Differential glucose-regulation of microRNAs in pancreatic islets of non-obese type 2 diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki rat.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a well-studied non-obese spontaneous type 2 diabetes (T2D) animal model characterized by impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the pancreatic beta cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs involved in many fundamental biological processes. We aim to identify miRNAs that are differentially-expressed in the pancreatic islets of the GK rats and investigate both their short- and long term glucose-dependence during glucose-stimulatory conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Global profiling of 348 miRNAs in the islets of GK rats and Wistar controls (females, 60 days, N?=?6 for both sets) using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based microarrays allowed for the clear separation of the two groups. Significant analysis of microarrays (SAM) identified 30 differentially-expressed miRNAs, 24 of which are predominantly upregulated in the GK rat islets. Monitoring of qPCR-validated miRNAs during GSIS experiments on isolated islets showed disparate expression trajectories between GK and controls indicating distinct short- and long-term glucose dependence. We specifically found expression of rno-miR-130a, rno-miR-132, rno-miR-212 and rno-miR-335 to be regulated by hyperglycaemia. The putative targets of upregulated miRNAs in the GK, filtered with glucose-regulated mRNAs, were found to be enriched for insulin-secretion genes known to be downregulated in T2D patients. Finally, the binding of rno-miR-335 to a fragment of the 3'UTR of one of known down-regulated exocytotic genes in GK islets, Stxbp1 was shown by luciferase assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The perturbed miRNA network found in the GK rat islets is indicative of a system-wide impairment in the regulation of genes important for the normal functions of pancreatic islets, particularly in processes involving insulin secretion during glucose stimulatory conditions. Our findings suggest that the reduced insulin secretion observed in the GK rat may be partly due to upregulated miRNA expression leading to decreased production of key proteins of the insulin exocytotic machinery.
Project description:Altered microRNA profiles have been demonstrated in experimental models of type 2 diabetes, including in islets of the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. Our bioinformatic analysis of conserved sequences in promoters of microRNAs, previously observed to be up-regulated in GK rat islets, revealed putative CGCG-core motifs on the promoter of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster, overexpression of which has been shown to increase insulin secretion. These motifs are possible targets of calmodulin binding transcription activators Camta1 and Camta2 that have been recognized as integrators of stress responses. We also identified putative NKE elements, possible targets of NK2 homeobox proteins like the essential islet transcription factor Nkx2-2. As Camtas can function as co-activators with NK2 proteins in other tissues, we explored the role of Camta1, Camta2, and Nkx2-2 in the regulation of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster and insulin secretion. We demonstrate that exposure of control Wistar or GK rat islets to 16.7 mm glucose increases miR-212/miR-132 expression but significantly less so in the GK rat. In addition, Camta1, Camta2, and Nkx2-2 were down-regulated in GK rat islets, and knockdown of Camta1 reduced miR-212/miR-132 promoter activity and miR-212/miR-132 expression, even under cAMP elevation. Knockdown of Camta1 decreased insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13 cells and Wistar rat islets but increased insulin content. Furthermore, knockdown of Camta1 reduced K(+)-induced insulin secretion and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents. We also demonstrate Camta1 and Nkx2-2 protein interaction. These results indicate that Camta1 is required not only for expression of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster but at multiple levels for regulating beta cell insulin content and secretion.
Project description:Effects of ARA290 on glucose homeostasis were studied in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. In GK rats receiving ARA290 daily for up to 4 wks, plasma glucose concentrations were lower after 3 and 4 wks, and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) was reduced by ~20% without changes in whole body and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in islets from ARA290-treated rats. Additionally, in response to glucose, carbachol and KCl, islet cytoplasmic free Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentrations, [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub>, were higher and the frequency of [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub> oscillations enhanced compared with placebo. ARA290 also improved stimulus-secretion coupling for glucose in GK rat islets, as shown by an improved glucose oxidation rate, ATP production and acutely enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. ARA290 also exerted an effect distal to the ATP-sensitive potassium (K<sub>ATP</sub>) channel on the insulin exocytotic pathway, since the insulin response was improved following islet depolarization by KCl when K<sub>ATP</sub> channels were kept open by diazoxide. Finally, inhibition of protein kinase A completely abolished effects of ARA290 on insulin secretion. In conclusion, ARA290 improved glucose tolerance without affecting hematocrit in diabetic GK rats. This effect appears to be due to improved ?-cell glucose metabolism and [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub> handling, and thereby enhanced glucose-induced insulin release.
Project description:S 21403 (mitiglinide) is a new drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Its action on insulin release and biosynthesis was investigated in several experimental systems utilizing pancreas from normal and T2DM animals. At high concentrations (10 microM), S 21403, like classical sulphonylurea, induced insulin release in the absence of glucose. In contrast, at therapeutic (0.1-1.0 microM) concentrations, S 21403 amplified insulin secretion glucose dose-dependently and with similar magnitude in normal and diabetic GK rat islets. In perfused GK rat pancreas, S 21403 induced normal kinetics of insulin secretion including first-phase response. The effect of S 21403 was strongly modulated by physiological factors. Thus, 0.1 microM adrenaline inhibited S 21403-induced insulin release. There was marked synergism between S 21403 and arginine in GK rat islets, combination of the two normalizing insulin secretion. In primary islet cultures from normal rats or prediabetic Psammomys obesus, prolonged exposure to S 21403 did not induce further depletion of insulin stores under normal or 'glucotoxic' conditions. Proinsulin biosynthesis was not affected by 2-h exposure of rat or prediabetic P. obesus islets to 1 microM S 21403. Yet, 24-h exposure of rat islets to S 21403 resulted in 30% increase in proinsulin biosynthesis at 8.3 mM glucose. Amplification by S 21403 of glucose-induced insulin secretion in diabetic GK beta-cells with restoration of first-phase response, a strong synergistic interaction with arginine and marked inhibition by adrenaline, make it a prime candidate for successful oral antidiabetic agent.
Project description:Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor).
Project description:<i>Lupinus mutabilis</i> (<i>LM</i>) is a legume part of Bolivian traditional diet that has a nutraceutical property reducing blood glucose levels. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide thus; the search for novel anti-diabetic drugs is needed. Based on its traditional use, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effect of <i>LM</i> in the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes and in Wistar (W) rats as healthy control. <i>LM</i> seeds hydroethanolic extract, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, is a complex mixture of volatile and non-volatile components. A single oral administration of <i>LM</i> extract (2000 mg/kg b.w.) improved glucose tolerance during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (30⁻120 min) in GK and W rats (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). The long-term treatment with <i>LM</i> (1000 mg/kg b.w.), for 21 days, improved the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose during OGTT at day 20, in both GK (<i>p</i> < 0.01) and W rats (<i>p</i> < 0.01). The HbA1c (GK rats, <i>p</i> < 0.05 and W rats, <i>p</i> < 0.0001) and the non-fasting glucose (GK rats, <i>p</i> < 0.05) were also reduced. <i>LM</i> increased both serum insulin levels (2.4-fold in GK rats and 2.5-fold W rats), and the glucose-induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in isolated islets from treated animals (6.7-fold in GK rats, and 6.6-fold in W rats). Moreover, <i>LM</i> (10 mg/mL) stimulated <i>in vitro</i> glucose induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in batch incubated GK and W rat islets (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). In perifused GK rat islets, insulin release in 16.7 mM glucose was increased 95.3-fold compared to untreated islets (<i>p</i> < 0.0001), while no significant differences were found in perifused W rat islets. The <i>LM</i> mechanism of action, evaluated using inhibitory compounds of the insulin secretion pathway, showed that <i>LM</i>-dependent insulin secretion was reduced 42% by diazoxide (<i>p</i> < 0.001), 70% by nifedipine (<i>p</i> < 0.001), 86.7% by H89 (<i>p</i> < 0.0001), 70.8% by calphostine-C (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) and 93% by pertussis toxin (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). A similar effect was observed in W rats islets. Our findings provide evidence that <i>LM</i> has an anti-diabetic effect through stimulation of insulin release. The effect is-dependent on L-type calcium channel, protein kinase A and C systems, and G protein-coupled exocytosis and is partially mediated by K-ATP channels.
Project description:Insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion are the two major features of type 2 diabetes. The adapter protein APPL1 is an obligatory molecule in regulating peripheral insulin sensitivity, but its role in insulin secretion remains elusive. Here, we show that APPL1 expression in pancreatic ? cells is markedly decreased in several mouse models of obesity and diabetes. APPL1 knockout mice exhibit glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), whereas transgenic expression of APPL1 prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance partly by enhancing GSIS. In both pancreatic islets and rat ? cells, APPL1 deficiency causes a marked reduction in expression of the exocytotic machinery SNARE proteins (syntaxin-1, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2) and an obvious decrease in the number of exocytotic events. Such changes are accompanied by diminished insulin-stimulated Akt activation. Furthermore, the defective GSIS and reduced expression of SNARE proteins in APPL1-deficient ? cells can be rescued by adenovirus-mediated expression of APPL1 or constitutively active Akt. These findings demonstrate that APPL1 couples insulin-stimulated Akt activation to GSIS by promoting the expression of the core exocytotic machinery involved in exocytosis and also suggest that reduced APPL1 expression in pancreatic islets may serve as a pathological link that couples insulin resistance to ?-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>Type 2 diabetes is characterised by progressive beta cell dysfunction, with changes in gene expression playing a crucial role in its development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and therefore alterations in miRNA levels may be involved in the deterioration of beta cell function.<h4>Methods</h4>Global TaqMan arrays and individual TaqMan assays were used to measure islet miRNA expression in discovery (n = 20) and replication (n = 20) cohorts from individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. The role of specific dysregulated miRNAs in regulating insulin secretion, content and apoptosis was subsequently investigated in primary rat islets and INS-1 cells. Identification of miRNA targets was assessed using luciferase assays and by measuring mRNA levels.<h4>Results</h4>In the discovery and replication cohorts miR-187 expression was found to be significantly increased in islets from individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with matched controls. An inverse correlation between miR-187 levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was observed in islets from normoglycaemic donors. This correlation paralleled findings in primary rat islets and INS-1 cells where overexpression of miR-187 markedly decreased GSIS without affecting insulin content or apoptotic index. Finally, the gene encoding homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-3 (HIPK3), a known regulator of insulin secretion, was identified as a direct target of miR-187 and displayed reduced expression in islets from individuals with type 2 diabetes.<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>Our findings suggest a role for miR-187 in the blunting of insulin secretion, potentially involving regulation of HIPK3, which occurs during the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Glucose homeostasis is a complex indispensable process, and its dysregulation causes hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK) takes a central role in these pathways and is thus rate limiting for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic islets. Several reports have described the transcriptional regulation of Gck mRNA, whereas its posttranscriptional mechanisms of regulation, especially those involving microRNAs (miR), are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-206 as a posttranscriptional regulator of Gck In addition, we examined the effects of miR-206 on glucose tolerance, GSIS, and gene expression in control and germ line miR-206 knockout (KO) mice fed either with chow or high-fat diet (HFD). MiR-206 was found in Gck-expressing tissues and was differentially altered in response to HFD feeding. Pancreatic islets showed the most profound induction in the expression of miR-206 in response to HFD. Chow- and HFD-fed miR-206KO mice have improved glucose tolerance and GSIS but unaltered insulin sensitivity. In silico analysis of Gck mRNA revealed a conserved 8-mer miR-206 binding site. Hence, the predicted regulation of Gck by miR-206 was confirmed in reporter and GK activity assays. Concomitant with increased GK activity, miR-206KO mice had elevated liver glycogen content and plasma lactate concentrations. Our findings revealed a novel mechanism of posttranscriptional regulation of Gck by miR-206 and underline the crucial role of pancreatic islet miR-206 in the regulation of whole body glucose homeostasis in a murine model that mimics the metabolic syndrome.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain (NP) remain poorly understood. Emerging evidence has suggested the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the initiation and development of NP, but the specific effects of miRNAs in NP are largely unknown. Here, we use network- and pathway-based methods to investigate NP-induced miRNA changes and their biological functions by conducting a systematic search through multiple electronic databases. Thirty-seven articles meet the inclusion criteria. Venn analysis and target gene forecasting are performed and the results indicate that 167 overlapping target genes are co-regulated by five down-regulated miRNAs (rno-miR-183, rno-miR-96, rno-miR-30b, rno-miR-150 and rno-miR-206). Protein-protein interaction network analysis shows that 77 genes exhibit interactions, with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta (degree = 11) and cAMP-response element binding protein 1 (degree = 10) having the highest connectivity degree. Gene ontology analysis shows that these target genes are enriched in neuron part, neuron projection, somatodendritic compartment and nervous system development. Moreover, analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes reveals that three pathways, namely, axon guidance, circadian entrainment and insulin secretion, are significantly enriched. In addition, rno-miR-183, rno-miR-96, rno-miR-30b, rno-miR-150 and rno-miR-206 are consistently down-regulated in the NP models, thus constituting the potential biomarkers of this disease. Characterizing these miRNAs and their target genes paves way for their future use in clinical practice.
Project description:Reduced pancreatic islet levels of Munc18a/SNARE complex proteins have been postulated to contribute to the deficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in type-2 diabetes (T2D). Whereas much previous work has purported Munc18a/SNARE complex (Syntaxin-1A/VAMP-2/SNAP25) to be primarily involved in predocked secretory granule (SG) fusion, less is known about newcomer SGs that undergo minimal docking time at the plasma membrane before fusion. Newcomer SG fusion has been postulated to involve a distinct SM/SNARE complex (Munc18b/Syntaxin-3/VAMP8/SNAP25), whose levels we find also reduced in islets of T2D humans and T2D Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Munc18b overexpression by adenovirus infection (Ad-Munc18b), by increasing assembly of Munc18b/SNARE complexes, mediated increased fusion of not only newcomer SGs but also predocked SGs in T2D human and GK rat islets, resulting in rescue of the deficient biphasic GSIS. Infusion of Ad-Munc18b into GK rat pancreas led to sustained improvement in glucose homeostasis. However, Munc18b overexpression in normal islets increased only newcomer SG fusion. Therefore, Munc18b could potentially be deployed in human T2D to rescue the deficient GSIS.