Nucleolar stress is an early response to myocardial damage involving nucleolar proteins nucleostemin and nucleophosmin.
ABSTRACT: Nucleolar stress, characterized by loss of nucleolar integrity, has not been described in the cardiac context. In addition to ribosome biogenesis, nucleoli are critical for control of cell proliferation and stress responses. Our group previously demonstrated induction of the nucleolar protein nucleostemin (NS) in response to cardiac pathological insult. NS interacts with nucleophosmin (NPM), a marker of nucleolar stress with cytoprotective properties. The dynamic behavior of NS and NPM reveal that nucleolar disruption is an early event associated with stress response in cardiac cells. Rapid translocation of NS and NPM to the nucleoplasm and suppression of new preribosomal RNA synthesis occurs in both neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) upon exposure to doxorubicin or actinomycin D. Silencing of NS significantly increases cell death resulting from doxorubicin treatment in CPC, whereas NPM knockdown alone induces cell death. Overexpression of either NS or NPM significantly decreases caspase 8 activity in cultured cardiomyocytes challenged with doxorubicin. The presence of altered nucleolar structures resulting from myocardial infarction in mice supports the model of nucleolar stress as a general response to pathological injury. Collectively, these findings serve as the initial description of myocardial nucleolar stress and establish the postulate that nucleoli acts as sensors of stress, regulating the cellular response to pathological insults.
Project description:An increase of nucleolar number and size has made nucleoli essential markers for cytology and tumour development. However, the underlying basis for their structural integrity and abundance remains unclear. Protein phosphatase PPM1D was found to be up-regulated in different carcinomas including breast cancers. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation via inducing an increased phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein NPM. We show that PPM1D overexpression induces an increase in the nucleolar number regardless of p53 status. We also demonstrated that specific sequential phosphorylation of NPM is important for nucleolar formation and that PPM1D is a novel upstream regulator of this phosphorylation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern nucleoli formation by demonstrating that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation by regulating NPM phosphorylation status through a novel signalling pathway, PPM1D-CDC25C-CDK1-PLK1.
Project description:The nucleolus is a dynamic structure that has roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Perturbations on many aspects of the nucleolar functions are thought to cause "nucleolar stress", which occurs in response to a variety of chemotherapeutic drugs. The main characteristic changes of nucleolar stress include: 1) reduction of the size and volume of the nucleolus; 2) inhibition of RNA Pol I-mediated rRNA synthesis; and 3) nucleoplasmic translocation of nucleolar stress-related proteins. In studying the apoptosis-inducing effect of the natural compound lovastatin (LV) on breast cancer stem cells, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel form of nucleolar stress, which we call "reverse nucleolar stress". In our system, the canonical nucleolus stress inducer doxorubicin caused nucleoplasmic translocation of the nucleolar protein NPM and complete abolishment of Nolc1, an NPM-interacting protein and an activator of rRNA transcription. In contrast, the reverse nucleolar stress induced by LV is manifested as a more localized perinucleolar distribution of NPM and an increase in the protein level of Nolc1. Furthermore, translocation of the ribosomal protein RPL3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleolus and increased AgNOR staining were observed. These changes characterize a novel pattern of nucleolar stress doubtlessly distinguishable from the canonical one. The functional consequences of reverse nucleolar stress are not clear at present but may presumably be related to cell death or even normalization of the stressed cell. The discovery of reverse nucleolar stress opens up a new area of research in molecular and cellular biology and might have important implications in cancer therapy.
Project description:The transcription factor c-Myc has a critical role in cell proliferation and growth. The control of ribosome biogenesis by c-Myc through the regulation of transcription mediated by all three RNA polymerases is essential for c-Myc-driven proliferation. Specifically, in the nucleolus, c-Myc has been shown to be recruited to ribosomal DNA and activate RNA polymerase (pol) I-mediated transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. In addition, c-Myc accumulates in nucleoli upon inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting nucleolar localization also has a role in c-Myc proteolysis. Nucleophosmin (NPM), a predominantly nucleolar protein, is also critical in ribosome biogenesis and, like c-Myc, is found overexpressed in many types of tumors. Previously, we demonstrated that NPM directly interacts with c-Myc and controls c-Myc-induced hyperproliferation and transformation. Here, we show that NPM is necessary for the localization of c-Myc protein to nucleoli, whereas c-Myc nucleolar localization is independent of p53, Mdm2 and ARF. Conversely, high transient NPM expression enhances c-Myc nucleolar localization, leading to increased c-Myc proteolysis. In addition, NPM is necessary for the ability of c-Myc to induce rRNA synthesis in the nucleolus, and constitutive NPM overexpression stimulates c-Myc-mediated rRNA synthesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate an essential role for NPM in c-Myc nucleolar localization and c-Myc-mediated rDNA transcription.
Project description:Nucleostemin (NS) is expressed in the nucleoli of adult and embryonic stem cells and in many tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, nucleostemin is recovered with the tumor suppressor p53, and more recently we have demonstrated that nucleostemin exerts its role in cell cycle progression via a p53-dependent pathway. Here, we report that in human osteosarcoma cells, nucleostemin interacts with nucleophosmin, a nucleolar protein believed to possess oncogenic potential. Nucleostemin (NS) and nucleophosmin (NPM) displayed an extremely high degree of colocalization in the granular component of the nucleolus during interphase, and both proteins associated with prenucleolar bodies in late mitosis before the reformation of nucleoli. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that NS and NPM co-reside in complexes, and yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed that they are interactive proteins, revealing the NPM-interactive region to be the 46-amino acid N-terminal domain of NS. In bimolecular fluorescence complementation studies, bright nucleolar signals were observed, indicating that these two proteins directly interact in the nucleolus in vivo. These results support the notion that cell cycle regulatory proteins congress and interact in the nucleolus, adding to the emerging concept that this nuclear domain has functions beyond ribosome production.
Project description:Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a multifunctional nucleolar protein that has been linked with nucleolar stress. In non-neuronal cell lines, NPM may enhance or inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor p53, a major apoptotic protein. The relationship between NPM and p53 in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Here, we assessed the role of NPM in the CNS using a model of seizure-induced neurodegeneration. We show that NPM overexpression is neuroprotective against kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity, and that downregulation of NPM is pro-apoptotic in a p53-independent manner. These results suggest a key role for NPM in promoting neuronal survival and a novel mechanism of neuronal degeneration triggered by nucleolar stress.
Project description:The building of nuclear bodies after mitosis is a coordinated event crucial for nuclear organization and function. The nucleolus is assembled during early G(1) phase. Here, two periods (early G1a and early G1b) have been defined. During these periods, the nucleolar compartments (DFC, GC) corresponding to different steps of ribosome biogenesis are progressively assembled. In telophase, rDNA transcription is first activated and PNBs (reservoirs of nucleolar processing proteins) are formed. The traffic of the processing proteins between incipient nucleoli and PNBs was analyzed using photoactivation. We demonstrate that the DFC protein fibrillarin passes from one incipient nucleolus to other nucleoli but not to PNBs, and that the GC proteins, B23/NPM and Nop52, shuttle between PNBs and incipient nucleoli. This difference in traffic suggests a way of regulating assembly first of DFC and then of GC. The time of residency of GC proteins is high in incipient nucleoli compared to interphase nuclei, it decreases in LMB-treated early G1a cells impairing the assembly of GC. Because the assembly of the nucleolus and that of the Cajal body at the exit from mitosis are both sensitive to CRM1 activity, we discuss the fact that assembly of GC and/or its interaction with DFC in early G1a depends on shuttling between PNBs and NORs in a manner dependent on Cajal body assembly.
Project description:Nucleoli are composed of possibly several thousand different proteins and represent the most conspicuous compartments in the nucleus; they play a crucial role in the proper execution of many cellular processes. As such, nucleoli carry out ribosome biogenesis and sequester or associate with key molecules that regulate cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, apoptosis and the stress response. Nucleoli are dynamic compartments that are characterized by a constant flux of macromolecules. Given the complex and dynamic composition of the nucleolar proteome, it is challenging to link modifications in nucleolar composition to downstream effects.In this contribution, we present quantitative immunofluorescence methods that rely on computer-based image analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these techniques by monitoring the dynamic association of proteins and RNA with nucleoli under different physiological conditions. Thus, the protocols described by us were employed to study stress-dependent changes in the nucleolar concentration of endogenous and GFP-tagged proteins. Furthermore, our methods were applied to measure de novo RNA synthesis that is associated with nucleoli. We show that the techniques described here can be easily combined with automated high throughput screening (HTS) platforms, making it possible to obtain large data sets and analyze many of the biological processes that are located in nucleoli.Our protocols set the stage to analyze in a quantitative fashion the kinetics of shuttling nucleolar proteins, both at the single cell level as well as for a large number of cells. Moreover, the procedures described here are compatible with high throughput image acquisition and analysis using HTS automated platforms, thereby providing the basis to quantify nucleolar components and activities for numerous samples and experimental conditions. Together with the growing amount of information obtained for the nucleolar proteome, improvements in quantitative microscopy as they are described here can be expected to produce new insights into the complex biological functions that are orchestrated by the nucleolus.
Project description:Hsc70s are constitutively synthesized members of the 70-kDa chaperone family; they are essential for viability and conserved among all organisms. When eukaryotic cells recover from stress, hsc70s accumulate in nucleoli by an unknown mechanism. Our studies were undertaken to characterize the signaling events and the targeting sequence required to concentrate hsc70 in the nucleoli of human cells. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and MEK kinases as well as protein-tyrosine phosphatases abolished the stress-dependent nucleolar accumulation of hsc70. Furthermore, to identify the hsc70 nucleolar targeting sequence, green fluorescent protein-tagged fusion proteins with defined segments of hsc70 were generated and their subcellular distribution was analyzed in growing cells. These studies demonstrated that residues 225 to 297 serve as a heat-inducible nucleolar targeting signal. This segment directs green fluorescent protein to nucleoli in response to stress, but fails to do so under nonstress conditions. Fine mapping of the nucleolar targeting signal revealed that it has two separable functions. First, residues 225 to 262 direct reporter proteins constitutively to nucleoli, even without stress. Second, segment 263 to 287 functions as an autoinhibitory element that prevents hsc70 from concentrating in nucleoli when cells are not stressed. Taken together, PI 3-kinase and MEK kinase signaling as well as tyrosine dephosphorylation are essential for the accumulation of hsc70 in nucleoli of stressed cells. This process relies on a stress-dependent composite targeting signal that combines multiple functions.
Project description:Nucleoli have attracted interest for their role as cellular stress sensors and as potential targets for cancer treatment. The effect of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in nucleoli on rRNA transcription and nucleolar organisation appears to depend on the agent used to introduce DSBs, DSB frequency and the presence (or not) of DSBs outside the nucleoli. To address the controversy, we targeted nucleoli with carbon ions at the ion microbeam SNAKE. Localized ion irradiation with 1-100 carbon ions per point (about 0.3-30 Gy per nucleus) did not lead to overall reduced ribonucleotide incorporation in the targeted nucleolus or other nucleoli of the same cell. However, both 5-ethynyluridine incorporation and Parp1 protein levels were locally decreased at the damaged nucleolar chromatin regions marked by γH2AX, suggesting localized inhibition of rRNA transcription. This locally restricted transcriptional inhibition was not accompanied by nucleolar segregation, a structural reorganisation observed after inhibition of rRNA transcription by treatment with actinomycin D or UV irradiation. The presented data indicate that even multiple complex DSBs do not lead to a pan-nucleolar response if they affect only a subnucleolar region.
Project description:Various cellular stresses activate autophagy, which is involved in lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic materials for maintaining nutrient homeostasis and eliminating harmful components. Here, we show that RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription inhibition induces nucleolar disruption and autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors or siRNA specific for autophagy-related (ATG) proteins inhibited autophagy but not nucleolar disruption induced by Pol I transcription inhibition, which suggested that nucleolar disruption was upstream of autophagy. Furthermore, treatment with siRNA specific for nucleolar protein nucleophosmin (NPM) inhibited this type of autophagy. This showed that NPM was involved in autophagy when the nucleolus was disrupted by Pol I inhibition. In contrast, NPM was not required for canonical autophagy induced by nutrient starvation, as it was not accompanied by nucleolar disruption. Thus, our results revealed that, in addition to canonical autophagy, there may be NPM-dependent autophagy associated with nucleolar disruption.