Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation by histone deacetylase inhibition.
ABSTRACT: Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive.In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 in SMC. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either HDAC 1, 2, or 3 and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle that is due to an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip). Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury.These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis.
Project description:RATIONALE:Neointimal hyperplasia is characterized by excessive accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) leading to occlusive disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stenosis. Blood vessel injury increases growth factor secretion and matrix synthesis, which promotes SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia via FAK (focal adhesion kinase). OBJECTIVE:To understand the mechanism of FAK action in SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using combined pharmacological FAK catalytic inhibition (VS-4718) and SMC-specific FAK kinase-dead (Myh11-Cre-ERT2) mouse models, we report that FAK regulates SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in part by governing GATA4- (GATA-binding protein 4) cyclin D1 signaling. Inhibition of FAK catalytic activity facilitates FAK nuclear localization, which is required for proteasome-mediated GATA4 degradation in the cytoplasm. Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified GATA4 binding to the mouse cyclin D1 promoter, and loss of GATA4-mediated cyclin D1 transcription diminished SMC proliferation. Stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor or serum activated FAK and redistributed FAK from the nucleus to cytoplasm, leading to concomitant increase in GATA4 protein and cyclin D1 expression. In a femoral artery wire injury model, increased neointimal hyperplasia was observed in parallel with elevated FAK activity, GATA4 and cyclin D1 expression following injury in control mice, but not in VS-4718-treated and SMC-specific FAK kinase-dead mice. Finally, lentiviral shGATA4 knockdown in the wire injury significantly reduced cyclin D1 expression, SMC proliferation, and neointimal hyperplasia compared with control mice. CONCLUSIONS:Nuclear enrichment of FAK by inhibition of FAK catalytic activity during vessel injury blocks SMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia through regulation of GATA4-mediated cyclin D1 transcription.
Project description:Dedifferentiation, migration, and proliferation of resident vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key components of neointima formation after vascular injury. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is suggested to be critically involved in this process, but the complex regulation of STAT3-dependent genes and the functional significance of inhibiting this pathway during the development of vascular proliferative diseases remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3 was activated in neointimal lesions following wire-induced injury in mice. Phosphorylation of STAT3 induced trans-activation of cyclin D1 and survivin in SMCs in vitro and in neointimal cells in vivo, thus promoting proliferation and migration of SMCs as well as reducing apoptotic cell death. WP1066, a highly potent inhibitor of STAT3 signaling, abrogated phosphorylation of STAT3 and dose-dependently inhibited the functional effects of activated STAT3 in stimulated SMCs. The local application of WP1066 via a thermosensitive pluronic F-127 gel around the dilated arteries significantly inhibited proliferation of neointimal cells and decreased the neointimal lesion size at 3 weeks after injury. Even though WP1066 application attenuated the injury-induced up-regulation of the chemokine RANTES at 6 h after injury, there was no significant effect on the accumulation of circulating cells at 1 week after injury. In conclusion, these data identify STAT3 as a key molecule for the proliferative response of SMC and neointima formation. Moreover, inhibition of STAT3 by the potent and specific compound WP1066 might represent a novel and attractive approach for the local treatment of vascular proliferative diseases.
Project description:The multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) promotes vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) proliferation. However, the signaling pathways mediating CAMKII-dependent proliferative effects in vivo are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that CaMKII? mediates neointimal proliferation after carotid artery ligation by regulating expression and activity of cell cycle regulators, particularly at the G1/S checkpoint. Data herein indicate that 14 days after carotid ligation, C57Bl/6 mice developed a marked neointima with robust CaMKII protein expression. In particular, only the CaMKII isoform ? was increased as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR. Genetic deletion of CaMKII ? prevented injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and cell proliferation in the intima and media. In ligated carotids of control mice, the proliferative cell cycle markers cdk2, cyclin E, and cyclin D1 were activated. In contrast, in CaMKII?(-/-) mice, we detected a reduction in proliferative cell cycle regulators as well as an increase in the cell cycle inhibitor p21. This expression profile was confirmed in cultured CaMKII?(-/-) VSMC, in which cdk2 and cdk4 activity was decreased. Toward understanding how CAMKII? affects p53, a transcriptional regulator of p21, we examined p53 pathway components. Our data indicate that p53 is elevated in CAMKII?(-/-) VSMC, whereas phosphorylation of the p53-specific E3 ligase, Mdm2, was decreased. In conclusion, CaMKII stimulates neointima proliferation after vascular injury by regulating cell proliferation through inhibition of p21 and induction of Mdm-2-mediated degradation of p53.
Project description:c-Kit+ progenitor smooth muscle cells (P-SMCs) can develop into SMCs that contribute to injury-induced neointimal thickening. Here, we investigated whether adenosine reduces P-SMC migration and proliferation and whether this contributes to adenosine's inhibitory actions on neointima formation. In human P-SMCs, 2-chloroadenosine (stable adenosine analogue) and BAY60-6583 (A<sub>2B</sub> agonist) inhibited P-SMC proliferation and migration. Likewise, increasing endogenous adenosine by blocking adenosine metabolism with erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (inhibits adenosine deaminase) and 5-iodotubercidin (inhibits adenosine kinase) attenuated P-SMC proliferation and migration. Neither N<sup>6</sup>-cyclopentyladenosine (A<sub>1</sub> agonist), CGS21680 (A<sub>2A</sub> agonist), nor N<sup>6</sup>-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (A<sub>3</sub> agonist) affected P-SMC proliferation or migration. 2-Chloroadenosine increased cyclic AMP, reduced Akt phosphorylation (activates cyclin D expression), and reduced levels of cyclin D1 (promotes cell-cycle progression). Moreover, 2-chloroadenosine inhibited expression of Skp2 (promotes proteolysis of p27<sup>Kip1</sup>) and upregulated levels of p27<sup>Kip1</sup> (negative cell-cycle regulator). A<sub>2B</sub> receptor knockdown prevented the effects of 2-chloroadenosine on cyclic AMP production and P-SMC proliferation and migration. Likewise, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A rescued P-SMCs from the inhibitory effects of 2-chloroadenosine. The inhibitory effects of adenosine were similar in male and female P-SMCs. In vivo, peri-arterial (rat carotid artery) 2-chloroadenosine (20 ?mol/L for 7 days) reduced neointimal hyperplasia by 64.5% (<i>P</i><0.05; intima/media ratio: control, 1.4±0.02; treated, 0.53±0.012) and reduced neointimal c-Kit+ cells. Adenosine inhibits P-SMC migration and proliferation via the A<sub>2B</sub> receptor/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A axis, which reduces cyclin D1 expression and activity via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and Skp2 expression and upregulating p27<sup>kip1</sup> levels. Adenosine attenuates neointima formation in part by inhibiting infiltration and proliferation of c-Kit+ P-SMCs.
Project description:Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation is associated with various vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, vein graft disease, and transplantation-associated vasculopathy. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. However, its role in pathological vascular remodeling remains unexplored. Herein, we show that systemic administration of vinpocetine significantly reduced neointimal formation in carotid arteries after ligation injury. Vinpocetine also markedly decreased spontaneous remodeling of human saphenous vein explants in ex vivo culture. In cultured SMCs, vinpocetine dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and caused G1-phase cell cycle arrest, which is associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 and an increase in p27Kip1 levels. In addition, vinpocetine dose-dependently inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated SMC migration as determined by the two-dimensional migration assays and three-dimensional aortic medial explant invasive assay. Moreover, vinpocetine significantly reduced PDGF-induced type I collagen and fibronectin expression. It is noteworthy that PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not protein kinase B, was specifically inhibited by vinpocetine. Vinpocetine powerfully attenuated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, which largely mediates the inhibitory effects of vinpocetine on ERK1/2 activation and SMC growth. Taken together, our results reveal a novel function of vinpocetine in attenuating neointimal hyperplasia and pathological vascular remodeling, at least partially through suppressing ROS production and ERK1/2 activation in SMCs. Given the safety profile of vinpocetine, this study provides insight into the therapeutic potential of vinpocetine in proliferative vascular disorders.
Project description:Viscolin, an extract of Viscum coloratum, has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties against harmful stimuli. The aim of the study was to examine the anti-proliferative effects of viscolin on platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF)-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and identify the underlying mechanism responsible for these effects. Viscolin reduced the PDGF-BB-induced HASMC proliferation and migration in vitro; it also arrested HASMCs in the G0/G1 phase by decreasing the protein expression of Cyclin D1, CDK2, Cyclin E, CDK4, and p21Cip1 as detected by Western blot analysis. These effects may be mediated by reduced PDGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and P38, but not AKT as well as inhibition of PDGF-mediated nuclear factor (NF)-?B p65 and activator protein 1 (AP-1)/c-fos activation. Furthermore, viscolin pre-treatment significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia of an endothelial-denuded femoral artery in vivo. Taken together, viscolin attenuated PDGF-BB-induced HASMC proliferation in vitro and reduced neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Thus, viscolin may represent a therapeutic candidate for the prevention and treatment of vascular proliferative diseases.
Project description:Vascular remodeling because of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a common process occurring in several vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm, post-transplant vasculopathy, restenosis after angioplasty, etc. The molecular mechanism underlying SMC proliferation, however, is not completely understood. The objective of this study is to determine the role and mechanism of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) in vascular remodeling and SMC proliferation.Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, an SMC mitogen, induces JAK3 expression and phosphorylation while stimulating SMC proliferation. Janex-1, a specific inhibitor of JAK3, or knockdown of JAK3 by short hairpin RNA, inhibits the SMC proliferation. Conversely, ectopic expression of JAK3 promotes SMC proliferation. Mechanistically, JAK3 promotes the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in SMC, 2 signaling pathways known to be critical for SMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. Blockade of these 2 signaling pathways by their inhibitors impeded the JAK3-mediated SMC proliferation. In vivo, knockdown of JAK3 attenuates injury-induced neointima formation with attenuated neointimal SMC proliferation. Knockdown of JAK3 also induces neointimal SMC apoptosis in rat carotid artery balloon injury model.Our results demonstrate that JAK3 mediates SMC proliferation and survival during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provides a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. Berberine is a well-known component of the Chinese herb medicine Huanglian (Coptis chinensis), and is capable of inhibiting SMC contraction and proliferation, yet the exact mechanism is unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of berberine on SMC growth after mechanic injury in vitro. DNA synthesis and cell proliferation assay were performed to show that berberine inhibited serum-stimulated rat aortic SMC growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanical injury with sterile pipette tip stimulated the regrowth of SMCs. Treatment with berberine prevented the regrowth and migration of SMCs into the denuded trauma zone. Western blot analysis showed that activation of the MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and up-regulation of early growth response gene (Egr-1), c-Fos and Cyclin D1 were observed sequentially after mechanic injury in vitro. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR assay further confirmed the increase of Egr-1, c-Fos, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and Cyclin D1 expression in a transcriptional level. However, berberine significantly attenuated MEK/ERK activation and downstream target (Egr-1, c-Fos, Cyclin D1 and PDGF-A) expression after mechanic injury in vitro. Our study showed that berberine blocked injury-induced SMC regrowth by inactivation of ERK/Egr-1 signaling pathway thereby preventing early signaling induced by injury in vitro. The anti-proliferative properties of berberine may be useful in treating disorders due to inappropriate SMC growth.
Project description:The aim of this study is to elucidate to what degree adiponectin is involved in TZD-mediated amelioration of neointimal formation. We investigated the effect of 3- or 8-weeks' pioglitazone on cuff-induced neointimal formation in adiponectin-deficient (APN-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pioglitazone for 3 weeks reduced neointimal formation in the WT mice with upregulation of the plasma adiponectin levels, but failed to reduce neointimal formation in the APN-KO mice, suggesting that pioglitazone suppressed neointimal formation by adiponectin-dependent mechanisms. Pioglitazone for 3 weeks suppressed vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and increased AdipoR2 expression in the WT mice. In vitro, globular adiponectin activated AMPK through both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, resulting in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Interestingly, 8-weeks' pioglitazone was reduced neointimal formation in APN-KO mice to degree similar to that seen in the WT mice, suggesting that pioglitazone can also suppress neointimal formation via a mechanism independent of adiponectin. Pioglitazone for 8 weeks completely abrogated the increased VSMC proliferation, along with a reduction of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 expressions and cardiovascular risk profile in the APN-KO mice. In vitro, pioglitazone suppressed these expressions, leading to inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Pioglitazone suppresses neointimal formation via both adiponectin-dependent and adiponectin-independent mechanisms.
Project description:Neointimal hyperplasia characterized by abnormal accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is a hallmark of occlusive disorders such as atherosclerosis, postangioplasty restenosis, vein graft stenosis, and allograft vasculopathy. Cyclic nucleotides are vital in SMC proliferation and migration, which are regulated by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs).Our goal is to understand the regulation and function of PDEs in SMC pathogenesis of vascular diseases.We performed screening for genes differentially expressed in normal contractile versus proliferating synthetic SMCs. We observed that PDE1C expression was low in contractile SMCs but drastically elevated in synthetic SMCs in vitro and in various mouse vascular injury models in vivo. In addition, PDE1C was highly induced in neointimal SMCs of human coronary arteries. More importantly, injury-induced neointimal formation was significantly attenuated by PDE1C deficiency or PDE1 inhibition in vivo. PDE1 inhibition suppressed vascular remodeling of human saphenous vein explants ex vivo. In cultured SMCs, PDE1C deficiency or PDE1 inhibition attenuated SMC proliferation and migration. Mechanistic studies revealed that PDE1C plays a critical role in regulating the stability of growth factor receptors, such as PDGF receptor ? (PDGFR?) known to be important in pathological vascular remodeling. PDE1C interacts with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 and PDGFR?, thus regulating PDGFR? endocytosis and lysosome-dependent degradation in an low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1-dependent manner. A transmembrane adenylyl cyclase cAMP-dependent protein kinase cascade modulated by PDE1C is critical in regulating PDGFR? degradation.These findings demonstrated that PDE1C is an important regulator of SMC proliferation, migration, and neointimal hyperplasia, in part through modulating endosome/lysosome-dependent PDGFR? protein degradation via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1.