An efficient synthesis of ?-hydroxy-?,?-unsaturated aldehydic esters of 2-lysophosphatidylcholine.
ABSTRACT: The diverse biological activities of ?-hydroxyalkenal phospholipids and their involvement in disease are the subject of intense study. Phospholipid aldehydes, such as the 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid ester of 2-lyso-phosphatidylcholine (HOHA-PC), the 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoic acid ester of 2-lyso-PC (HOOA-PC), and the 9-hydroxy-12-oxododec-10-enoic acid ester of 2-lyso-PC (HODA-PC), are generated by oxidative cleavage of polyunsaturated fatty acyl phospholipids. To facilitate investigations of their chemistry and biology, we now report efficient total synthesis of HOOA, HODA, and HOHA phospholipids. Because the target ?-hydroxyalkenals readily decompose through oxidation of the aldehyde group to a carboxylic acid or through cyclization to furans, these synthesis generate the sensitive functional array of the target phospholipids under mild conditions from acetal derivatives that are suitable for long-term storage.
Project description:Oxidative stress causes lipid-derived oxidative modification of biomolecules that has been implicated in many pathological states. Phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are major targets of free radical-initiated oxidation. Phospholipids that incorporate docosahexaenoate (DHA) are highly enriched in important neural structures including the brain and retina, where DHA comprises 40% and 60% of total fatty acids, respectively. Oxidative fragmentation of 2-docosahexaenoyl-1-palmityl-sn-glycerophosphocholine generates esters of 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (HOHA) and 4-keto-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (KOHA) with 2-lysophosphatidylcholine, HOHA-PC, and KOHA-PC. Covalent HOHA adducts that incorporate the primary amino groups of proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids in carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) derivatives were detected immunologically with anti-CEP antibodies in human tumors, retina, and blood. Now, we generated an anti-OHdiA antibody to test the hypothesis that KOHA adducts, which incorporate the primary amino groups of proteins or ethanolamine phospholipids in 4-oxo-heptanedioic (OHdiA) monoamide derivatives, are present in vivo. However, whereas the anti-CEP antibody is highly specific and does not cross-react with the OHdiA monoamide epitope, the anti-OHdiA monoamide antibody cross-reacted with CEP epitopes making it of little value as an analytical tool for OHdiA monoamides but suggesting the possibility that OHdiA monoamides would exhibit receptor-mediated biological activity similar to that of CEP. An LC-MS/MS method was developed that allows quantification of OHdiA derivatives in biological samples. We now find that KOHA-PC forms OHdiA monoamide adducts of proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids and that OHdiA-protein levels are significantly higher than OHdiA-ethanloamine phospholipid levels in blood from healthy human subjects, 0.45 ?M and 0.18 ?M, respectively (n = 3, and p = 0.027). OHdiA monoamide epitopes are angiogenic, causing TLR2-dependent adhesion and tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. OHdiA monoamide epitopes are only slightly less potent than CEP epitopes that contribute to the pathological angiogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and tumor growth.
Project description:Oxidative cleavage of docosahexaenoate (DHA) in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (HOHA) esters of 2-lysophosphatidylcholine (PC). HOHA-PC spontaneously releases a membrane-permeant HOHA lactone that modifies primary amino groups of proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids to produce 2-(?-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives. CEPs have significant pathological relevance to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) including activation of CEP-specific T-cells leading to inflammatory M1 polarization of macrophages in the retina involved in "dry AMD" and TLR2-dependent induction of angiogenesis that characterizes "wet AMD". RPE cells accumulate DHA from shed rod photoreceptor outer segments through phagocytosis and from plasma lipoproteins secreted by the liver through active uptake from the choriocapillaris. As a cell model of light-induced oxidative damage of DHA phospholipids in RPE cells, ARPE-19?cells were supplemented with DHA, with or without the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E. In this model, light exposure, in the absence of A2E, promoted the generation HOHA lactone-glutathione (GSH) adducts, depletion of intracellular GSH and a competing generation of CEPs. While DHA-rich RPE cells exhibit an inherent proclivity toward light-induced oxidative damage, photosensitization by A2E nearly doubled the amount of lipid oxidation and expanded the spectral range of photosensitivity to longer wavelengths. Exposure of ARPE-19?cells to 1??M HOHA lactone for 24?h induced massive (50%) loss of lysosomal membrane integrity and caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Using senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) staining that detects lysosomal ?-galactosidase, we determined that exposure to HOHA lactone induces senescence in ARPE-19?cells. The present study shows that products of light-induced oxidative damage of DHA phospholipids in the absence of A2E can lead to RPE cell dysfunction. Therefore, their toxicity may be especially important in the early stages of AMD before RPE cells accumulate lipofuscin fluorophores.
Project description:Often guided by analogy with nonphospholipid products from oxidative cleavage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, we previously identified a variety of biologically active oxidatively truncated phospholipids. Previously, 4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal (4,5-EDE) was found to be produced by oxidative cleavage of 13-(S)-hydroperoxy-9,11-(Z,E)-octadeca-dienoic acid (13-HPODE). 4,5-EDE reacts with deoxy-adenosine (dAdo) and deoxy-guanosine (dGuo) to form mutagenic etheno derivatives. We hypothesized that a functionally similar and potentially mutagenic compound, that is, 13-oxo-9,10-epoxytridecenoic acid (OETA), would be generated from 9-HPODE through an analogous fragmentation. We expected that an ester of 2-lysophosphatidylcoline (PC), OETA-PC, would be produced by oxidative cleavage of 9-HPODE-PC in biological membranes. An efficient, unambiguous total synthesis of trans-OETA-PC was first executed to provide a standard that could facilitate the identification of this phospholipid epoxyalkenal that was shown to be produced during oxidation of the linoleic acid ester of 2-lysoPC. Finally, trans-OETA-PC was detected in a lipid extract from rat retina. The identity of the naturally occurring oxidatively truncated phospholipid was further confirmed by derivatization with methoxylamine that produced characteristic mono and bis adducts. The average amount of trans-OETA-PC in rat retina, 0.33 pmol, is relatively low as compared to other oxidatively truncated PCs, for example, the 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid PC ester (2.5 pmol) or the 4-keto-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid PC ester (1.7 pmol), derived from the docosahexaenoic acid ester of 2-lysoPC. This, most likely, is because docosahexaenoate PCs are particularly abundant in the retina as compared to the linoleate PC ester precursor of OETA-PC. As predicted by analogy with 4,5-EDE, OETA-PC reacts with dAdo and dGuo, as well as with DNA, to form mutagenic etheno adducts.
Project description:2-(?-Carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of proteins were previously shown to have significant pathological and physiological relevance to age-related macular degeneration, cancer and wound healing. Previously, we showed that CEPs are generated in the reaction of ?-amino groups of protein lysyl residues with 1-palmityl-2-(4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (HOHA-PC), a lipid oxidation product uniquely generated by oxidative truncation of docosahexanenate-containing phosphatidylcholine. More recently, we found that HOHA-PC rapidly releases HOHA-lactone and 2-lyso-PC (t1/2 = 30 min at 37 °C) by nonenzymatic transesterification/deacylation. Now we report that HOHA-lactone reacts with Ac-Gly-Lys-OMe or human serum albumin to form CEP derivatives in vitro. Incubation of human red blood cell ghosts with HOHA-lactone generates CEP derivatives of membrane proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids. Quantitative analysis of the products generated in the reaction HOHA-PC with Ac-Gly-Lys-OMe showed that HOHA-PC mainly forms CEP-dipeptide that is not esterified to 2-lysophosphatidycholine. Thus, the HOHA-lactone pathway predominates over the direct reaction of HOHA-PC to produce the CEP-PC-dipeptide derivative. Myleoperoxidase/H2O2/NO2(-) promoted in vitro oxidation of either 1-palmityl-2-docosahexaneoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) generates HOHA-lactone in yields of 0.45% and 0.78%, respectively. Lipid oxidation in human red blood cell ghosts also releases HOHA-lactone. Oxidative injury of ARPE-19 human retinal pigmented epithelial cells by exposure to H2O2 generated CEP derivatives. Treatment of ARPE-19 cells with HOHA-lactone generated CEP-modified proteins. Low (submicromolar), but not high, concentrations of HOHA-lactone promote increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by ARPE-19 cells. Therefore, HOHA-lactone not only serves as an intermediate for the generation of CEPs but also is a biologically active oxidative truncation product from docosahexaenoate lipids.
Project description:The oxidative degradation of plasmalogen (alkenylacyl) phospholipids was analysed in the absence and the presence of polyunsaturated ester phospholipids by 1H-NMR and by chemical determination. Brain lysoplasmenylethanolamine (lyso-P-PE), brain P-PE and erythrocyte P-PE, containing an increasing number of intrachain double bonds at sn2, were oxidized with 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH; 2 or 10 mM) in Triton X-100 micelles (detergent/phospholipid 1:5, mol/mol). The formation of two peroxyl radicals was accompanied by the degradation of approx. one molecule of brain lyso-P-PE. On oxidation of brain P-PE or erythrocyte P-PE (320 nmol) with 2 mM AAPH, the (alpha-vinyl) methine 1H signal of the enol ether decreased more rapidly than the methine proton peak of intrachain double bonds. The rate of enol ether degradation increased in the order: erythrocyte P-PE>brain P-PE>brain lyso-P-PE. The disappearance of the polyunsaturated ester phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:2-PC) (100 nmol), as induced by 10 mM AAPH, was nearly completely inhibited by the plasmalogens (25 nmol) in the first 30 and 60 min of incubation respectively, and was delayed at later time points. Plasmalogens and vitamin E (4-25 nmol) mitigated the decreases in 16:0/[3H]20:4-PC (100 nmol) induced by 2 mM AAPH in a similar manner. The initial rate of degradation of intrachain double bonds of 16:0/20:4-PC and 16:0/18:2-PC (320 nmol; 2 mM AAPH) was decreased by 59% and 81% respectively in the presence of 80 nmol of brain lyso-P-PE. In conclusion, plasmalogens markedly delay the oxidative degradation of intrachain double bonds under in vitro conditions. Interactions of enol ether double bonds with initiating peroxyl radicals as well as with products generated by prior oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids are proposed to be responsible for this capacity of plasmalogens. Furthermore, the products of enol ether oxidation apparently do not propagate the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Project description:Chylomicron output by the intestine is proportional to intestinal phosphatidylcholine (PC) delivery. Using five different variations of PC delivery to the intestine, we found that lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), the absorbed form of PC, concentrations in the cytosol (0 to 0.45 nM) were proportional to the input rate. The activity of protein kinase C (PKC)?, which controls prechylomicron output rate by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), correlated with the lyso-PC concentration suggesting that it may be a PKC? activator. Using recombinant PKC?, the Km for lyso-PC activation was 1.49 nM and the Vmax 1.12 nM, more than the maximal lyso-PC concentration in cytosol, 0.45 nM. Among the phospholipids and their lyso derivatives, lyso-PC was the most potent activator of PKC? and the only one whose cytosolic concentration suggested that it could be a physiological activator because other phospholipid concentrations were negligible. PKC? was on the surface of the dietary fatty acid transport vesicle, the caveolin-1-containing endocytic vesicle. Once activated, PKC?, eluted off the vesicle. A conformational change in PKC? on activation was suggested by limited proteolysis. We conclude that PKC? on activation changes its conformation resulting in elution from its vesicle. The downstream effect of dietary PC is to activate PKC?, resulting in greater chylomicron output by the ER.
Project description:Oxidation of docosahexaenoate phospholipids produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxo-hept-5-eonyl phospholipids (HOHA-PLs) that react with protein lysyl ?-amino residues to generate 2-?-carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) derivatives, endogenous factors that induce angiogenesis in the retina and tumors. It seemed likely, but remained unproven, that HOHA-PLs react with ethanolamine phospholipids (EPs) in vivo to generate CEP-EPs. We now show that CEP-EPs are present in human blood at 4.6-fold higher levels in age-related macular degeneration plasma than in normal plasma. We also show that CEP-EPs are pro-angiogenic, inducing tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells by activating Toll-like receptor 2. CEP-EP levels may be a useful biomarker for clinical assessment of AMD risk and CEP-associated tumor progression and a tool for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.
Project description:The generation of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins has been linked to vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions. Products of phospholipid oxidation increase endothelial activation; however, their effects on macrophages are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether these effects are regulated by the biochemical pathways that metabolize oxidized phospholipids. We found that incubation of 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) with THP-1-derived macrophages upregulated the expression of cytokine genes, including granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-8. In these cells, reagent POVPC was either hydrolyzed to lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) or reduced to 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-hydroxy-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PHVPC). Treatment with the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitor, pefabloc, decreased POVPC hydrolysis and increased PHVPC accumulation. Pefabloc also increased the induction of cytokine genes in POVPC-treated cells. In contrast, PHVPC accumulation and cytokine production were decreased upon treatment with the aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor, tolrestat. In comparison with POVPC, lyso-PC led to 2- to 3-fold greater and PHVPC 10- to 100-fold greater induction of cytokine genes. POVPC-induced cytokine gene induction was prevented in bone-marrow derived macrophages from AR-null mice. These results indicate that although hydrolysis is the major pathway of metabolism, reduction further increases the proinflammatory responses to POVPC. Thus, vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions is likely to be regulated by metabolism of phospholipid aldehydes in macrophages.
Project description:Many of the pathological effects of lipid peroxidation are mediated by aldehydes generated through fragmentation of lipid peroxides. Among these aldehydes, the ?-hydroxy- and ?-oxo-?,?-alkenals, e.g., 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), are especially prone to modifying proteins and DNA through covalent adduction. In addition the "mirror image" ?-hydroxy- and ?-oxo-?,?-alkenal phospholipids can serve as high-affinity ligands for biological receptors triggering pathology. Therefore, the mechanisms by which these aldehydes are generated in vivo are under intense scrutiny. We now report observations supporting the intermediacy of a unique pseudo-symmetrical diepoxycarbinyl radical that accounts for the coproduction of HNE, ONE, and their mirror image analogues 9-hydroxy-12-oxo-10(E)-dodecenoic acid and 9-keto-12-oxo-10-dodecenoic acid upon fragmentation of 13-hydroperoxy-cis-9,10-epoxyoctadeca-11-enoic acid.
Project description:Ca(2+)-independent lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is a member of the phospholipase A(2) superfamily with a distinguishing characteristic of high specificity for oxidatively modified sn-2 fatty acid residues in phospholipids that has been especially well characterized for peroxidized species of phosphatidylcholines (PC). The ability of Lp-PLA(2) to hydrolyze peroxidized species of phosphatidylserine (PS), acting as a recognition signal for clearance of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes, as well as the products of the reaction has not been investigated. We performed liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry-based structural characterization of oxygenated, hydrolyzed molecular species of PS-containing linoleic acid in either the sn-2 position (C(18:0)/C(18:2)) or in both sn-1 and sn-2 positions (C(18:2)/C(18:2)), formed in the cytochrome c- and H(2)O(2)-driven enzymatic oxidation reaction. Cytochrome c has been chosen as a catalyst of peroxidation reactions because of its likely involvement in PS oxidation in apoptotic cells. We found that Lp-PLA(2) catalyzed the hydrolysis of both nontruncated and truncated (oxidatively fragmented) species of oxidized PS species, albeit with different efficiencies, and performed detailed characterization of the major reaction products: oxygenated derivatives of linoleic acid as well as nonoxygenated and oxygenated species of lyso-PS. Among linoleic acid products, derivatives oxygenated at the C(9) position, including 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), a potent ligand of G protein-coupled receptor G2A, were the most abundant. Computer modeling of interactions of Lp-PLA(2) with different PS-oxidized species indicated that they are able to bind in the proximity (<5 Å) of Ser273 and His351 of the catalytic triad. For 9-hydroxy and 9-hydroperoxy derivatives of oxidized PS, the sn-2 ester bond was positioned very close (<3 Å) to the Ser273 residue, a nucleophile directly attacking the sn-2 bond, thus favoring the hydrolysis reaction. We suggest that oxidatively modified free fatty acids and lyso-PS species generated by Lp-PLA(2) may represent important signals facilitating and regulating the execution of apoptotic and phagocytosis programs essential for the control of inflammation.