Genetically altered AMPA-type glutamate receptor kinetics in interneurons disrupt long-range synchrony of gamma oscillation.
ABSTRACT: Gamma oscillations synchronized between distant neuronal populations may be critical for binding together brain regions devoted to common processing tasks. Network modeling predicts that such synchrony depends in part on the fast time course of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in interneurons, and that even moderate slowing of this time course will disrupt synchrony. We generated mice with slowed interneuron EPSPs by gene targeting, in which the gene encoding the 67-kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) was altered to drive expression of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor subunit GluR-B. GluR-B is a determinant of the relatively slow EPSPs in excitatory neurons and is normally expressed at low levels in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons, but at high levels in the GAD-GluR-B mice. In both wild-type and GAD-GluR-B mice, tetanic stimuli evoked gamma oscillations that were indistinguishable in local field potential recordings. Remarkably, however, oscillation synchrony between spatially separated sites was severely disrupted in the mutant, in association with changes in interneuron firing patterns. The congruence between mouse and model suggests that the rapid time course of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSPs in interneurons might serve to allow gamma oscillations to synchronize over distance.
Project description:Accumulation of amyloid ? oligomers (A?O) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) impairs hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations. These oscillations are important in memory functions and depend on distinct subtypes of hippocampal interneurons such as somatostatin-positive (SST) and parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons. Here, we investigated whether A?O causes dysfunctions in SST and PV interneurons by optogenetically manipulating them during theta and gamma oscillations in vivo in A?O-injected SST-Cre or PV-Cre mice. Hippocampal in vivo multi-electrode recordings revealed that optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-expressing SST and PV interneurons in A?O-injected mice selectively restored A?O-induced reduction of the peak power of theta and gamma oscillations, respectively, and resynchronized CA1 pyramidal cell (PC) spikes. Moreover, SST and PV interneuron spike phases were resynchronized relative to theta and gamma oscillations, respectively. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in CA1 PC in ex vivo hippocampal slices from A?O-injected mice revealed that optogenetic activation of SST and PV interneurons enhanced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) selectively at theta and gamma frequencies, respectively. Furthermore, analyses of the stimulus-response curve, paired-pulse ratio, and short-term plasticity of SST and PV interneuron-evoked IPSCs ex vivo showed that A?O increased the initial GABA release probability to depress SST/PV interneuron's inhibitory input to CA1 PC selectively at theta and gamma frequencies, respectively. Our results reveal frequency-specific and interneuron subtype-specific presynaptic dysfunctions of SST and PV interneurons' input to CA1 PC as the synaptic mechanisms underlying A?O-induced impairments of hippocampal network oscillations and identify them as potential therapeutic targets for restoring hippocampal network oscillations in early AD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Abnormal accumulation of amyloid ?<sub>1-42</sub> oligomers (A?O<sub>1-42</sub>), a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, impairs hippocampal theta-nested gamma oscillations and long-term potentiation (LTP) that are believed to underlie learning and memory. Parvalbumin-positive (PV) and somatostatin-positive (SST) interneurons are critically involved in theta-nested gamma oscillogenesis and LTP induction. However, how A?O<sub>1-42</sub> affects PV and SST interneuron circuits is unclear. Through optogenetic manipulation of PV and SST interneurons and computational modeling of the hippocampal neural circuits, we dissected the contributions of PV and SST interneuron circuit dysfunctions on A?O<sub>1-42</sub>-induced impairments of hippocampal theta-nested gamma oscillations and oscillation-induced LTP.<h4>Results</h4>Targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and optogenetic manipulations of PV and SST interneurons during in vivo-like, optogenetically induced theta-nested gamma oscillations in vitro revealed that A?O<sub>1-42</sub> causes synapse-specific dysfunction in PV and SST interneurons. A?O<sub>1-42</sub> selectively disrupted CA1 pyramidal cells (PC)-to-PV interneuron and PV-to-PC synapses to impair theta-nested gamma oscillogenesis. In contrast, while having no effect on PC-to-SST or SST-to-PC synapses, A?O<sub>1-42</sub> selectively disrupted SST interneuron-mediated disinhibition to CA1 PC to impair theta-nested gamma oscillation-induced spike timing-dependent LTP (tLTP). Such A?O<sub>1-42</sub>-induced impairments of gamma oscillogenesis and oscillation-induced tLTP were fully restored by optogenetic activation of PV and SST interneurons, respectively, further supporting synapse-specific dysfunctions in PV and SST interneurons. Finally, computational modeling of hippocampal neural circuits including CA1 PC, PV, and SST interneurons confirmed the experimental observations and further revealed distinct functional roles of PV and SST interneurons in theta-nested gamma oscillations and tLTP induction.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results reveal that A?O<sub>1-42</sub> causes synapse-specific dysfunctions in PV and SST interneurons and that optogenetic modulations of these interneurons present potential therapeutic targets for restoring hippocampal network oscillations and synaptic plasticity impairments in Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that neuronal gamma oscillations crucially depend on interneurons, but current models do not consider the diversity of known interneuron subtypes. Moreover, in CA1 of the hippocampus, experimental evidence indicates the presence of multiple gamma oscillators, two of which may be coordinated by differing interneuron populations. In this article, we show that models of networks with competing interneuron populations with different postsynaptic effects are sufficient to generate, within CA1, distinct oscillatory regimes. We find that strong mutual inhibition between the interneuron populations permits distinct fast and slow gamma states, whereas weak mutual inhibition generates mixed gamma states. We develop idealized firing rate models to illuminate dynamic properties of these competitive gamma networks, and reinforce these concepts with basic spiking models. The models make several explicit predictions about gamma oscillators in CA1. Specifically, interneurons of different subtype phase-lock to different gamma states, and one population of interneurons is silenced and the other active during fast and slow gamma events. Finally, mutual inhibition between interneuron populations is necessary to generate distinct gamma states. Previous experimental studies indicate that fast and slow gamma oscillations reflect different information processing modes, although it is unclear whether these rhythms are intrinsic or imposed. The models outlined demonstrate that basic architectures can locally generate these oscillations, as well as capture other features of fast and slow gamma, including theta-phase preference and spontaneous transitions between gamma states. These models may extend to describe general dynamics in networks with diverse interneuron populations.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The oscillatory coordination of neural signals is crucial to healthy brain function. We have developed an idealized neuronal model that generates distinct fast and slow gamma oscillations, a known feature of the rodent hippocampus. Our work provides a mechanism of this phenomenon, as well as a theoretical framework for future experiments concerning hippocampal gamma. It moreover offers a tractable model of competitive gamma oscillations that is generalizable across the nervous system.
Project description:In the cerebral cortex, GABAergic interneurons are often regarded as fast-spiking cells. We have identified a type of slow-spiking interneuron that offers distinct contributions to network activity. "Ivy" cells, named after their dense and fine axons innervating mostly basal and oblique pyramidal cell dendrites, are more numerous than the parvalbumin-expressing basket, bistratified, or axo-axonic cells. Ivy cells express nitric oxide synthase, neuropeptide Y, and high levels of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit; they discharge at a low frequency with wide spikes in vivo, yet are distinctively phase-locked to behaviorally relevant network rhythms including theta, gamma, and ripple oscillations. Paired recordings in vitro showed that Ivy cells receive depressing EPSPs from pyramidal cells, which in turn receive slowly rising and decaying inhibitory input from Ivy cells. In contrast to fast-spiking interneurons operating with millisecond precision, the highly abundant Ivy cells express presynaptically acting neuromodulators and regulate the excitability of pyramidal cell dendrites through slowly rising and decaying GABAergic inputs.
Project description:Neuronal mechanisms underlying beta/gamma oscillations (20-80 Hz) are not completely understood. Here, we show that in vivo beta/gamma oscillations in the cat visual cortex sometimes exhibit remarkably stable frequency even when inputs fluctuate dramatically. Enhanced frequency stability is associated with stronger oscillations measured in individual units and larger power in the local field potential. Simulations of neuronal circuitry demonstrate that membrane properties of inhibitory interneurons strongly determine the characteristics of emergent oscillations. Exploration of networks containing either integrator or resonator inhibitory interneurons revealed that: (i) Resonance, as opposed to integration, promotes robust oscillations with large power and stable frequency via a mechanism called RING (Resonance INduced Gamma); resonance favors synchronization by reducing phase delays between interneurons and imposes bounds on oscillation cycle duration; (ii) Stability of frequency and robustness of the oscillation also depend on the relative timing of excitatory and inhibitory volleys within the oscillation cycle; (iii) RING can reproduce characteristics of both Pyramidal INterneuron Gamma (PING) and INterneuron Gamma (ING), transcending such classifications; (iv) In RING, robust gamma oscillations are promoted by slow but are impaired by fast inputs. Results suggest that interneuronal membrane resonance can be an important ingredient for generation of robust gamma oscillations having stable frequency.
Project description:The number of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is the major determinant of synaptic strength and is differently regulated in input pathway-dependent and target cell type-dependent manners. In cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), the density of synaptic AMPARs is approximately five times lower at parallel fiber (PF) synapses than at climbing fiber (CF) synapses. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this biased synaptic distribution remain unclear. As a candidate molecule, we focused on glutamate receptor ?2 (GluR?2 or GluD2), which is known to be efficiently trafficked to and selectively expressed at PF synapses in PCs. We applied postembedding immunogold electron microscopy to GluR?2 knock-out (KO) and control mice, and measured labeling density for GluA1-4 at three excitatory synapses in the cerebellar molecular layer. In both control and GluR?2-KO mice, GluA1-3 were localized at PF and CF synapses in PCs, while GluA2-4 were at PF synapses in interneurons. In control mice, labeling density for each of GluA1-3 was four to six times lower at PF-PC synapses than at CF-PC synapses. In GluR?2-KO mice, however, their labeling density displayed a three- to fivefold increase at PF synapses, but not at CF synapses, thus effectively eliminating input pathway-dependent disparity between the two PC synapses. Furthermore, we found an unexpected twofold increase in labeling density for GluA2 and GluA3, but not GluA4, at PF-interneuron synapses, where we identified low but significant expression of GluR?2. These results suggest that GluR?2 is involved in a common mechanism that restricts the number of synaptic AMPARs at PF synapses in PCs and molecular layer interneurons.
Project description:Neuronal synchrony in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for emotional behavior. Coordinated theta-frequency oscillations between the BLA and the hippocampus and precisely timed integration of salient sensory stimuli in the BLA are involved in fear conditioning. We characterized GABAergic interneuron types of the BLA and determined their contribution to shaping these network activities. Using in vivo recordings in rats combined with the anatomical identification of neurons, we found that the firing of BLA interneurons associated with network activities was cell type specific. The firing of calbindin-positive interneurons targeting dendrites was precisely theta-modulated, but other cell types were heterogeneously modulated, including parvalbumin-positive basket cells. Salient sensory stimuli selectively triggered axo-axonic cells firing and inhibited firing of a disctinct projecting interneuron type. Thus, GABA is released onto BLA principal neurons in a time-, domain-, and sensory-specific manner. These specific synaptic actions likely cooperate to promote amygdalo-hippocampal synchrony involved in emotional memory formation.
Project description:The cellular diversity of interneurons in the neocortex is thought to reflect subtype-specific roles of cortical inhibition. Here we ask whether perturbations to two subtypes--parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SST+) interneurons--can be compensated for with respect to their contributions to cortical development. We use a genetic cell fate switch to delete both PV+ and SST+ interneurons selectively in cortical layers 2-4 without numerically changing the total interneuron population. This manipulation is compensated for at the level of synaptic currents and receptive fields (RFs) in the somatosensory cortex. By contrast, we identify a deficit in inhibitory synchronization in vitro and a large reduction in cortical gamma oscillations in vivo. This reveals that, while the roles of inhibition in establishing cortical inhibitory/excitatory balance and RFs can be subserved by multiple interneuron subtypes, gamma oscillations depend on cellular properties that cannot be compensated for--likely, the fast signalling properties of PV+ interneurons.
Project description:Gamma oscillations (30-150?Hz) in neuronal networks are associated with the processing and recall of information. We measured local field potentials in the dentate gyrus of freely moving mice and found that gamma activity occurs in bursts, which are highly heterogeneous in their spatial extensions, ranging from focal to global coherent events. Synaptic communication among perisomatic-inhibitory interneurons (PIIs) is thought to play an important role in the generation of hippocampal gamma patterns. However, how neuronal circuits can generate synchronous oscillations at different spatial scales is unknown. We analyzed paired recordings in dentate gyrus slices and show that synaptic signaling at interneuron-interneuron synapses is distance dependent. Synaptic strength declines whereas the duration of inhibitory signals increases with axonal distance among interconnected PIIs. Using neuronal network modeling, we show that distance-dependent inhibition generates multiple highly synchronous focal gamma bursts allowing the network to process complex inputs in parallel in flexibly organized neuronal centers.Perisomatic-inhibitory interneurons (PIIs) contribute to the generation of gamma oscillations in the hippocampus. Here the authors demonstrate distance-dependent inhibition between PIIs in freely moving mice, and use computational analysis to show that distance-dependent inhibition supports the emergence of focal gamma bursts.
Project description:The climbing fiber (CF) neurotransmitter not only excites the postsynaptic Purkinje cell (PC) but also suppresses GABA release from inhibitory interneurons converging onto the same PC depending on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) activation. Although the CF-/AMPAR-mediated inhibition of GABA release provides a likely mechanism boosting the CF input-derived excitation, how the CF transmitter reaches target AMPARs to elicit this action remains unknown. Here, we report that the CF transmitter diffused from its release sites directly targets GluR2/GluR3 AMPARs on interneuron terminals to inhibit GABA release. A weak GluR3-AMPAR agonist, bromohomoibotenic acid, produced excitatory currents in the postsynaptic PCs without presynaptic inhibitory effect on GABAergic transmission. Conversely, a specific inhibitor of the GluR2-lacking/Ca2+-permeable AMPARs, philanthotoxin-433, did not affect the CF-induced inhibition but suppressed AMPAR-mediated currents in Bergmann glia. A low-affinity GluR antagonist, gamma-D-glutamylglycine, or retardation of neurotransmitter diffusion by dextran reduced the inhibitory action of CF-stimulation, whereas blockade of glutamate transporters enhanced the CF-induced inhibition. The results suggest that the CF transmitter released after repeated stimulation overwhelms local glutamate uptake and thereby diffuses from the release site to reach GluR2/GluR3 AMPARs on nearby interneuron terminals. Double immunostaining showed that GluR2/3 subunits and glutamate decarboxylase or synaptophysin are colocalized at the perisomatic GABAergic processes surrounding PCs. Finally, electron microscopy detected specific immunoreactivity for GluR2/3 at the presynaptic terminals of symmetric axosomatic synapses on the PC. These findings demonstrate that the CF transmitter directly inhibits GABA release from interneurons to the PC, relying on extrasynaptic diffusion and local heterogeneity in AMPAR subunit compositions.