Nitration of iron corrolates: further evidence for non-innocence of the corrole ligand.
ABSTRACT: Mono- and di-substituted ?-nitro derivatives have been obtained from the reaction of ttcorrFeCl with sodium nitrite in refluxing DMF. This result is unprecedented for iron corrolates and further evidences the non-innocent character of the corrole ligand.
Project description:Sulfonated gallium(III) corroles are intensely fluorescent macrocyclic compounds that spontaneously assemble with carrier proteins to undergo cell entry. We report in vivo imaging and therapeutic efficacy of a tumor-targeted corrole noncovalently assembled with a heregulin-modified protein directed at the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER). Systemic delivery of this protein-corrole complex results in tumor accumulation, which can be visualized in vivo owing to intensely red corrole fluorescence. Targeted delivery in vivo leads to tumor cell death while normal tissue is spared. These findings contrast with the effects of doxorubicin, which can elicit cardiac damage during therapy and required direct intratumoral injection to yield similar levels of tumor shrinkage compared with the systemically delivered corrole. The targeted complex ablated tumors at >5 times a lower dose than untargeted systemic doxorubicin, and the corrole did not damage heart tissue. Complexes remained intact in serum and the carrier protein elicited no detectable immunogenicity. The sulfonated gallium(III) corrole functions both for tumor detection and intervention with safety and targeting advantages over standard chemotherapeutic agents.
Project description:Recent work has highlighted the potential of metallocorroles as versatile platforms for the development of drugs and imaging agents, since the bioavailability, physicochemical properties and therapeutic activity can be dramatically altered by metal ion substitution and/or functional group replacement. Significant advances in cancer treatment and imaging have been reported based on work with a water-soluble bis-sulfonated gallium corrole in both cellular and rodent-based models. We now show that cytotoxicities increase in the order Ga?<?Fe?<?Al?<?Mn?<?Sb?<?Au for bis-sulfonated corroles; and, importantly, that they correlate with metallocorrole affinities for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), the main carrier of lipophilic drugs. As chemotherapeutic potential is predicted to be enhanced by increased lipophilicity, we have developed a novel method for the preparation of cell-penetrating lipophilic metallocorrole/serum-protein nanoparticles (NPs). Cryo-TEM revealed an average core metallocorrole particle size of 32?nm, with protein tendrils extending from the core (conjugate size is ~100?nm). Optical imaging of DU-145 prostate cancer cells treated with corrole NPs (?100?nM) revealed fast cellular uptake, very slow release, and distribution into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. The physical properties of corrole NPs prepared in combination with transferrin and albumin were alike, but the former were internalized to a greater extent by the transferrin-receptor-rich DU-145 cells. Our method of preparation of corrole/protein NPs may be generalizable to many bioactive hydrophobic molecules to enhance their bioavailability and target affinity.
Project description:Development of novel therapeutic strategies to eradicate malignant tumors is of paramount importance in cancer research. In a recent study, we have introduced a facile protocol for the preparation of corrole-protein nanoparticles (NPs). These NPs consist of a corrole-core coated with protein. We now report that a novel lipophilic corrole, (2)Ga, delivered as human serum albumin (HSA)-coated NPs, displayed antineoplastic activity towards human prostate cancer DU-145 cells. Cryo-TEM analysis of these NPs revealed an average diameter of 50.2?±?8.1?nm with a spherical architecture exhibiting low polydispersity. In vitro cellular uptake of (2)Ga/albumin NPs was attributable to rapid internalization of the corrole through ligand binding-dependent extracellular release and intercalation of the corrole cargo into the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. This finding is in contrast with a previously reported study on corrole-protein NPs that displayed cellular uptake via endocytosis. Investigation of the non-light-induced mechanism of action of (2)Ga suggested the induction of necrosis through plasma membrane destabilization, impairment of calcium homeostasis, lysosomal stress and rupture, as well as formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (2)Ga also exhibited potent light-induced cytotoxicity through ROS generation. These findings demonstrate a rapid cellular uptake of (2)Ga/protein NPs along with targeted induction of tumor cell necrosis.
Project description:HerGa is a self-assembled tumor-targeted particle that bears both tumor detection and elimination activities in a single, two-component complex (Agadjanian et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2009, 106, 6105-6110). Given its multifunctionality, HerGa (composed of the fluorescent cytotoxic corrole macrocycle, S2Ga, noncovalently bound to the tumor-targeted cell penetration protein, HerPBK10) has the potential for high clinical impact, but its mechanism of cell killing remains to be elucidated, and hence is the focus of the present study. Here we show that HerGa requires HerPBK10-mediated cell entry to induce toxicity. HerGa (but not HerPBK10 or S2Ga alone) induced mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and superoxide elevation, which were both prevented by endosomolytic-deficient mutants, indicating that cytosolic exposure is necessary for corrole-mediated cell death. A novel property discovered here is that corrole fluorescence lifetime acts as a pH indicator, broadcasting the intracellular microenvironmental pH during uptake in live cells. This feature in combination with two-photon imaging shows that HerGa undergoes early endosome escape during uptake, avoiding compartments of pH < 6.5. Cytoskeletal disruption accompanied HerGa-mediated mitochondrial changes whereas oxygen scavenging reduced both events. Paclitaxel treatment indicated that HerGa uptake requires dynamic microtubules. Unexpectedly, low pH is insufficient to induce release of the corrole from HerPBK10. Altogether, these studies identify a mechanistic pathway in which early endosomal escape enables HerGa-induced superoxide generation leading to cytoskeletal and mitochondrial damage, thus triggering downstream cell death.
Project description:A carboxyphenyl-substituted corrole, 5,15-dimesityl-10-(4'-carboxyphenyl)corrole (1), has been synthesized and characterized by UV-vis, fluorescence, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. An air-stable corrole radical (1•) was obtained with the addition of the Fe(III) salt to 1 in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and characterized by UV-vis, fluorescence, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), ESI-MS techniques, and density functional theory studies. The neutral corrole radical (1•) exhibited a sharp EPR signal at g = 2.006 in DMSO. The reduced bipyrrolic (N-C-C-N) dihedral angle (?) of 1 from 19.11 to 7.07° leads to the release of angle strain, which is the driving force for the generation of 1•. Notably, trans-dimesityl groups prevent the dimerization or aggregation of the corrole radical. Further, 1• was converted to 1 by excess addition of Fe(II) salts in DMSO at 298 K.
Project description:The first synthesis of anion capped cerium corrole complexes is reported. Unusual clustering of the lanthanide corrole units has been found and the degree of aggregation can be controlled by the choice of the capping ligand. A polymeric structure 1a, with the general formula [Cor-Ce(THF)-Cp-Na]n (Cor = 5,15-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-10-(4 methoxyphenyl)-corrole, THF = tetrahydrofuran), is formed using sodium cyclopentadienide (NaCp) and a dimeric structure 2a, with the general formula [Cor-Ce-Tp]2, is formed when potassium tris(pyrazolyl)borate (KTp) is used. Encapsulation of the counter-cation leads to the isolation of the monomeric structures 1b and 2b, with the general formulas [AM(2.2.2-cryptand)][Cor-Cp-X] (AM = Na or K, X = Cp or Tp). The structural and spectroscopic properties of the complexes have been investigated.
Project description:Electrochemical conversion of CO2 to alcohols is one of the most challenging methods of conversion and storage of electrical energy in the form of high-energy fuels. The challenge lies in the catalyst design to enable its real-life implementation. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of a cobalt(III) triphenylphosphine corrole complex, which contains three polyethylene glycol residues attached at the meso-phenyl groups. Electron-donation and therefore reduction of the cobalt from cobalt(III) to cobalt(I) is accompanied by removal of the axial ligand, thus resulting in a square-planar cobalt(I) complex. The cobalt(I) as an electron-rich supernucleophilic d8-configurated metal centre, where two electrons occupy and fill up the antibonding dz2 orbital. This orbital possesses high affinity towards electrophiles, allowing for such electronically configurated metals reactions with carbon dioxide. Herein, we report the potential dependent heterogeneous electroreduction of CO2 to ethanol or methanol of an immobilized cobalt A3-corrole catalyst system. In moderately acidic aqueous medium (pH = 6.0), the cobalt corrole modified carbon paper electrode exhibits a Faradaic Efficiency (FE%) of 48 % towards ethanol production.
Project description:Photodisproportionation of a bis-corrole-diiron(IV)-mu-oxo dimer gave a corrole-iron(III) species and a corrole-iron(V)-oxo species that can be detected and studied in real time. Air oxidation of the corrole-iron(III) species regenerated the bis-corrole-diiron(IV)-mu-oxo dimer, allowing the development of a photocatalytic method for organic oxidations using molecular oxygen and visible light.
Project description:Several procedures for the demetalation of silver(III) corrolates have been tested. Acidic conditions induce removal of the silver ion but they can also promote concomitant oxidation of the corrole nucleus to an isocorrole species, the degree of which will depend upon the specific acidic media. This oxidation cannot be completely avoided by addition of hydrazine, particularly in the case of 3-NO(2) substituted complexes which are quantitatively converted into the corresponding 3-NO(2), 5-hydroxy isocorroles upon silver ion removal. Several beta-nitro isocorrole products were isolated, and one was structurally characterized. Electrochemical and chemical reductive methods for silver(III) corrolates demetalation were then tested with the aim to avoid the formation of isocorroles. While reaction with sodium borohydride was shown to be quite effective to demetalate unsubstituted silver corrolates this was not the case for the beta-nitro derivatives where the peripheral nitro group is reduced by borohydride giving the corresponding 3-amino free base corrole species. For the beta-nitro corrole silver complexes, a successful approach was obtained using DBU/THF solutions which afforded the 3-NO(2) corrole free-base compound as a single reaction product in good yield. These conditions were also effective for unsubstituted corroles although longer reaction times were necessary in this case. To study in greater detail the corrole demetalation behavior, selected Ag(III) derivatives were characterized by cyclic voltammetry in pyridine, and the demetalation products spectrally characterized after controlled potential reduction in a thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell.
Project description:The cooperative catalytic activity of several metal corrole complexes in combination with tetrabutyl-ammonium bromide (TBAB) has been investigated for the reaction of epoxides with CO2 leading to cyclic carbonates. It was found that the use of just 0.05?mol?% of a manganese(III)corrole with 2?mol?% TBAB exhibits excellent catalytic activity under an atmosphere of CO2 .