Antidiabetic and antisteatotic effects of the selective fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor platensimycin in mouse models of diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Platensimycin (PTM) is a recently discovered broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis. It acts by selectively inhibiting the elongation-condensing enzyme FabF of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in bacteria. We report here that PTM is also a potent and highly selective inhibitor of mammalian fatty acid synthase. In contrast to two agents, C75 and cerulenin, that are widely used as inhibitors of mammalian fatty acid synthase, platensimycin specifically inhibits fatty acid synthesis but not sterol synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes. PTM preferentially concentrates in liver when administered orally to mice and potently inhibits hepatic de novo lipogenesis, reduces fatty acid oxidation, and increases glucose oxidation. Chronic administration of platensimycin led to a net reduction in liver triglyceride levels and improved insulin sensitivity in db/+ mice fed a high-fructose diet. PTM also reduced ambient glucose levels in db/db mice. These results provide pharmacological proof of concept of inhibiting fatty acid synthase for the treatment of diabetes and related metabolic disorders in animal models.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent inhibitors of bacterial fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising antibacterial drug leads. We previously characterized the PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries in the Streptomyces platensis producers. We now identify two mechanisms for PTM and PTN resistance in the S. platensis producers-the ptmP3 or ptnP3 gene within the PTM-PTN or PTN biosynthetic cluster and the fabF gene within the fatty acid synthase locus. PtmP3/PtnP3 and FabF confer PTM and PTN resistance by target replacement and target modification, respectively. PtmP3/PtnP3 also represents an unprecedented mechanism for fatty acid biosynthesis in which FabH and FabF are functionally replaced by a single condensing enzyme. These findings challenge the current paradigm for fatty acid biosynthesis and should be considered in future development of effective therapeutics targeting fatty acid synthase.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are highly functionalized bacterial diterpenoid natural products that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. PTM and PTN feature varying diterpene-derived ketolides that are linked to the same 3-amino-2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid moiety. As a result, PTM is a selective inhibitor for FabF/FabB, while PTN is a dual inhibitor of FabF/FabB and FabH. We previously determined that the PTM cassette, consisting of five genes found in the ptm, but not ptn, gene cluster, partitions the biosynthesis of the PTM and PTN diterpene-derived ketolides. We now report investigation of the PTM cassette through the construction of diterpene production systems in E. coli and genetic manipulation in the PTM-PTN dual overproducer Streptomyces platensis SB12029, revealing two genes, ptmT3 and ptmO5, that are responsible for the biosynthetic divergence between the PTM and PTN diterpene-derived ketolides. PtmT3, a type I diterpene synthase, was determined to be a (16R)-ent-kauran-16-ol synthase, the first of its kind found in bacteria. PtmO5, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, is proposed to catalyze the formation of the characteristic 11S,16S-ether ring found in PTM. Inactivation of ptmO5 in SB12029 afforded the ?ptmO5 mutant SB12036 that accumulated nine PTM and PTN congeners, seven of which were new, including seven 11-deoxy-16R-hydroxy-PTM congeners. The two fully processed PTM analogues showed antibacterial activities, albeit lower than that of PTM, indicating that the ether ring, or minimally the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at C-16, is crucial for the activity of PTM.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM), originally isolated from soil bacteria Streptomyces platensis, is a potent FabF inhibitor against many Gram-positive pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. However, the further clinical development of PTM is hampered by its poor pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, 20 PTM derivatives were prepared by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by Pd (0)/C. Compared to PTM, 6-pyrenyl PTM (6t) showed improved antibacterial activity against MRSA in a mouse peritonitis model. Our results support the strategy to target the essential fatty acid synthases in major pathogens, in order to discover and develop new generations of antibiotics.
Project description:A dozen oxime, hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives of platensimycin (PTM) analogues were synthesized, some of which showed strong antibacterial activities and were shown to be stable under the bioassay conditions. Docking analysis revealed that they have certain new interactions with ?-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase II (FabF), suggesting that Schiff base formation on its terpene scaffold is an effective strategy to diversify PTM structure.
Project description:Bacterial fatty acid synthases are promising antibacterial targets against multidrug-resistant pathogens. Platensimycin (PTM) is a potent FabB/FabF inhibitor, while its poor pharmacokinetics hampers the clinical development. In this study, a focused library of PTM derivatives was prepared through thiolysis of PTM oxirane (1), followed by various C-C cross-coupling reactions in high yields. Antibacterial screening of these compounds in vitro yielded multiple hits with improved anti-Staphylococcus activities over PTM. Among them, compounds A1, A3, A17, and A28 exhibited improved antibacterial activities over PTM against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a mouse peritonitis model. Compound A28 was further shown to be effective against MRSA infection in a mouse wound model, in comparison to mupirocin. Therefore, the facile preparation and screening of these PTM derivatives, together with their potent antibacterial activities in vivo, suggest a promising strategy to improve the antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetic properties of PTM.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+) with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) tone inhibited DNL and enhanced glucose oxidation, which in turn led to net reduction of liver triglycerides (TG), reduced ambient glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity. The present study was conducted to explore translatability and the therapeutic potential of FAS inhibition for the treatment of diabetes in humans.We tested PTM in animal models with different DNL tones, i.e. intrinsic synthesis rates, which vary among species and are regulated by nutritional and disease states, and confirmed glucose-lowering efficacy of PTM in lean NHPs with quantitation of liver lipid by MRS imaging. To understand the direct effect of PTM on liver metabolism, we performed ex vivo liver perfusion study to compare FAS inhibitor and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) inhibitor.The efficacy of PTM is generally reproduced in preclinical models with DNL tones comparable to humans, including lean and established diet-induced obese (eDIO) mice as well as non-human primates (NHPs). Similar effects of PTM on DNL reduction were observed in lean and type 2 diabetic rhesus and lean cynomolgus monkeys after acute and chronic treatment of PTM. Mechanistically, PTM lowers plasma glucose in part by enhancing hepatic glucose uptake and glycolysis. Teglicar, a CPT1 inhibitor, has similar effects on glucose uptake and glycolysis. In sharp contrast, Teglicar but not PTM significantly increased hepatic TG production, thus caused liver steatosis in eDIO mice.These findings demonstrate unique properties of PTM and provide proof-of-concept of FAS inhibition having potential utility for the treatment of diabetes and related metabolic disorders.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. The regio- and stereospecificity of the ether oxygen atom in PTM, which PTN does not have, strongly contribute to the selectivity and potency of PTM. We previously reported the biosynthetic origin of the 11 S,16 S-ether moiety by characterizing the diterpene synthase PtmT3 as a (16 R)- ent-kauran-16-ol synthase and isolating 11-deoxy-16 R-hydroxylated congeners of PTM from the ? ptmO5 mutant. PtmO5, a cytochrome P450, was proposed to catalyze formation of the ether moiety in PTM. Here we report the in vitro characterization of PtmO5, revealing that PtmO5 stereoselectively hydroxylates the C-11 position of the ent-kaurane scaffold resulting in an 11 S,16 R-diol intermediate. The ether moiety, the oxygen of which originates from the P450-catalyzed hydroxylation at C-11, is formed via cyclization of the diol intermediate. This study provides mechanistic insight into ether formation in natural product biosynthetic pathways.
Project description:The platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) class of natural products are promising drug leads that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. Natural congeners and synthetic analogues of PTM and PTN have been instrumental in determining their structure-activity relationships, with only a few analogues retaining the potencies of PTM and PTN. Here we describe the identification and isolation of two new sulfur-containing PTM congeners (3 and 5) from the engineered dual PTM-PTN overproducing Streptomyces platensis SB12029. Structure elucidation of platensimycin D1 (5), a sulfur-containing PTM pseudo-dimer, revealed the existence of its presumptive thioacid precursor (3). The unstable thioacid 3 was isolated and confirmed by structural characterization of its permethylated product (6). LC-MS analysis of crude extracts of SB12029 confirmed the presence of the thioacid analogue of PTN (4). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 5 revealing retention of the strong antibacterial activity of PTM.
Project description:Thiocarboxylic acid-containing natural products are rare and their biosynthesis and biological significance remain unknown. Thioplatensimycin (thioPTM) and thioplatencin (thioPTN), thiocarboxylic acid congeners of the antibacterial natural products platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), were recently discovered. Here we report the biosynthetic origin of the thiocarboxylic acid moiety in thioPTM and thioPTN. We identify a thioacid cassette encoding two proteins, PtmA3 and PtmU4, responsible for carboxylate activation by coenzyme A and sulfur transfer, respectively. ThioPTM and thioPTN bind tightly to β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (FabF) and retain strong antibacterial activities. Density functional theory calculations of binding and solvation free energies suggest thioPTM and thioPTN bind to FabF more favorably than PTM and PTN. Additionally, thioacid cassettes are prevalent in the genomes of bacteria, implicating that thiocarboxylic acid-containing natural products are underappreciated. These results suggest that thiocarboxylic acid, as an alternative pharmacophore, and thiocarboxylic acid-containing natural products may be considered for future drug discovery.
Project description:Fatty acids are among the major building blocks of living cells, making lipid biosynthesis a potent target for compounds with antibiotic or antineoplastic properties. We present the crystal structure of the 2.6-MDa Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase (FAS) multienzyme in complex with the antibiotic cerulenin, representing, to our knowledge, the first structure of an inhibited fatty acid megasynthase. Cerulenin attacks the FAS ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain, forming a covalent bond to the active site cysteine C1305. The inhibitor binding causes two significant conformational changes of the enzyme. First, phenylalanine F1646, shielding the active site, flips and allows access to the nucleophilic cysteine. Second, methionine M1251, placed in the center of the acyl-binding tunnel, rotates and unlocks the inner part of the fatty acid binding cavity. The importance of the rotational movement of the gatekeeping M1251 side chain is reflected by the cerulenin resistance and the changed product spectrum reported for S. cerevisiae strains mutated in the adjacent glycine G1250. Platensimycin and thiolactomycin are two other potent inhibitors of KSs. However, in contrast to cerulenin, they show selectivity toward the prokaryotic FAS system. Because the flipped F1646 characterizes the catalytic state accessible for platensimycin and thiolactomycin binding, we superimposed structures of inhibited bacterial enzymes onto the S. cerevisiae FAS model. Although almost all side chains involved in inhibitor binding are conserved in the FAS multienzyme, a different conformation of the loop K1413-K1423 of the KS domain might explain the observed low antifungal properties of platensimycin and thiolactomycin.