Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence?
ABSTRACT: Complete parenteral nutrition solutions contain mixed amino acid products providing all nine essential amino acids and a varying composition of nonessential amino acids. Relatively little rigorous comparative efficacy research on altered parenteral nutrition amino acid composition has been published in recent years.Limited data from randomized, double-blind, adequately powered clinical trials to define optimal doses of total or individual amino acids in parenteral nutrition are available. An exception is the growing number of studies on the efficacy of glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition or given as a single parenteral agent. Parenteral glutamine appears to confer benefit in selected patients; however, additional data to define optimal glutamine dosing and the patient subgroups who may most benefit from this amino acid are needed. Although some promising studies have been published, little data are available in the current era of nutrition support on the clinical efficacy of altered doses of arginine, branched chain amino acids, cysteine, or taurine supplementation of parenteral nutrition.Despite routine use of parenteral nutrition, surprisingly little clinical efficacy data are available to guide total or specific amino acid dosing in adult and pediatric patients requiring this therapy. This warrants increased attention by the research community and funding agencies to better define optimal amino acid administration strategies in patient subgroups requiring parenteral nutrition.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Clinical benefits of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition may occur in hospitalized surgical patients, but efficacy data in different surgical subgroups are lacking. The objective was to determine whether glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition differentially affects nosocomial infection rates in selected subgroups of SICU patients. METHODS:This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition in SICU patients requiring parenteral nutrition and SICU care after surgery for pancreatic necrosis, cardiac, vascular, or colonic surgery. Subjects (n = 59) received isocaloric/isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition, providing 1.5 g/kg/d standard glutamine-free amino acids (STD-PN) or 1.0 g/kg/d standard amino acids + 0.5 g/kg/d glutamine dipeptide (GLN-PN). Enteral feedings were advanced as tolerated. Nosocomial infections were determined until hospital discharge. RESULTS:Baseline clinical/metabolic data were similar between groups. Plasma glutamine concentrations were low in all groups and were increased by GLN-PN. GLN-PN did not alter infection rates after pancreatic necrosis surgery (17 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN patients). In nonpancreatic surgery patients (12 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN), GLN-PN was associated with significantly decreased total nosocomial infections (STD-PN 36 vs GLN-PN 13, P < .030), bloodstream infections (7 vs 0, P < .01), pneumonias (16 vs 6, P < .05), and infections attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01), fungi, and enteric Gram-negative bacteria (each P < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition did not alter infection rates following pancreatic necrosis surgery but significantly decreased infections in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular, and colonic surgery.
Project description:Standard parenteral nutrition solutions are mixtures comprising interacting components that may degrade themselves over time. The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological stability of a hospital preparation for parenteral nutrition in neonatology. The analyses were performed throughout the storage of the preparations at 2-8?°C (up to 4 months). The extent of stability was based on the determination of amino acids dosage, visual and physicochemical properties (glucose and electrolytes concentrations, pH and osmolality measurements, particle counting) and microbiological analysis (sterility test). A thermal degradation of ascorbic acid was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the parenteral mixture. Physicochemical and microbiological controls were found to comply with the specifications. Amino acids showed a good stability throughout the 4months storage except for cysteine, which was progressively degraded to cystine, conferring a yellow coloration to parenteral solutions. Parenteral nutrition standards solutions remain stable for 4 months at 2-8?°C, ensuring safe administration in preterm infants.
Project description:Glutamine is one of the conditionally essential free amino acids with multiple biological functions. Its supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been widely used for the management of complications in intensive care. However, controversial clinical reports have generated reluctance in the use of this pharmaco-nutrient. In this commentary, we address the impact of four studies that influenced the recommendations on glutamine supplementation by the Canadian Clinical Practice Guide 2015. Because of the importance of this guideline in clinical practice, we strongly believe that a more rigorous and critical evaluation is required to support recommendations in future guidelines.
Project description:To evaluate glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) in the treatment of pediatric patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs).UCD patients (n=26) ages 2months through 17years were treated with GPB and sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) in two short-term, open-label crossover studies, which compared 24-hour ammonia exposure (AUC0-24) and glutamine levels during equivalent steady-state dosing of GPB and sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA). These 26 patients plus an additional 23 patients also received GPB in one of three 12-month, open label extension studies, which assessed long-term ammonia control, hyperammonemic (HA) crises, amino acid levels, and patient growth.Mean ammonia exposure on GPB was non-inferior to NaPBA in each of the individual crossover studies. In the pooled analyses, it was significantly lower on GPB vs. NaPBA (mean [SD] AUC0-24: 627  vs. 872  ?mol/L; p=0.008) with significantly fewer abnormal values (15% on GPB vs. 35% on NaPBA; p=0.02). Mean ammonia levels remained within the normal range during 12months of GPB dosing and, when compared with the 12months preceding enrollment, a smaller percentage of patients (24.5% vs. 42.9%) experienced fewer (17 vs. 38) HA crises. Glutamine levels tended to be lower with GPB than with NaPBA during short-term dosing (mean [SD]: 660.8 [164.4] vs. 710.0 [158.7] ?mol/L; p=0.114) and mean glutamine and branched chain amino acid levels, as well as other essential amino acids, remained within the normal range during 12months of GPB dosing. Mean height and weight Z-scores were within normal range at baseline and did not change significantly during 12months of GPB treatment.Dosing with GPB was associated with 24-hour ammonia exposure that was non-inferior to that during dosing with NaPBA in individual studies and significantly lower in the pooled analysis. Long-term GPB dosing was associated with normal levels of glutamine and essential amino acids, including branched chain amino acids, age-appropriate growth and fewer HA crises as compared with the 12month period preceding enrollment.
Project description:Glutamine transport between tissues is important for the outcome of critically ill patients. Investigation of glutamine kinetics is, therefore, necessary to understand glutamine metabolism in these patients in order to improve future intervention studies. Endogenous glutamine production can be measured by continuous infusion of a glutamine tracer, which necessitates a minimum measurement time period. In order to reduce this problem, we used and validated a tracer bolus injection method. Furthermore, this method was used to measure the glutamine production in healthy volunteers in the post-absorptive state, with extra alanine and with glutamine supplementation and parenteral nutrition. Healthy volunteers received a bolus injection of [1-13C] glutamine, and blood was collected from the radial artery to measure tracer enrichment over 90 minutes. Endogenous rate of appearance (endoRa) of glutamine was calculated from the enrichment decay curve and corrected for the extra glutamine supplementation. The glutamine endoRa of healthy volunteers was 6.1±0.9 µmol/kg/min in the post-absorptive state, 6.9±1.0 µmol/kg/min with extra alanyl-glutamine (p?=?0.29 versus control), 6.1±0.4 µmol/kg/min with extra alanine only (p?=?0.32 versus control), and 7.5±0.9 µmol/kg/min with extra alanyl-glutamine and parenteral nutrition (p?=?0.049 versus control). In conclusion, a tracer bolus injection method to measure glutamine endoRa showed good reproducibility and small variation at baseline as well as during parenteral nutrition. Additionally, we showed that parenteral nutrition including alanyl-glutamine increased glutamine endoRa in healthy volunteers, which was not attributable to the alanine part of the dipeptide.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Artificial nutrition support is central to the care of critically ill patients and is primarily provided enterally (EN). There are circumstances when parenteral nutrition (PN) is considered necessary. We are uncertain how each of these approaches confer clinical benefits beyond simply providing calories. We sought to better understand how each of these techniques influence metabolism in critically ill patients using a broad-based metabolomics approach. Metabolic responses to EN and PN may differ in ways that could help us understand how to optimize use of these therapies. METHODS:We prospectively enrolled subjects over 7 months in 2015 at an urban, Level I trauma center. Subjects were included before starting either EN or PN during their inpatient admission. Plasma samples were obtained between 1 and 12 hours before initiation of artificial nutrition, and 3 and 7 days later. All samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Differences in metabolite concentrations were assessed via principal component analyses and multiple linear regression. RESULTS:We enrolled 30 subjects. Among the critically ill subjects, 10 received EN and 10 received PN. In subjects receiving EN, amino acid and urea cycle metabolites (citrulline, p = 0.04; ornithine, p = 0.05) increased, as did ribonucleic acid metabolites (uridine, p = 0.04; cysteine, 0 = 0.05; oxypurinol, p = 0.04). Oxidative stress decreased over time (increased betaine, p = 0.05; decreased 4-pyridoxic acid, p = 0.04). In subjects receiving PN, amino acid concentrations increased over time (taurine, p = 0.04; phenylalanine, p = 0.05); omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acid concentrations decreased over time (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSION:EN was associated with amino acid repletion, urea cycle upregulation, restoration of antioxidants, and increasing ribonucleic acid synthesis. Parenteral nutrition was associated with increased amino acid concentrations, but did not influence protein metabolism or antioxidant repletion. This suggests that parenteral amino acids are used less effectively than those given enterally. The biomarkers reported in this study may be useful in guiding nutrition therapy for critically ill patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic study, level III; prognostic study, level II.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients need parenteral nutrition because of nausea, vomiting, and mucositis caused by conditioning regimens. The demand for glutamine increases during the HSCT period. We evaluated the effects of glutamine-containing parenteral nutrition on the clinical outcomes of HSCT patients.<h4>Methods</h4>In this retrospective analysis, we reviewed HSCT patients from Seoul National University from August 2013 to July 2017. Depending on their glutamine supplementation status, 91 patients were divided into 2 groups: glutamine group (N=44) and non-glutamine group (N=47). We analyzed the rate of weight change, infection (clinically/microbiologically documented), complications (duration of mucositis and neutropenia, acute graft versus host disease), and 100-days mortality in each group.<h4>Results</h4>Regarding the clinical characteristics of the patients, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups except that there was a larger proportion of myeloablative conditioning regimen in the glutamine group (<i>P</i>=0.005). In the glutamine group, the average number of days of glutamine use, parenteral nutrition, and mucositis was 7.6±1.4, 14.6±9.9, and 13.3±9.5, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed odds ratios of 0.37 (95% CI, 0.14-0.96; <i>P</i>=0.042) and 0.08 (95% CI, 0.01-0.98; <i>P</i>=0.048) for clinically documented infection and 100-days mortality, respectively, in the glutamine group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Results showed that the glutamine group had less clinically documented infection and 100-days mortality than the non-glutamine group, but the other outcomes did not show significant differences. The extended duration of glutamine supplementation according to the period of total parenteral nutrition and mucositis should be considered.
Project description:Nutrition support is essential for surgical patients. Patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) require tremendous nutrient support but also faced with risks of infection and gastrointestinal complications. Early parenteral nutrition has recently shown benefits while limited information provided about the influence on metabolism. This prospective single-center cohort study used plasma metabolomics to clarify metabolic alteration after early parenteral nutrition followed with enteral nutrition. Patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (n?=?52) were enrolled. 36 patients received parenteral nutrition within 3 days postoperatively followed with EN (TPN group), 16 patients received standard fluids followed with EN (GIK group). We found that the weight loss is reduced in TPN group while the other clinical outcomes and inflammatory cytokines showed no statistical significance. The TPN group showed significance in amino acids, lipid, and phospholipids metabolism compared with the GIK group. Moreover, integration analysis indicated that early TPN could promote the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids, phospholipids, ketone bodies, and branched-chain amino acids. We conclude that early TPN support followed with EN for patients undergoing PD reduced the perioperative weight loss and promoted the metabolic transition to anabolic metabolism with the recovery of lipid metabolism, suggesting its benefits for the recovery of patients.
Project description:A 5-year-old male neutered Persian cat was referred for investigation of a 4 week history of weight loss, inappetence and intermittent vomiting. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inflammatory bowel disease were diagnosed, and despite immunosuppressive therapy and assisted enteral nutrition, the cat experienced persistent anorexia, vomiting and severe weight loss. After 2 additional weeks of treatment, the cat developed acute-onset neurological signs associated with severe hyperammonaemia and was euthanased. Plasma amino acid assessment revealed deficiency of several amino acids involved in the urea cycle, including arginine.To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an acquired urea cycle amino acid deficiency without nutritional deprivation in a cat. Several contributing factors were suspected, including intestinal malabsorption and CKD. This case demonstrates the importance of urea cycle amino acids in feline metabolism and possible necessity for parenteral supplementation, particularly in the context of persistent weight loss despite adequate enteral nutrition.
Project description:Glutamine is a major amino donor for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in all organisms. In addition to its role in nutrition and metabolism, glutamine can also function as a signaling molecule in bacteria, yeast, and humans. By contrast, the functions of glutamine in nutrition and as a signaling molecule remain unclear in plants.We demonstrated that glutamine could effectively support the growth of rice seedlings. In glutamine-treated rice roots, the glutamine contents increased dramatically, whereas levels of glutamate remained relatively constant. Transcriptome analysis of rice roots revealed that glutamine induced the expression of at least 35 genes involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and stress responses within 30 min. Interestingly, 10 of the 35 early glutamine responsive genes encode putative transcription factors, including two LBD37-like genes that are involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism. Glutamine also rapidly induced the expression of the DREB1A, IRO2, and NAC5 transcription factor genes, which are involved in the regulation of stress responses.In addition to its role as a metabolic fuel, glutamine may also function as a signaling molecule to regulate gene expression in plants. The rapid induction of transcription factor genes suggests that glutamine may efficiently amplify its signal and interact with the other signal transduction pathways to regulate plant growth and stress responses. Thus, glutamine is a functional amino acid that plays important roles in plant nutrition and signal transduction.