Sonochemistry and sonoluminescence in microfluidics.
ABSTRACT: One way to focus the diffuse energy of a sound field in a liquid is by acoustically driving bubbles into nonlinear oscillation. A rapid and nearly adiabatic bubble collapse heats up the bubble interior and produces intense concentration of energy that is able to emit light (sonoluminescence) and to trigger chemical reactions (sonochemistry). Such phenomena have been extensively studied in bulk liquid. We present here a realization of sonoluminescence and sonochemistry created from bubbles confined within a narrow channel of polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic devices. In the microfluidics channels, the bubbles form a planar/pancake shape. During bubble collapse we find the formation of OH radicals and the emission of light. The chemical reactions are closely confined to gas-liquid interfaces that allow for spatial control of sonochemical reactions in lab-on-a-chip devices. The decay time of the light emitted from the sonochemical reaction is several orders faster than that in the bulk liquid. Multibubble sonoluminescence emission in contrast vanishes immediately as the sound field is stopped.
Project description:Sonochemistry, i.e., the application of mechanical energy in the form of sound waves, has recently been recognised for its similarity to mechanochemistry and is now included under the umbrella term of mechanochemistry. Typically, due to the hypothesised cavitation mechanism, a liquid medium is considered as a necessity for a process to take place as a result of ultrasonic irradiation. In view of this, condensation reactions between solid reagents in the complete absence of solvent were carried out successfully by ultrasonic irradiation with the importance of particle size being highlighted. This work increases the potential of sonochemistry in the drive towards a sustainable future.
Project description:Sonochemical (SC) processes can be increased with the application of fluid flow due to changes in bubble characteristics. In this work, a novel flow through set-up was applied to an ultrasonic horn system to investigate the effects of flow on the degradation of phenol. KI dosimetry and sonochemiluminescence (SCL) were also analysed, under the same conditions, to provide comparison of degradation to other SC processes. Further, sonoluminescence (SL) in water and different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI) and phenol solutions was studied to determine the effect of flow on processes inside the bubble that result in SL. The degradation of 0.1 mM phenol solutions, KI dosimetry and SL from phenol (0.1, 20 and 60 mM) and KI (0.1, 1 and 2 M) solutions were analysed under flow rates of 0, 24, 228 and 626 mL/min. For an ultrasonic horn system, all flow rates could augment phenol degradation beyond that of the systems without flow. At the lowest applied power, the amount of degradation was significantly increased with flow, becoming greater than degradation observed at the highest power. A strong correlation between phenol degradation and SC processes indicated that degradation followed an oxidative process. SL intensity from water, KI, and phenol solutions could also be increased with flow beyond the no flow system. For water this occurred most readily at higher powers, then for the solutes there was varied behaviour dependent upon the solute concentration. It was theorised that flow may increase the transfer of radical species to solution to enhance SC processes. An increase in SL, with flow, indicates that flow is acting to change the properties of the bubbles and/or the bubble field such that the active bubbles present collapse with greater total intensity.
Project description:Bubbles excited by lithotripter shock waves undergo a prolonged growth followed by an inertial collapse and rebounds. In addition to the relevance for clinical lithotripsy treatments, such bubbles can be used to study the mechanics of inertial collapses. In particular, both phase change and diffusion among vapor and noncondensable gas molecules inside the bubble are known to alter the collapse dynamics of individual bubbles. Accordingly, the role of heat and mass transport during inertial collapses is explored by experimentally observing the collapses and rebounds of lithotripsy bubbles for water temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 °C and dissolved gas concentrations from 10 to 85% of saturation. Bubble responses were characterized through high-speed photography and acoustic measurements that identified the timing of individual bubble collapses. Maximum bubble diameters before and after collapse were estimated and the corresponding ratio of volumes was used to estimate the fraction of energy retained by the bubble through collapse. The rebounds demonstrated statistically significant dependencies on both dissolved gas concentration and temperature. In many observations, liquid jets indicating asymmetric bubble collapses were visible. Bubble rebounds were sensitive to these asymmetries primarily for water conditions corresponding to the most dissipative collapses.
Project description:The articular release of the metacarpophalangeal joint produces a typical cracking sound, resulting in what is commonly referred to as the cracking of knuckles. Despite over sixty years of research, the source of the knuckle cracking sound continues to be debated due to inconclusive experimental evidence as a result of limitations in the temporal resolution of non-invasive physiological imaging techniques. To support the available experimental data and shed light onto the source of the cracking sound, we have developed a mathematical model of the events leading to the generation of the sound. The model resolves the dynamics of a collapsing cavitation bubble in the synovial fluid inside a metacarpophalangeal joint during an articular release. The acoustic signature from the resulting bubble dynamics is shown to be consistent in both magnitude and dominant frequency with experimental measurements in the literature and with our own experiments, thus lending support for cavitation bubble collapse as the source of the cracking sound. Finally, the model also shows that only a partial collapse of the bubble is needed to replicate the experimentally observed acoustic spectra, thus allowing for bubbles to persist following the generation of sound as has been reported in recent experiments.
Project description:The intense conditions generated in the core of a collapsing bubble have been the subject of intense scrutiny from fields as diverse as marine biology and nuclear fusion. In particular, the phenomenon of sonoluminescence, whereby a collapsing bubble emits light, has received significant attention. Sonoluminescence has been associated predominantly with millimeter-sized bubbles excited at low frequencies and under conditions far removed from those associated with the use of ultrasound in medicine. In this study, however, we demonstrate that sonoluminescence is produced under medically relevant exposure conditions by microbubbles commonly used as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. This provides a mechanistic explanation for the somewhat controversial reports of "sonodynamic" therapy, in which light-sensitive drugs have been shown to be activated by ultrasound-induced cavitation. To illustrate this, we demonstrate the activation of a photodynamic therapy agent using microbubbles and ultrasound. Since ultrasound can be accurately focused at large tissue depths, this opens up the potential for generating light at locations that cannot be reached by external sources. This could be exploited both for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, significantly increasing the range of applications that are currently restricted by the limited penetration of light in the tissue.
Project description:Histotripsy is a non-invasive ultrasonic ablation method that uses cavitation to mechanically fractionate tissue into acellular debris. With a sufficient number of pulses, histotripsy can completely fractionate tissue into a liquid-appearing homogenate with no cellular structures. The location, shape and size of lesion formation closely match those of the cavitation cloud. Previous work has led to the hypothesis that the rapid expansion and collapse of histotripsy bubbles fractionate tissue by inducing large stress and strain on the tissue structures immediately adjacent to the bubbles. In the work described here, the histotripsy bulk tissue fractionation process is visualized at the cellular level for the first time using a custom-built 2-MHz transducer incorporated into a microscope stage. A layer of breast cancer cells were cultured within an optically transparent fibrin-based gel phantom to mimic cells inside a 3-D extracellular matrix. To test the hypothesis, the cellular response to single and multiple histotripsy pulses was investigated using high-speed optical imaging. Bubbles were always generated in the extracellular space, and significant cell displacement/deformation was observed for cells directly adjacent to the bubble during both bubble expansion and collapse. The largest displacements were observed during collapse for cells immediately adjacent to the bubble, with cells moving more than 150-300 ?m in less than 100 ?s. Cells often underwent multiple large deformations (>150% strain) over multiple pulses, resulting in the bisection of cells multiple times before complete removal. To provide theoretical support to the experimental observations, a numerical simulation was conducted using a single-bubble model, which indicated that histotripsy exerts the largest strains and cell displacements in the regions immediately adjacent to the bubble. The experimental and simulation results support our hypothesis, which helps to explain the formation of the sharp lesions formed in histotripsy therapy localized to the regions directly exposed to the bubbles.
Project description:In order to improve the stability of air bubbles in fresh concrete, it is of great significance to have a better understanding of the mechanisms and main influencing factors of bubble stability. In the present review, the formation and collapse process of air bubbles in fresh concrete are essentially detailed; and the advances of major influencing factors of bubble stability are summarized. The results show that the surface tension of air-liquid interface exerts a huge impact on bubble stability by reducing surface free energy and Plateau drainage, as well as increasing the Gibbs surface elasticity. However, surface tension may not be the only determinant of bubble stability. Both the strength of bubble film and the diffusion rate of air through the membrane may also dominate bubble stability. The application of nano-silica is a current trend and plays a key role in ameliorating bubble stability. The foam stability could be increased by 6 times when the mass fraction of nano-particle reached 1.5%.
Project description:When illuminated by a laser, plasmonic nanoparticles immersed in water can very quickly and strongly heat up, leading to the nucleation of so-called plasmonic vapor bubbles. While the long-time behavior of such bubbles has been well-studied, here, using ultrahigh-speed imaging, we reveal the nucleation and early life phase of these bubbles. After some delay time from the beginning of the illumination, a giant bubble explosively grows, and collapses again within 200 ?s (bubble life phase 1). The maximal bubble volume [Formula: see text] remarkably increases with decreasing laser power, leading to less total dumped energy E. This dumped energy shows a universal linear scaling relation with [Formula: see text], irrespective of the gas concentration of the surrounding water. This finding supports that the initial giant bubble is a pure vapor bubble. In contrast, the delay time does depend on the gas concentration of the water, as gas pockets in the water facilitate an earlier vapor bubble nucleation, which leads to smaller delay times and lower bubble nucleation temperatures. After the collapse of the initial giant bubbles, first, much smaller oscillating bubbles form out of the remaining gas nuclei (bubble life phase 2). Subsequently, the known vaporization dominated growth phase takes over, and the bubble stabilizes (life phase 3). In the final life phase 4, the bubble slowly grows by gas expelling due to heating of the surrounding. Our findings on the explosive growth and collapse during the early life phase of a plasmonic vapor bubble have strong bearings on possible applications of such bubbles.
Project description:This study investigates whether multiple bubbles exist in the copper price on the basis of the Generalized Supremum Augmented Dickey-Fuller (GSADF) approach (Phillips et al., 2013). This technique delivers date-stamping strategies for the emergence as well as collapse of explosive bubble episodes and is best suited for practical application to time series. The results reveal that four explosive bubbles are detected over the period of 1980–2019 when copper price deviates from fundamental value. Besides, this finding is in accordance with the asset pricing model (Gürkaynak, 2008), which generally considers both fundamental and bubble components in the presence of asset prices. Based on the empirical results, the multiple emergence and collapse of multiple price bubbles are attributed to speculation, depreciation of the U.S. dollar, an imbalance between supply and demand, and financial crises. Policymakers should actively recognize bubble episodes and monitor their evolution, which could be conducive to achieving the effective stabilization of the international copper price. To reduce excess price fluctuations and explosive copper bubbles, authorities should impose restrictions on excessive speculative behaviors under extreme market conditions. Highlights • Investigate whether multiple bubbles exist in copper price.• On the basis of Generalized Supremum Augmented Dickey-Fuller (GSADF) approach.• Four explosive bubbles are detected over the sample period when copper price deviates from fundamental value.• Causes of exuberance and collapse of multiple price bubbles are investigated.
Project description:In wet liquid foams, slow diffusion of gas through bubble walls changes bubble pressure, volume and wall curvature. Large bubbles grow at the expenses of smaller ones. The smaller the bubble, the faster it shrinks. As the number of bubbles in a given volume decreases in time, the average bubble size increases: i.e. the foam coarsens. During coarsening, bubbles also move relative to each other, changing bubble topology and shape, while liquid moves within the regions separating the bubbles. Analyzing the combined effects of these mechanisms requires examining a volume with enough bubbles to provide appropriate statistics throughout coarsening. Using a Cellular Potts model, we simulate these mechanisms during the evolution of three-dimensional foams with wetnesses of ? = 0.00, 0.05 and 0.20. We represent the liquid phase as an ensemble of many small fluid particles, which allows us to monitor liquid flow in the region between bubbles. The simulations begin with 2 × 105 bubbles for ? = 0.00 and 1.25 × 105 bubbles for ? = 0.05 and 0.20, allowing us to track the distribution functions for bubble size, topology and growth rate over two and a half decades of volume change. All simulations eventually reach a self-similar growth regime, with the distribution functions time independent and the number of bubbles decreasing with time as a power law whose exponent depends on the wetness.