Lipoprotein lipase links dietary fat to solid tumor cell proliferation.
ABSTRACT: Many types of cancer cells require a supply of fatty acids (FA) for growth and survival, and interrupting de novo FA synthesis in model systems causes potent anticancer effects. We hypothesized that, in addition to synthesis, cancer cells may obtain preformed, diet-derived FA by uptake from the bloodstream. This would require hydrolytic release of FA from triglyceride in circulating lipoprotein particles by the secreted enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and the expression of CD36, the channel for cellular FA uptake. We find that selected breast cancer and sarcoma cells express and secrete active LPL, and all express CD36. We further show that LPL, in the presence of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, accelerates the growth of these cells. Providing LPL to prostate cancer cells, which express low levels of the enzyme, did not augment growth, but did prevent the cytotoxic effect of FA synthesis inhibition. Moreover, LPL knockdown inhibited HeLa cell growth. In contrast to the cell lines, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of LPL and CD36 in the majority of breast, liposarcoma, and prostate tumor tissues examined (n = 181). These findings suggest that, in addition to de novo lipogenesis, cancer cells can use LPL and CD36 to acquire FA from the circulation by lipolysis, and this can fuel their growth. Interfering with dietary fat intake, lipolysis, and/or FA uptake will be necessary to target the requirement of cancer cells for FA.
Project description:We previously described the expression of CD36 and LPL by breast cancer (BC) cells and tissues and the growth-promoting effect of VLDL observed only in the presence of LPL. We now report a model in which LPL is bound to a heparan sulfate proteoglycan motif on the BC cell surface and acts in concert with the VLDL receptor to internalize VLDLs via receptor-mediated endocytosis. We also demonstrate that gene-expression programs for lipid synthesis versus uptake respond robustly to triglyceride-rich lipoprotein availability. The literature emphasizes de novo FA synthesis and exogenous free FA uptake using CD36 as paramount mechanisms for lipid acquisition by cancer cells. We find that the uptake of intact lipoproteins is also an important mechanism for lipid acquisition and that the relative reliance on lipid synthesis versus uptake varies among BC cell lines and in response to VLDL availability. This metabolic plasticity has important implications for the development of therapies aimed at the lipid dependence of many types of cancer, in that the inhibition of FA synthesis may elicit compensatory upregulation of lipid uptake. Moreover, the mechanism that we have elucidated provides a direct connection between dietary fat and tumor biology.-.
Project description:Lipids circulate in the blood in association with plasma lipoproteins and enter the tissues either after hydrolysis or as non-hydrolyzable lipid esters. We studied cardiac lipids, lipoprotein lipid uptake, and gene expression in heart-specific lipoprotein lipase (LpL) knock-out (hLpL0), CD36 knock-out (Cd36(-/-)), and double knock-out (hLpL0/Cd36(-/-)-DKO) mice. Loss of either LpL or CD36 led to a significant reduction in heart total fatty acyl-CoA (control, 99.5 ± 3.8; hLpL0, 36.2 ± 3.5; Cd36(-/-), 57.7 ± 5.5 nmol/g, p < 0.05) and an additive effect was observed in the DKO (20.2 ± 1.4 nmol/g, p < 0.05). Myocardial VLDL-triglyceride (TG) uptake was reduced in the hLpL0 (31 ± 6%) and Cd36(-/-) (47 ± 4%) mice with an additive reduction in the DKO (64 ± 5%) compared with control. However, LpL but not CD36 deficiency decreased VLDL-cholesteryl ester uptake. Endogenously labeled mouse chylomicrons were produced by tamoxifen treatment of ?-actin-MerCreMer/LpL(flox/flox) mice. Induced loss of LpL increased TG levels >10-fold and reduced HDL by >50%. After injection of these labeled chylomicrons in the different mice, chylomicron TG uptake was reduced by ?70% and retinyl ester by ?50% in hLpL0 hearts. Loss of CD36 did not alter either chylomicron TG or retinyl ester uptake. LpL loss did not affect uptake of remnant lipoproteins from ApoE knock-out mice. Our data are consistent with two pathways for fatty acid uptake; a CD36 process for VLDL-derived fatty acid and a non-CD36 process for chylomicron-derived fatty acid uptake. In addition, our data show that lipolysis is involved in uptake of core lipids from TG-rich lipoproteins.
Project description:Although it is established that fatty acid (FA) synthesis supports anabolic growth in cancer, the role of exogenous FA uptake remains elusive. Here we show that, during acquisition of resistance to HER2 inhibition, metabolic rewiring of breast cancer cells favors reliance on exogenous FA uptake over de novo FA synthesis. Through cDNA microarray analysis, we identify the FA transporter CD36 as a critical gene upregulated in cells with acquired resistance to the HER2 inhibitor lapatinib. Accordingly, resistant cells exhibit increased exogenous FA uptake and metabolic plasticity. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CD36 suppresses the growth of lapatinib-resistant but not lapatinib-sensitive cells in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of Cd36 in mammary tissues of MMTV-neu mice significantly attenuates tumorigenesis. In breast cancer patients, CD36 expression increases following anti-HER2 therapy, which correlates with a poor prognosis. Our results define CD36-mediated metabolic rewiring as an essential survival mechanism in HER2-positive breast cancer.
Project description:Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is characterized by widespread and rapid metastasis in the peritoneal cavity. Visceral adipocytes promote this process by providing fatty acids (FAs) for tumour growth. However, the exact mechanism of FA transfer from adipocytes to cancer cells remains unknown. This study shows that OvCa cells co-cultured with primary human omental adipocytes express high levels of the FA receptor, CD36, in the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating exogenous FA uptake. Depriving OvCa cells of adipocyte-derived FAs using CD36 inhibitors and short hairpin RNA knockdown prevented development of the adipocyte-induced malignant phenotype. Specifically, inhibition of CD36 attenuated adipocyte-induced cholesterol and lipid droplet accumulation and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. Metabolic analysis suggested that CD36 plays an essential role in the bioenergetic adaptation of OvCa cells in the adipocyte-rich microenvironment and governs their metabolic plasticity. Furthermore, the absence of CD36 affected cellular processes that play a causal role in peritoneal dissemination, including adhesion, invasion, migration and anchorage independent growth. Intraperitoneal injection of CD36-deficient cells or treatment with an anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody reduced tumour burden in mouse xenografts. Moreover, a matched cohort of primary and metastatic human ovarian tumours showed upregulation of CD36 in the metastatic tissues, a finding confirmed in three public gene expression data sets. These results suggest that omental adipocytes reprogram tumour metabolism through the upregulation of CD36 in OvCa cells. Targeting the stromal-tumour metabolic interface via CD36 inhibition may prove to be an effective treatment strategy against OvCa metastasis.
Project description:Lipid accumulation is a pathological feature of every type of kidney injury. Despite this striking histological feature, physiological accumulation of lipids in the kidney is poorly understood. We studied whether the accumulation of lipids in the fasted kidney are derived from lipoproteins or NEFAs. With overnight fasting, kidneys accumulated triglyceride, but had reduced levels of ceramide and glycosphingolipid species. Fasting led to a nearly 5-fold increase in kidney uptake of plasma [<sup>14</sup>C]oleic acid. Increasing circulating NEFAs using a ? adrenergic receptor agonist caused a 15-fold greater accumulation of lipid in the kidney, while mice with reduced NEFAs due to adipose tissue deficiency of adipose triglyceride lipase had reduced triglycerides. Cluster of differentiation (<i>Cd</i>)<i>36</i> mRNA increased 2-fold, and angiopoietin-like 4 (<i>Angptl4</i>), an LPL inhibitor, increased 10-fold. Fasting-induced kidney lipid accumulation was not affected by inhibition of LPL with poloxamer 407 or by use of mice with induced genetic LPL deletion. Despite the increase in CD36 expression with fasting, genetic loss of CD36 did not alter fatty acid uptake or triglyceride accumulation. Our data demonstrate that fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the kidney correlates with the plasma concentrations of NEFAs, but is not due to uptake of lipoprotein lipids and does not involve the fatty acid transporter, CD36.
Project description:We studied whether the accumulation of lipids in the fasted kidney are derived from lipoproteins or (non-esterified fatty acids) NEFAs. With overnight fasting, kidneys accumulated triglyceride, but had reduced levels of ceramide and glycosphingolipid species. Fasting led to a nearly 5-fold increase in kidney uptake of plasma [14C]oleic acid. Increasing circulating NEFAs using a β adrenergic receptor agonist caused a 15-fold greater accumulation of lipid in the kidney, while mice with reduced NEFAs due to adipose tissue deficiency of adipose triglyceride lipase had reduced triglycerides. Cluster of differentiation (Cd)36 mRNA increased 2-fold, and angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4), an LPL inhibitor, increased 10-fold. Fasting-induced kidney lipid accumulation was not affected by inhibition of LPL with poloxamer 407 or by use of mice with induced genetic LPL deletion. Despite the increase in CD36 expression with fasting, genetic loss of CD36 did not alter fatty acid uptake or triglyceride accumulation. Our data demonstrate that fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the kidney correlates with the plasma concentrations of NEFAs, but is not due to uptake of lipoprotein lipids and does not involve the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Overall design: Mice (n=4-5/group) were either fasted for 16 hours or fed ad libitum. Kidneys were removed and snap frozen. RNA was extracted for sequencing.
Project description:Although it is well established that fatty acids (FA) are indispensable for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) cannot completely repress HCC cell growth in culture. Thus, we hypothesized that uptake of exogenous FA by cancer cells might play an important role in the development and progression of HCC. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides into free fatty acids (FFA) and increases the cellular uptake of FA.We used immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate LPL expression in human and mouse HCC samples. Using lipoprotein-deficient medium as well as siRNAs against LPL and/or FASN, we investigated whether human HCC cells depend on both endogenous and exogenous fatty acids for survival in vitro.We found that LPL is upregulated in mouse and human HCC samples. High expression of LPL in human HCC samples is associated with poor prognosis. In HCC cell lines, silencing of FASN or LPL or culturing the cells in lipoprotein-deficient medium significantly decreased cell proliferation. Importantly, when FASN suppression was coupled to concomitant LPL depletion, the growth restraint of cell lines was further augmented.The present study strongly suggests that both de novo synthetized and exogenous FA play a major role along hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, combined suppression of LPL and FASN might be highly beneficial for the treatment of human HCC.
Project description:GPIHBP1, a small glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, is required for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. GPIHBP1 knockout mice exhibit chylomicronemia, even on a low-fat diet, with plasma triglyceride levels of 3,500-5,000 mg/dl. GPIHBP1 is expressed highly in heart, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, the same tissues that express high levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In each of these tissues, GPIHBP1 is located in capillary endothelial cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with a GPIHBP1 expression vector bind LPL and chylomicrons avidly. The expression of GPIHBP1 in mice is modulated by fasting and refeeding and is also regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonists. Here, we review recent progress in understanding GPIHBP1 and discuss its role in lipolysis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fatty acids (FA) derived from adipose tissue and liver serve as the main fuel in thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Catalase, a peroxisomal enzyme, plays an important role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis by decomposing hydrogen peroxide to either water or oxygen that oxidize and provide fuel for cellular metabolism. Although the antioxidant enzymatic activity of catalase is well known, its role in the metabolism and maintenance of energy homeostasis has not yet been revealed. The present study investigated the role of catalase in lipid metabolism and thermogenesis during nutrient deprivation in catalase-knockout (KO) mice.<h4>Results</h4>We found that hepatic triglyceride accumulation in KO mice decreased during sustained fasting due to lipolysis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in adipocytes. Furthermore, the free FA released from lipolysis were shuttled to BAT through the activation of CD36 and catabolized by lipoprotein lipase in KO mice during sustained fasting. Although the exact mechanism for the activation of the FA receptor enzyme, CD36 in BAT is still unclear, we found that ROS generation in adipocytes mediated the shuttling of FA to BAT.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Taken together, our findings uncover the novel role of catalase in lipid metabolism and thermogenesis in BAT, which may be useful in understanding metabolic dysfunction.