ABSTRACT: Peptides have been proposed to function in intracellular signaling within the cytosol. Although cytosolic peptides are considered to be highly unstable, a large number of peptides have been detected in mouse brain and other biological samples. In the present study, we evaluated the peptidome of three diverse cell lines: SH-SY5Y, MCF7, and HEK293 cells. A comparison of the peptidomes revealed considerable overlap in the identity of the peptides found in each cell line. The majority of the observed peptides are not derived from the most abundant or least stable proteins in the cell, and approximately half of the cellular peptides correspond to the N- or C- termini of the precursor proteins. Cleavage site analysis revealed a preference for hydrophobic residues in the P1 position. Quantitative peptidomic analysis indicated that the levels of most cellular peptides are not altered in response to elevated intracellular calcium, suggesting that calpain is not responsible for their production. The similarity of the peptidomes of the three cell lines and the lack of correlation with the predicted cellular degradome implies the selective formation or retention of these peptides, consistent with the hypothesis that they are functional in the cells.
Project description:Herein we describe a strategy for degradomic-peptidomic analyses. The human blood peptidome was isolated through application of AC/SEC, which enriched its components by >300-fold. The isolated peptidome components were separated by long column HRLC providing a peak capacity of approximately 300 for species having MWs of up to 20 kDa. The separated species were identified by the FT MS/MS-UStags sequencing method. We identified >200 peptidome components that originated from 29 protein substrates from the blood plasma of a single healthy person. The peptidome peptides identified had MWs range of 0.5-14 kDa and identifications were achieved with extremely low (near zero) false discovery rates through searching the IPI human protein database (approximately 70,000 entries). Some of the peptidome peptides identified have mutations and modifications such as acetylation, acetylhexosamine, amidation, cysteinylation, didehydro, oxidation, and pyro-glu. The capabilities described enable the global analysis of the peptidome peptides to identify degradome targets such as degradome proteases, proteases inhibitors, and other relevant substrates, the cleavage specificities for the degradation of individual substrates, as well as a potential basis for using the various extents of substrate degradation for diagnostic purposes.
Project description:Peptides function as signaling molecules in species as diverse as humans and yeast. Mass spectrometry-based peptidomics techniques provide a relatively unbiased method to assess the peptidome of biological samples. In the present study, we used a quantitative peptidomic technique to characterize the peptidome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compare it to the peptidomes of mammalian cell lines and tissues. Altogether, 297 yeast peptides derived from 75 proteins were identified. The yeast peptides are similar to those of the human peptidome in average size and amino acid composition. Inhibition of proteasome activity with either bortezomib or epoxomicin led to decreased levels of some yeast peptides, suggesting that these peptides are generated by the proteasome. Approximately 30% of the yeast peptides correspond to the N- or C-terminus of the protein; the human peptidome is also highly represented in N- or C-terminal protein fragments. Most yeast and humans peptides are derived from a subset of abundant proteins, many with functions involving cellular metabolism or protein synthesis and folding. Of the 75 yeast proteins that give rise to peptides, 24 have orthologs that give rise to human and/or mouse peptides and for some, the same region of the proteins are found in the human, mouse, and yeast peptidomes. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that intracellular peptides may have specific and conserved biological functions.
Project description:Cancer invasion and metastasis are closely associated with activities within the degradome; however, little is known about whether these activities can be detected in the blood of cancer patients.The peptidome-degradome profiles of pooled blood plasma sampled from 15 breast cancer patients (BCP) and age, race, and menopausal status matched control healthy persons (HP) were globally characterized using advanced comprehensive separations combined with tandem Fourier transform mass spectrometry and new data analysis approaches that facilitated top-down peptidomic analysis. The BCP pool displayed 71 degradome protein substrates that encompassed 839 distinct peptidome peptides. In contrast, the HP 50 degradome substrates found encompassed 425 peptides. We find that the ratios of the peptidome peptide relative abundances can vary as much as >4000 fold between BCP and HP. The experimental results also show differential degradation of substrates in the BCP sample in their functional domains, including the proteolytic and inhibitory sites of the plasmin-antiplasmin and thrombin-antithrombin systems, the main chains of the extracellular matrix protection proteins, the excessive degradation of innate immune system key convertases and membrane attack complex components, as well as several other cancer suppressor proteins.Degradomics-peptidomics profiling of blood plasma is highly sensitive to changes not evidenced by conventional bottom-up proteomics and potentially provides unique signatures of possible diagnostic utility.
Project description:Snake venom proteomes/peptidomes are highly complex and maintenance of their integrity within the gland lumen is crucial for the expression of toxin activities. There has been considerable progress in the field of venom proteomics, however, peptidomics does not progress as fast, because of the lack of comprehensive venom sequence databases for analysis of MS data. Therefore, in many cases venom peptides have to be sequenced manually by MS/MS analysis or Edman degradation. This is critical for rare snake species, as is the case of Bothrops cotiara (BC) and B. fonsecai (BF), which are regarded as near threatened with extinction. In this study we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the venom peptidomes of BC, BF, and B. jararaca (BJ) using a combination of solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase HPLC to fractionate the peptides, followed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) or direct infusion electrospray ionization-(ESI)-MS/MS or MALDI-MS/MS analyses. We detected marked differences in the venom peptidomes and identified peptides ranging from 7 to 39 residues in length by de novo sequencing. Forty-four unique sequences were manually identified, out of which 30 are new peptides, including 17 bradykinin-potentiating peptides, three poly-histidine-poly-glycine peptides and interestingly, 10 L-amino acid oxidase fragments. Some of the new bradykinin-potentiating peptides display significant bradykinin potentiating activity. Automated database search revealed fragments from several toxins in the peptidomes, mainly from l-amino acid oxidase, and allowed the determination of the peptide bond specificity of proteinases and amino acid occurrences for the P4-P4' sites. We also demonstrate that the venom lyophilization/resolubilization process greatly increases the complexity of the peptidome because of the imbalance caused to the venom proteome and the consequent activity of proteinases on venom components. The use of proteinase inhibitors clearly showed different outcomes in the peptidome characterization and suggested that degradomic-peptidomic analysis of snake venoms is highly sensitive to the conditions of sampling procedures.
Project description:Mass spectrometry-based peptidomic approaches are powerful techniques to detect and identify the peptide content of biological samples. The present study investigated the limitations of peptidomic approaches using trimethylammonium butyrate isotopic tags to quantify relative peptide levels and Mascot searches to identify peptides. Data were combined from previous studies on human cell lines or mouse tissues. The combined databases contain 2155 unique peptides ranging in mass from 444 to 8765 Da, with the vast majority between 1 and 3 kDa. The amino acid composition of the identified peptides generally reflected the frequency in the Eukaryotic proteome with the exception of Cys, which was not present in any of the identified peptides in the free-SH form but was detected at low frequency as a disulfide with Cys residues, a disulfide with glutathione, or as S-cyanocysteine. To test if the low detection rate of peptides smaller than 500 Da, larger than 3 kDa, or containing Cys was a limitation of the peptidomics procedure, tryptic peptides of known proteins were processed for peptidomics using the same approach used for human cell lines and mouse tissues. The identified tryptic peptides ranged from 516 to 2418 Da, whereas the theoretical digest ranged from 217 to 7559 Da. Peptides with Cys were rarely detected and, if present, the Cys was usually modified S-cyanocysteine. Additionally, peptides with mono- and di-iodo Tyr and His were identified. Taken together, there are limitations of peptidomic techniques, and awareness of these limitations is important to properly use and interpret results. Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Little is known about the nature of post mortem degradation of proteins and peptides on a global level, the so-called degradome. This is especially true for nonneural tissues. Degradome properties in relation to sampling procedures on different tissues are of great importance for the studies of, for instance, post translational modifications and/or the establishment of clinical biobanks. Here, snap freezing of fresh (<2 min post mortem time) mouse liver and pancreas tissue is compared with rapid heat stabilization with regard to effects on the proteome (using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis) and peptidome (using label free liquid chromatography). We report several proteins and peptides that exhibit heightened degradation sensitivity, for instance superoxide dismutase in liver, and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and insulin C-peptides in pancreas. Tissue sampling based on snap freezing produces a greater amount of degradation products and lower levels of endogenous peptides than rapid heat stabilization. We also demonstrate that solely snap freezing related degradation can be attenuated by subsequent heat stabilization. We conclude that tissue sampling involving a rapid heat stabilization step is preferable to freezing with regard to proteomic and peptidomic sample quality.
Project description:Astrocytes play an active role in the modulation of synaptic transmission by releasing cell-cell signaling molecules in response to various stimuli that evoke a Ca2+ increase. We expand on recent studies of astrocyte intracellular and secreted proteins by examining the astrocyte peptidome in mouse astrocytic cell lines and rat primary cultured astrocytes, as well as those peptides secreted from mouse astrocytic cell lines in response to Ca2+-dependent stimulations. We identified 57 peptides derived from 24 proteins with LC-MS/MS and CE-MS/MS in the astrocytes. Among the secreted peptides, four peptides derived from elongation factor 1, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, peroxiredoxin-5, and galectin-1 were putatively identified by mass-matching to peptides confirmed to be found in astrocytes. Other peptides in the secretion study were mass-matched to those found in prior peptidomics analyses on mouse brain tissue. Complex peptide profiles were observed after stimulation, suggesting that astrocytes are actively involved in peptide secretion. Twenty-six peptides were observed in multiple stimulation experiments but not in controls and thus appear to be released in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These results can be used in future investigations to better understand stimulus-dependent mechanisms of astrocyte peptide secretion.
Project description:MHC class I peptides are products of endogenous cellular protein degradation. Their prompt presentation, after rapid degradation of their newly synthesized source proteins, is needed to alert the immune system during pathogen infection. A possible source for such rapidly degrading proteins can be defective ribosome products (DRiPs), which include polypeptides produced as part of the pioneer round of translation, premature translation termination, and proteins failing to fold properly or to assemble into their multisubunit protein complexes. However, the identities and relative contribution to the MHC peptidome of these mature or newly synthesized and rapidly degraded cellular proteins is not well understood. To clarify these issues, we used dynamic stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture to define the relative rates of synthesis of the HLA class I peptidomes and the source proteomes of three cultured human hematopoietic cell lines. Large numbers of HLA class I peptides were observed to be derived from DRiPs, defined here as HLA peptides that shift from their light to heavy isotope forms faster than their source proteins. Specific groups of proteins, such as ribosomal and T-complex protein 1 (TCP-1), contributed a disproportionately large number of DRiPs to the HLA peptidomes. Furthermore, no significant preference was observed for HLA peptides derived from the amino terminal regions of the proteins, suggesting that the contribution of products of premature translation termination was minimal. Thus, the most likely sources of DRiPs-derived HLA peptides are full-sized, misassembled, and surplus subunits of large protein complexes.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor with poor prognosis to most patients. Immunotherapy of GBM is a potentially beneficial treatment option, whose optimal implementation may depend on familiarity with tumor specific antigens, presented as HLA peptides by the GBM cells. Furthermore, early detection of GBM, such as by a routine blood test, may improve survival, even with the current treatment modalities. This study includes large-scale analyses of the HLA peptidome (immunopeptidome) of the plasma-soluble HLA molecules (sHLA) of 142 plasma samples, and the membranal HLA of GBM tumors of 10 of these patients' tumor samples. Tumor samples were fresh-frozen immediately after surgery and the plasma samples were collected before, and at multiple visits after surgery. In total, this HLA peptidome analysis involved 52 different HLA allotypes and resulted in the identification of more than 35,000 different HLA peptides. Strong correlations were observed in the signal intensities and in the repertoires of identified peptides between the tumors and plasma-soluble HLA peptidomes of the individual patients, whereas low correlations were observed between these HLA peptidomes and the tumors' proteomes. HLA peptides derived from Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) were selected based on their presence among the HLA peptidomes of the patients and absence of expression of their source genes from any healthy and essential human tissues, except from immune-privileged sites. Additionally, peptides were selected as potential biomarkers if their levels in the plasma-sHLA peptidome were significantly reduced after the removal of tumor mass. The CTAs identified among the analyzed HLA peptidomes provide new opportunities for personalized immunotherapy and for early diagnosis of GBM.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor with poor prognosis to most patients. Immunotherapy of GBM is a potentially beneficial treatment option, whose optimal implementation may depend on familiarity with tumor specific antigens, presented as HLA peptides by the GBM cells. Further, early detection of GBM, such as by a routine blood test, may improve survival, even with the current treatment modalities. This study includes large-scale analyses of the HLA peptidome (immunopeptidome) of the plasma-soluble HLA molecules (sHLA) of 142 plasma samples, and the membranal HLA of GBM tumors of 10 of these patients' tumor samples. Tumor samples were fresh-frozen immediately after surgery and the plasma samples were collected before, and at multiple visits after surgery. In total, this HLA peptidome analysis involved 52 different HLA allotypes and resulted in the identification of more than 35,000 different HLA peptides. Strong correlations were observed in the signal intensities and in the repertoires of identified peptides between the tumors and plasma-soluble HLA peptidomes of the individual patients, whereas low correlations were observed between these HLA peptidomes and the tumors' proteomes. HLA peptides derived from Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) were selected based on their presence among the HLA peptidomes of the patients and absence of expression of their source genes from any healthy and essential human tissues, except from immune-privileged sites. Additionally, peptides were selected as potential biomarkers if their levels in the plasma-sHLA peptidome were significantly reduced after the removal of tumor mass. The CTAs identified among the analyzed HLA peptidomes provide new opportunities for personalized immunotherapy and for early diagnosis of GBM.