Interplay of flavin's redox states and protein dynamics: an insight from QM/MM simulations of dihydronicotinamide riboside quinone oxidoreductase 2.
ABSTRACT: Dihydronicotinamide riboside quinone oxidoreductase 2 is known to catalyze a two-electron reduction of quinone to hydroquinone using its cofactor, flavin adenine dinucleotide. Using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, we have computed the reorganization free energies of the electron and proton transfer processes of flavin in the free state as well as when it is bound in the active site of the enzyme. The calculated energetics for electron transfer processes demonstrate that the enzyme active site lowers the reorganization energy for the redox process as compared to the enzyme-free aqueous state. This is most apparent in the two electron reduction step, which eliminates the possibility of flavosemiquinone generation. In addition, essential dynamics study of the simulated motions revealed spectacular changes in the principal components of atomic fluctuations upon reduction of flavin. This alteration of active site dynamics provides an insight into the "ping-pong" kinetics exhibited by the enzyme upon a change in the redox state of the enzyme-bound flavin. A charge perturbation analysis provides further support that the observed change in dynamics is correlated with the change in energetics due to the altered electrostatic interactions between the flavin ring and the active site residues. This study shows that the effect of electrostatic preorganization goes beyond the chemical catalysis as it strongly impacts the postcatalytic intrinsic protein dynamics.
Project description:Quinone reductases belong to the family of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases. With the redox active cofactor, flavin adenine dinucleotide, quinone reductases are known to utilize a 'ping-pong' kinetic mechanism during catalysis in which a hydride is bounced back and forth between flavin and its two substrates. However, the continuation of this catalytic cycle requires product displacement steps, where the product of one redox half-cycle is displaced by the substrate of the next half-cycle. Using improved hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, both the catalytic hydride transfer and the product displacement reactions were studied in NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2. Initially, the self-consistent charge-density functional tight binding theory was used to describe flavin ring and the substrate atoms, while embedded in the molecular mechanically-treated solvated active site. Then, for each step of the catalytic cycle, a further improvement of energetics was made using density functional theory-based corrections. The present study showcases an integrated interplay of solvation, protonation, and protein matrix-induced polarization as the driving force behind the thermodynamic wheel of the 'ping-pong' kinetics. Reported here is the first-principles model of the 'ping-pong' kinetics that portrays how cyclic changes in the active site polarization and dynamics govern the oscillatory hydride transfer and product displacement in this enzyme.
Project description:The flavin cofactor in photoenzyme photolyase and photoreceptor cryptochrome may exist in an oxidized state and should be converted into reduced state(s) for biological functions. Such redox changes can be efficiently achieved by photoinduced electron transfer (ET) through a series of aromatic residues in the enzyme. Here, we report our complete characterization of photoreduction dynamics of photolyase with femtosecond resolution. With various site-directed mutations, we identified all possible electron donors in the enzyme and determined their ET timescales. The excited cofactor behaves as an electron sink to draw electron flow from a series of encircling aromatic molecules in three distinct layers from the active site in the center to the protein surface. The dominant electron flow follows the conserved tryptophan triad in a hopping pathway across the layers with multiple tunneling steps. These ET dynamics occur ultrafast in less than 150 ps and are strongly coupled with local protein and solvent relaxations. The reverse electron flow from the flavin is slow and in the nanosecond range to ensure high reduction efficiency. With 12 experimentally determined elementary ET steps and 6 ET reaction pairs, the enzyme exhibits a distinct reduction-potential gradient along the same aromatic residues with favorable reorganization energies to drive a highly unidirectional electron flow toward the active-site center from the protein surface.
Project description:The development of non-natural photoenzymatic systems has reinvigorated the study of photoinduced electron transfer (ET) within protein active sites, providing new and unique platforms for understanding how biological environments affect photochemical processes. In this work, we use ultrafast spectroscopy to compare the photoinduced electron transfer in known photoenzymes. 12-Oxophytodienoate reductase 1 (OPR1) is compared to Old Yellow Enzyme 1 (OYE1) and morphinone reductase (MR). The latter enzymes are structurally homologous to OPR1. We find that slight differences in the amino acid composition of the active sites of these proteins determine their distinct electron-transfer dynamics. Our work suggests that the inside of a protein active site is a complex/heterogeneous dielectric network where genetically programmed heterogeneity near the site of biological ET can significantly affect the presence and lifetime of various intermediate states. Our work motivates additional tunability of Old Yellow Enzyme active-site reorganization energy and electron-transfer energetics that could be leveraged for photoenzymatic redox approaches.
Project description:Complex I functions as an initial electron acceptor in aerobic respiratory chains that reduces quinone and pumps protons across a biological membrane. This remarkable charge transfer process extends ca. 300 Å and it is initiated by a poorly understood proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and a protein-bound flavin (FMN) cofactor. We combine here large-scale density functional theory calculations and quantum/classical models with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to probe the energetics and dynamics of the NADH-driven PCET reaction in complex I. We find that the reaction takes place by concerted hydrogen atom (H•) transfer that couples to an electron transfer (eT) between the aromatic ring systems of the cofactors and further triggers reduction of the nearby FeS centers. In bacterial, Escherichia coli-like complex I isoforms, reduction of the N1a FeS center increases the binding affinity of the oxidized NAD+ that prevents the nucleotide from leaving prematurely. This electrostatic trapping could provide a protective gating mechanism against reactive oxygen species formation. We also find that proton transfer from the transient FMNH• to a nearby conserved glutamate (Glu97) residue favors eT from N1a onward along the FeS chain and modulates the binding of a new NADH molecule. The PCET in complex I isoforms with low-potential N1a centers is also discussed. On the basis of our combined results, we propose a putative mechanistic model for the NADH-driven proton/electron-transfer reaction in complex I.
Project description:The flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor has an unusual bent configuration in photolyase and cryptochrome, and such a folded structure may have a functional role in initial photochemistry. Using femtosecond spectroscopy, we report here our systematic characterization of cyclic intramolecular electron transfer (ET) dynamics between the flavin and adenine moieties of flavin adenine dinucleotide in four redox forms of the oxidized, neutral, and anionic semiquinone, and anionic hydroquinone states. By comparing wild-type and mutant enzymes, we have determined that the excited neutral oxidized and semiquinone states absorb an electron from the adenine moiety in 19 and 135 ps, whereas the excited anionic semiquinone and hydroquinone states donate an electron to the adenine moiety in 12 ps and 2 ns, respectively. All back ET dynamics occur ultrafast within 100 ps. These four ET dynamics dictate that only the anionic hydroquinone flavin can be the functional state in photolyase due to the slower ET dynamics (2 ns) with the adenine moiety and a faster ET dynamics (250 ps) with the substrate, whereas the intervening adenine moiety mediates electron tunneling for repair of damaged DNA. Assuming ET as the universal mechanism for photolyase and cryptochrome, these results imply anionic flavin as the more attractive form of the cofactor in the active state in cryptochrome to induce charge relocation to cause an electrostatic variation in the active site and then lead to a local conformation change to initiate signaling.
Project description:Proline utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli is a flavoprotein that has mutually exclusive roles as a transcriptional repressor of the put regulon and a membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate. Previous studies have shown that the binding of proline in the proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) active site and subsequent reduction of the FAD trigger global conformational changes that enhance PutA-membrane affinity. These events cause PutA to switch from its repressor to its enzymatic role, but the mechanism by which this signal is propagated from the active site to the distal membrane-binding domain is largely unknown. Here, it is shown that N-propargylglycine irreversibly inactivates PutA by covalently linking the flavin N(5) atom to the epsilon-amino of Lys329. Furthermore, inactivation locks PutA into a conformation that may mimic the proline-reduced, membrane-associated form. The 2.15 A resolution structure of the inactivated PRODH domain suggests that the initial events involved in broadcasting the reduced flavin state to the distal membrane-binding domain include major reorganization of the flavin ribityl chain, severe (35 degrees ) butterfly bending of the isoalloxazine ring, and disruption of an electrostatic network involving the flavin N(5) atom, Arg431, and Asp370. The structure also provides information about conformational changes associated with substrate binding. This analysis suggests that the active site is incompletely assembled in the absence of the substrate, and the binding of proline draws together conserved residues in helix 8 and the beta1-alphal loop to complete the active site.
Project description:Photolyases, a class of flavoproteins, use blue light to repair two types of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage, a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct (6-4PP). In this perspective, we review the recent progress in the repair dynamics and mechanisms of both types of DNA restoration by photolyases. We first report the spectroscopic characterization of flavin in various redox states and the active-site solvation dynamics in photolyases. We then systematically summarize the detailed repair dynamics of damaged DNA by photolyases and a biomimetic system through resolving all elementary steps on ultrafast timescales, including multiple intermolecular electron- and proton-transfer reactions and bond-breaking and -making processes. We determined the unique electron tunneling pathways, identified the key functional residues and revealed the molecular origin of high repair efficiency, and thus elucidate the molecular mechanisms and repair photocycles at the most fundamental level. We finally conclude that the active sites of photolyases, unlike the aqueous solution for the biomimetic system, provide a unique electrostatic environment and local flexibility and thus a dedicated synergy for all elementary dynamics to maximize the repair efficiency. This repair photomachine is the first enzyme that the entire functional evolution is completely mapped out in real time.
Project description:Pyranose dehydrogenases (PDHs) are extracellular flavin-dependent oxidoreductases secreted by litter-decomposing fungi with a role in natural recycling of plant matter. All major monosaccharides in lignocellulose are oxidized by PDH at comparable yields and efficiencies. Oxidation takes place as single-oxidation or sequential double-oxidation reactions of the carbohydrates, resulting in sugar derivatives oxidized primarily at C2, C3 or C2/3 with the concomitant reduction of the flavin. A suitable electron acceptor then reoxidizes the reduced flavin. Whereas oxygen is a poor electron acceptor for PDH, several alternative acceptors, e.g., quinone compounds, naturally present during lignocellulose degradation, can be used. We have determined the 1.6-Å crystal structure of PDH from Agaricus meleagris. Interestingly, the flavin ring in PDH is modified by a covalent mono- or di-atomic species at the C(4a) position. Under normal conditions, PDH is not oxidized by oxygen; however, the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) activates oxygen by a mechanism that proceeds via a covalent flavin C(4a)-hydroperoxide intermediate. Although the flavin C(4a) adduct is common in monooxygenases, it is unusual for flavoprotein oxidases, and it has been proposed that formation of the intermediate would be unfavorable in these oxidases. Thus, the flavin adduct in PDH not only shows that the adduct can be favorably accommodated in the active site, but also provides important details regarding the structural, spatial and physicochemical requirements for formation of this flavin intermediate in related oxidases. Extensive in silico modeling of carbohydrates in the PDH active site allowed us to rationalize the previously reported patterns of substrate specificity and regioselectivity. To evaluate the regioselectivity of D-glucose oxidation, reduction experiments were performed using fluorinated glucose. PDH was rapidly reduced by 3-fluorinated glucose, which has the C2 position accessible for oxidation, whereas 2-fluorinated glucose performed poorly (C3 accessible), indicating that the glucose C2 position is the primary site of attack.
Project description:Type-II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane proteins involved in respiratory chains and the only enzymes with NADH:quinone oxidoreductase activity expressed in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of the most common causes of clinical infections. NDH-2s are members of the two-Dinucleotide Binding Domains Flavoprotein (tDBDF) superfamily, having a flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, as prosthetic group and NAD(P)H as substrate. The establishment of a Charge-Transfer Complex (CTC) between the isoalloxazine ring of the reduced flavin and the nicotinamide ring of NAD+ in NDH-2 was described, and in this work we explored its role in the kinetic mechanism using different electron donors and electron acceptors. We observed that CTC slows down the rate of the second half reaction (quinone reduction) and determines the effect of HQNO, an inhibitor. Also, protonation equilibrium simulations clearly indicate that the protonation probability of an important residue for proton transfer to the active site (D302) is influenced by the presence of the CTC. We propose that CTC is critical for the overall mechanism of NDH-2 and possibly relevant to keep a low quinol/quinone ratio and avoid excessive ROS production in vivo.
Project description:In many bacteria the flavoenzyme thymidylate synthase ThyX produces the DNA nucleotide deoxythymidine monophosphate from dUMP, using methylenetetrahydrofolate as carbon donor and NADPH as hydride donor. Because all three substrates bind in close proximity to the catalytic flavin adenine dinucleotide group, substantial flexibility of the ThyX active site has been hypothesized. Using femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we have studied the conformational heterogeneity and the conformational interconversion dynamics in real time in ThyX from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. The dynamics of electron transfer to excited flavin adenine dinucleotide from a neighboring tyrosine residue are used as a sensitive probe of the functional dynamics of the active site. The fluorescence decay spanned a full three orders of magnitude, demonstrating a very wide range of conformations. In particular, at physiological temperatures, multiple angstrom cofactor-residue displacements occur on the picoseconds timescale. These experimental findings are supported by molecular dynamics simulations. Binding of the dUMP substrate abolishes this flexibility and stabilizes the active site in a configuration where dUMP closely interacts with the flavin cofactor and very efficiently quenches fluorescence itself. Our results indicate a dynamic selected-fit mechanism where binding of the first substrate dUMP at high temperature stabilizes the enzyme in a configuration favorable for interaction with the second substrate NADPH, and more generally have important implications for the role of active site flexibility in enzymes interacting with multiple poly-atom substrates and products. Moreover, our data provide the basis for exploring the effect of inhibitor molecules on the active site dynamics of ThyX and other multisubstrate flavoenzymes.