14-3-3 Proteins regulate exonuclease 1-dependent processing of stalled replication forks.
ABSTRACT: Replication fork integrity, which is essential for the maintenance of genome stability, is monitored by checkpoint-mediated phosphorylation events. 14-3-3 proteins are able to bind phosphorylated proteins and were shown to play an undefined role under DNA replication stress. Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) processes stalled replication forks in checkpoint-defective yeast cells. We now identify 14-3-3 proteins as in vivo interaction partners of Exo1, both in yeast and mammalian cells. Yeast 14-3-3-deficient cells fail to induce Mec1-dependent Exo1 hyperphosphorylation and accumulate Exo1-dependent ssDNA gaps at stalled forks, as revealed by electron microscopy. This leads to persistent checkpoint activation and exacerbated recovery defects. Moreover, using DNA bi-dimensional electrophoresis, we show that 14-3-3 proteins promote fork progression under limiting nucleotide concentrations. We propose that 14-3-3 proteins assist in controlling the phosphorylation status of Exo1 and additional unknown targets, promoting fork progression, stability, and restart in response to DNA replication stress.
Project description:Paused or stalled replication forks are major threats to genome integrity; unraveling the complex pathways that contribute to fork stability and restart is crucial. Experimentally, fork stalling is induced by growing the cells in presence of hydroxyurea (HU), which depletes the pool of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and slows down replication progression in yeast. Here, I report an epistasis analysis, based on sensitivity to HU, between CLB2, the principal mitotic cyclin gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and genes involved in fork stability and recombination. clb2? cells are not sensitive to HU, but the strong synergistic effect of clb2? with most genes tested indicates, unexpectedly, that CLB2 has an important role in DNA replication, in the stability and restart of stalled forks, and in pathways dependent on and independent of homologous recombination. Results indicate that CLB2 functions in parallel with the SGS1 helicase and EXO1 exonuclease to allow proper Rad51 recombination, but also regulates a combined Sgs1-Exo1 activity in a pathway dependent on Mec1 and Rad53 checkpoint protein kinases. The data argue that Mec1 regulates Clb2 to prevent a deleterious Sgs1-Exo1 activity at paused or stalled forks, whereas Rad53 checkpoint activation regulates Clb2 to allow a necessary Sgs1-Exo1 activity at stalled or collapsed forks. Altogether, this study indicates that Clb2 regulates the activity of numerous nucleases at single-stranded gaps created by DNA replication. A model is proposed for the function and regulation of Clb2 at stalled forks. These data provide new perspectives on the role of mitotic cyclins at the end of S phase.
Project description:Problems during DNA replication underlie genomic instability and drive malignant transformation. The DNA damage checkpoint stabilizes stalled replication forks thus counteracting aberrant fork transitions, DNA breaks and chromosomal rearrangements. We analyzed fork processing in checkpoint deficient cells by coupling psoralen crosslinking with replication intermediate two-dimensional gel analysis. This revealed a novel role for Exo1 nuclease in resecting reversed replication fork structures and counteracting the accumulation of aberrant intermediates resembling fork cleavage products. Genetic analyses demonstrated a functional interplay of Exo1 with Mus81, Dna2 and Sae2 nucleases in promoting cell survival following replication stress, suggestive of concerted nucleolytic processing of stalled forks. While Mus81 and other Structure Specific Endonucleases do not contribute to obvious collapsed fork transitions, Dna2 promotes reversed fork resection likely by facilitating Exo1 access to nascent strands. Instead, Sae2 cooperates with Exo1 in counteracting putative fork cleavage events linked to double strand breaks formation and increased gross chromosomal rearrangement rates. Our data indicate that in checkpoint deficient cells diverse nuclease activities interface to eliminate aberrant replication intermediates and prevent chromosome instability.
Project description:Polymerase-blocking DNA lesions are thought to elicit a checkpoint response via accumulation of single-stranded DNA at stalled replication forks. However, as an alternative to persistent fork stalling, re-priming downstream of lesions can give rise to daughter-strand gaps behind replication forks. We show here that the processing of such structures by an exonuclease, Exo1, is required for timely checkpoint activation, which in turn prevents further gap erosion in S phase. This Rad9-dependent mechanism of damage signaling is distinct from the Mrc1-dependent, fork-associated response to replication stress induced by conditions such as nucleotide depletion or replisome-inherent problems, but reminiscent of replication-independent checkpoint activation by single-stranded DNA Our results indicate that while replisome stalling triggers a checkpoint response directly at the stalled replication fork, the response to replication stress elicited by polymerase-blocking lesions mainly emanates from Exo1-processed, postreplicative daughter-strand gaps, thus offering a mechanistic explanation for the dichotomy between replisome- versus template-induced checkpoint signaling.
Project description:The S phase checkpoint is crucial to maintain genome stability under conditions that threaten DNA replication. One of its critical functions is to prevent Exo1-dependent fork degradation, and Exo1 is phosphorylated in response to different genotoxic agents. Exo1 seemed to be regulated by several post-translational modifications in the presence of replicative stress, but the specific contribution of checkpoint-dependent phosphorylation to Exo1 control and fork stability is not clear. We show here that Exo1 phosphorylation is Dun1-independent and Rad53-dependent in response to DNA damage or dNTP depletion, and in both situations Exo1 is similarly phosphorylated at multiple sites. To investigate the correlation between Exo1 phosphorylation and fork stability, we have generated phospho-mimic exo1 alleles that rescue fork collapse in rad53 mutants as efficiently as exo1-nuclease dead mutants or the absence of Exo1, arguing that Rad53-dependent phosphorylation is the mayor requirement to preserve fork stability. We have also shown that this rescue is Bmh1-2 independent, arguing that the 14-3-3 proteins are dispensable for fork stabilization, at least when Exo1 is downregulated. Importantly, our results indicated that phosphorylation specifically inhibits the 5' to 3'exo-nuclease activity, suggesting that this activity of Exo1 and not the flap-endonuclease, is the enzymatic activity responsible of the collapse of stalled replication forks in checkpoint mutants.
Project description:DNA replication forks that are stalled by DNA damage activate an S-phase checkpoint that prevents irreversible fork arrest and cell death. The increased cell death caused by DNA damage in budding yeast cells lacking the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase is partially suppressed by deletion of the EXO1 gene. Using a whole-genome sequencing approach, we identified two additional genes, RXT2 and RPH1, whose mutation can also partially suppress this DNA damage sensitivity. We provide evidence that RXT2 and RPH1 act in a common pathway, which is distinct from the EXO1 pathway. Analysis of additional mutants indicates that suppression works through the loss of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex. Our results suggest that the loss or absence of histone acetylation, perhaps at stalled forks, may contribute to cell death in the absence of a functional checkpoint.
Project description:CDC7-DBF4 kinase (DDK) initiates DNA replication in eukaryotes by activating the replicative MCM helicase. DDK has diverse and apparently conflicting roles in the replication checkpoint response in various organisms, but the underlying mechanisms are far from settled. We show that human DDK promotes limited resection of newly synthesized DNA at stalled replication forks or sites of DNA damage to initiate replication checkpoint signaling. DDK is also required for efficient fork restart and G2/M cell cycle arrest. DDK exhibits genetic interactions with the ssDNA exonuclease EXO1 and phosphorylates EXO1 in vitro. EXO1 is also required for nascent strand degradation following exposure to HU, so DDK might regulate EXO1 directly. Lastly, sublethal DDK inhibition causes various mitotic abnormalities, which is consistent with a checkpoint deficiency. In summary, DDK has a primary and previously undescribed role in the replication checkpoint to promote ssDNA accumulation at stalled forks, which is required to initiate a robust checkpoint response and cell cycle arrest to maintain genome integrity.
Project description:The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is crucial to regulate DNA replication in the presence of replicative stress. Under conditions that interfere with the progression of replication forks, Rad53 prevents Exo1-dependent fork degradation. However, although EXO1 deletion avoids fork degradation in rad53 mutants, it does not suppress their sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU). In this case, the inability to restart stalled forks is likely to account for the lethality of rad53 mutant cells after replication blocks. Here we show that Rad53 regulates replication restart through the checkpoint-dependent transcriptional response, and more specifically, through RNR induction. Thus, in addition to preventing fork degradation, Rad53 prevents cell death in the presence of HU by regulating RNR-expression and localization. When RNR is induced in the absence of Exo1 and RNR negative regulators, cell viability of rad53 mutants treated with HU is increased and the ability of replication forks to restart after replicative stress is restored.
Project description:Genetic instability, a hallmark of cancer, can occur when the replication machinery encounters a barrier. The intra-S-phase checkpoint maintains stalled replication forks in a replication-competent configuration by phosphorylating replisome components and DNA repair proteins to prevent forks from catastrophically collapsing. Here, we report a novel function of the core Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint sensor kinase, Rad3 (an ATR orthologue), that is independent of Chk1 and Cds1 (a CHK2 orthologue); Rad3(ATR) regulates the association of recombination factors with collapsed forks, thus limiting their genetic instability. We further reveal antagonistic roles for Rad3(ATR) and the 9-1-1 clamp - Rad3(ATR) restrains MRN- and Exo1-dependent resection, whereas the 9-1-1 complex promotes Exo1 activity. Interestingly, the MRN complex, but not its nuclease activity, promotes resection and the subsequent association of recombination factors at collapsed forks. The biological significance of this regulation is revealed by the observation that Rad3(ATR) prevents Exo1-dependent genome instability upstream of a collapsed fork without affecting the efficiency of recombination-mediated replication restart. We propose that the interplay between Rad3(ATR) and the 9-1-1 clamp functions to fine-tune the balance between the need for the recovery of replication through recombination and the risk of increased genome instability.
Project description:The coordination of DNA unwinding and synthesis at replication forks promotes efficient and faithful replication of chromosomal DNA. Disruption of the balance between helicase and polymerase activities during replication stress leads to fork progression defects and activation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase, which is essential for the functional maintenance of stalled replication forks. The mechanism of Rad53-dependent fork stabilization is not known. Using reconstituted budding yeast replisomes, we show that mutational inactivation of the leading strand DNA polymerase, Pol ?, dNTP depletion, and chemical inhibition of DNA polymerases cause excessive DNA unwinding by the replicative DNA helicase, CMG, demonstrating that budding yeast replisomes lack intrinsic mechanisms that control helicase-polymerase coupling at the fork. Importantly, we find that the Rad53 kinase restricts excessive DNA unwinding at replication forks by limiting CMG helicase activity, suggesting a mechanism for fork stabilization by the replication checkpoint.
Project description:The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex plays essential, conserved roles throughout DNA synthesis: first, as a component of the prereplication complex at origins and, then, as a helicase associated with replication forks. Here we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model to demonstrate a role for the MCM complex in protecting replication fork structure and promoting recovery from replication arrest. Loss of MCM function generates lethal double-strand breaks at sites of DNA synthesis during replication elongation, suggesting replication fork collapse. MCM function also maintains the stability of forks stalled by hydroxyurea that activate the replication checkpoint. In cells where the checkpoint is activated, Mcm4 binds the Cds1 kinase and undergoes Cds1-dependent phosphorylation. MCM proteins also interact with proteins involved in homologous recombination, which promotes recovery from arrest by ensuring normal mitosis. We suggest that the MCM complex links replication fork stabilization with checkpoint arrest and recovery through direct interactions with checkpoint and recombination proteins and that this role in S-phase genome stability is conserved from yeast to human cells.