishment of these chromatin changes which are gated by the clock.