Elucidation of inositol hexaphosphate and heparin interaction sites and conformational changes in arrestin-1 by solution nuclear magnetic resonance.
ABSTRACT: Arrestins specifically bind activated and phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors and orchestrate both receptor trafficking and channel signaling through G protein-independent pathways via direct interactions with numerous nonreceptor partners. Here we report the first successful use of solution NMR in mapping the binding sites in arrestin-1 (visual arrestin) for two polyanionic compounds that mimic phosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin: inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and heparin. This yielded an identification of residues involved in the binding with these ligands that was more complete than what has previously been feasible. IP6 and heparin appear to bind to the same site on arrestin-1, centered on a positively charged region in the N-domain. We present the first direct evidence that both IP6 and heparin induced a complete release of the arrestin C-tail. These observations provide novel insight into the nature of the transition of arrestin from the basal to active state and demonstrate the potential of NMR-based methods in the study of protein-protein interactions involving members of the arrestin family.
Project description:Herein, employing anatomical and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we evaluated noninvasively, the in vivo, chemopreventive efficacy of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a major constituent of high-fiber diets, against prostate tumor growth and progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Male TRAMP mice, beginning at 4 weeks of age, were fed with 1%, 2%, or 4% (w/v) IP6 in drinking water or only drinking water till 28 weeks of age and monitored using MRI over the course of study. Longitudinal assessment of prostate volumes by conventional MRI and tumor vascularity by gadolinium-based DCE-MRI showed a profound reduction in tumor size, partly due to antiangiogenic effects by IP6 treatment. As potential mechanisms of IP6 efficacy, decrease in the expression of glucose transporter GLUT-4 protein together with an increase in levels of phospho-AMP-activated kinase (AMPK(Th172)) were observed in prostate tissues of mice from IP6 fed-groups, suggesting that IP6 is interfering with the metabolic events occurring in TRAMP prostate. Investigative metabolomics study using quantitative high-resolution (1)H-NMR on prostate tissue extracts showed that IP6 significantly decreased glucose metabolism and membrane phospholipid synthesis, in addition to causing an increase in myoinositol levels in the prostate. Together, these findings show that oral IP6 supplement blocks growth and angiogenesis of prostate cancer in the TRAMP model in conjunction with metabolic events involved in tumor sustenance. This results in energy deprivation within the tumor, suggesting a practical and translational potential of IP6 treatment in suppressing growth and progression of prostate cancer in humans.
Project description:Cyclophosphamide (CP) is commonly used as an anticancer agent but has been associated with high toxicity in several animal organs, including the testes. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in foods with high fibre contents and has a wide range of essential physiological and pathological activities. Thus, we estimated the defensive effects of IP6 against CP-related testicular toxicity in rats. Sperm counts, motilities, viabilities and abnormalities and levels of testosterone, luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were evaluated. Testicle specimens were also processed for histological and biochemical analyses, including determinations of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, total antioxidant capacity, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, ß-glucuronidase, c-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein and leukotriene-4 and in comet assays. CP treatments were associated with deleterious histopathological, biochemical and genetic changes in rat testicles, and these were ameliorated by IP6 supplements in drinking water.
Project description:Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a "natural cancer fighter", being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8).
Project description:1. Inositol hexaphosphate causes the shape of the oxidation-reduction equilibrium curve to become hyberbolic at acid pH values. 2. Inositol hexaphosphate also causes a decrease in the alkaline oxidation Bohr effect at these same pH values. 3. These results support the idea that inositol hexaphosphate causes methaemoglobin to take up the deoxyhaemoglobin quaternary structure at pH6.5.
Project description:The C-terminal region of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), stimulated by agonist binding, is phosphorylated by GPCR kinases, and the phosphorylated GPCRs bind to arrestin, leading to the cellular responses. To understand the mechanism underlying the formation of the phosphorylated GPCR-arrestin complex, we performed NMR analyses of the phosphorylated β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) and the phosphorylated β2AR-β-arrestin 1 complex, in the lipid bilayers of nanodisc. Here we show that the phosphorylated C-terminal region adheres to either the intracellular side of the transmembrane region or lipids, and that the phosphorylation of the C-terminal region allosterically alters the conformation around M2155.54 and M2796.41, located on transemembrane helices 5 and 6, respectively. In addition, we found that the conformation induced by the phosphorylation is similar to that corresponding to the β-arrestin-bound state. The phosphorylation-induced structures revealed in this study propose a conserved structural motif of GPCRs that enables β-arrestin to recognize dozens of GPCRs.
Project description:Maternal exposure to a carcinogen is associated with increased risk of different cancers in the offspring. The foetus is highly sensitive to carcinogens and this contributes to the foetal basis of the onset of disease. The better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the early stage of lung tumourigenesis in the offspring is needed for the newer preventive strategies. We evaluated the effects of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) given on the 17th day of gestation and antitumour agent inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) to the mothers at the early stage of lung tumourigenesis in F1 mice. There was no treatment related effects on the litter size or body weight of the F1 mice at the PND12 or 24. Analysis of PCNA, NF-?B (p50), IL-6, COX-2, pSTAT3, STAT3, caspase-3, caspase-9, PARP, Akt signalling and downstream cyclin D1 along with miR-155, suggested the modulation of proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis at PND12 and 24. IP6 administration to the predisposed mothers prevented the proliferation, inflammation and enhanced apoptosis in F1 lung as showed by a reduction in PCNA, NF-?B (p50), IL-6, COX-2, pSTAT3, STAT3, miR-155 and increase in caspases, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. IP6 administration also inhibited the activation of Akt and cyclin D1. Our study shows that tumourigenic changes take place in the lungs of the F1 generation from the carcinogen predisposed mothers even before the onset of tumours and the simultaneous intake of chemopreventive agent during the gestation or lactation period could prevent the lymphocytic infiltration and hyperplasia preceding the tumourigenesis.
Project description:A unique aspect of arrestin-3 is its ability to support both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent signaling. Here, we show that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a non-receptor activator of arrestin-3 and report the structure of IP6-activated arrestin-3 at 2.4-Å resolution. IP6-activated arrestin-3 exhibits an inter-domain twist and a displaced C-tail, hallmarks of active arrestin. IP6 binds to the arrestin phosphate sensor, and is stabilized by trimerization. Analysis of the trimerization surface, which is also the receptor-binding surface, suggests a feature called the finger loop as a key region of the activation sensor. We show that finger loop helicity and flexibility may underlie coupling to hundreds of diverse receptors and also promote arrestin-3 activation by IP6. Importantly, we show that effector-binding sites on arrestins have distinct conformations in the basal and activated states, acting as switch regions. These switch regions may work with the inter-domain twist to initiate and direct arrestin-mediated signaling.
Project description:Myo-inositol hexaphosphate (phytate; IP6) is a natural compound that is abundant in cereals, legumes, and nuts and it has the ability to chelate metal cations. The binding of IP6 to transition metals suggests that it could be used for the treatment of metal-catalyzed protein glycation, which appears to trigger diabetes-related diseases. Our in vitro studies showed that IP6 reduced the formation of Fe3+-catalyzed advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). This led us to perform a randomized cross-over trial to investigate the impact of the daily consumption IP6 on protein glycation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 33). Thus, we measured AGEs, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), several vascular risk factors, and urinary IP6 at baseline and at the end of the intervention period. Patients who consumed IP6 supplements for 3 months had lower levels of circulating AGEs and HbA1c than those who did not consume IP6. This is the first report to show that consumption of IP6 inhibits protein glycation in patients with T2DM. Considering that AGEs contribute to microvascular and macrovascular complications in T2DM, our data indicates that dietary supplementation with IP6 should be considered as a therapy to prevent the formation of AGEs and therefore, the development of diabetes-related diseases in patients with T2DM.
Project description:Cellular functions of arrestins are determined in part by the pattern of phosphorylation on the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to which arrestins bind. Despite high-resolution structural data of arrestins bound to phosphorylated receptor C-termini, the functional role of each phosphorylation site remains obscure. Here, we employ a library of synthetic phosphopeptide analogues of the GPCR rhodopsin C-terminus and determine the ability of these peptides to bind and activate arrestins using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods. We further characterize how these peptides modulate the conformation of arrestin-1 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Our results indicate different functional classes of phosphorylation sites: 'key sites' required for arrestin binding and activation, an 'inhibitory site' that abrogates arrestin binding, and 'modulator sites' that influence the global conformation of arrestin. These functional motifs allow a better understanding of how different GPCR phosphorylation patterns might control how arrestin functions in the cell.
Project description:Mammals express four arrestin subtypes, three of which have been shown to self-associate. Cone photoreceptor-specific arrestin-4 is the only one that is a constitutive monomer. Visual arrestin-1 forms tetramers both in crystal and in solution, but the shape of its physiologically relevant solution tetramer is very different from that in the crystal. The biological role of the self-association of arrestin-1, expressed at very high levels in rod and cone photoreceptors, appears to be protective, reducing the concentration of cytotoxic monomers. The two nonvisual arrestin subtypes are highly homologous, and self-association of both is facilitated by IP6, yet they form dramatically different oligomers. Arrestin-2 apparently self-associates into "infinite" chains, very similar to those observed in IP6-soaked crystals, where IP6 connects the concave sides of the N- and C-domains of adjacent protomers. In contrast, arrestin-3 only forms dimers, in which IP6 likely connects the C-domains of two arrestin-3 molecules. Thus, each of the three self-associating arrestins does it in its own way, forming three different types of oligomers. The physiological role of the oligomerization of arrestin-1 and both nonvisual arrestins might be quite different, and in each case it remains to be definitively elucidated.