Mitotic centromeric targeting of HP1 and its binding to Sgo1 are dispensable for sister-chromatid cohesion in human cells.
ABSTRACT: Human Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) protects centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion during prophase and prevents premature sister-chromatid separation. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) has been proposed to protect centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion by directly targeting Sgo1 to centromeres in mitosis. Here we show that HP1? is targeted to mitotic centromeres by INCENP, a subunit of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC). Biochemical and structural studies show that both HP1-INCENP and HP1-Sgo1 interactions require the binding of the HP1 chromo shadow domain to PXVXL/I motifs in INCENP or Sgo1, suggesting that the INCENP-bound, centromeric HP1? is incapable of recruiting Sgo1. Consistently, a Sgo1 mutant deficient in HP1 binding is functional in centromeric cohesion protection and localizes normally to centromeres in mitosis. By contrast, INCENP or Sgo1 mutants deficient in HP1 binding fail to localize to centromeres in interphase. Therefore, our results suggest that HP1 binding by INCENP or Sgo1 is dispensable for centromeric cohesion protection during mitosis of human cells, but might regulate yet uncharacterized interphase functions of CPC or Sgo1 at the centromeres.
Project description:The inner centromere region of a mitotic chromosome critically regulates sister chromatid cohesion and kinetochore-microtubule attachments. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inner centromere assembly remains elusive. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing in HeLa cells, we disrupted the interaction of Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) with histone H2A phosphorylated on Thr-120 (H2ApT120) to selectively release Sgo1 from mitotic centromeres. Interestingly, cells expressing the H2ApT120-binding defective mutant of Sgo1 have an elevated rate of chromosome missegregation accompanied by weakened centromeric cohesion and decreased centromere accumulation of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), an integral part of the inner centromere and a key player in the correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments. When artificially tethered to centromeres, a Sgo1 mutant defective in binding protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is not able to support proper centromeric cohesion and CPC accumulation, indicating that the Sgo1-PP2A interaction is essential for the integrity of mitotic centromeres. We further provide evidence indicating that Sgo1 protects centromeric cohesin to create a binding site for the histone H3-associated protein kinase Haspin, which not only inhibits the cohesin release factor Wapl and thereby strengthens centromeric cohesion but also phosphorylates histone H3 at Thr-3 to position CPC at inner centromeres. Taken together, our findings reveal a positive feedback-based mechanism that ensures proper assembly of the functional inner centromere during mitosis. They further suggest a causal link between centromeric cohesion defects and chromosomal instability in cancer cells.
Project description:Sister chromatids in mammalian cells remain attached mostly at their centromeres at metaphase because of the loss of cohesion along chromosome arms in prophase. Here, we report that Bub1 retains centromeric cohesion in mitosis of human cells. Depletion of Bub1 or Shugoshin (Sgo1) in HeLa cells by RNA interference causes massive missegregation of sister chromatids that originates at centromeres. Surprisingly, loss of chromatid cohesion in Bub1 and Sgo1 RNA-interference cells does not appear to require the full activation of separase but, instead, triggers a mitotic arrest that depends on Mad2 and Aurora B. Bub1 maintains the steady-state levels and centromeric localization of Sgo1. Therefore, Bub1 protects centromeric cohesion through Shugoshin in mitosis.
Project description:Heterochromatin protein-1 (HP1) is a key component of heterochromatin. Reminiscent of the cohesin complex which mediates sister-chromatid cohesion, most HP1 proteins in mammalian cells are displaced from chromosome arms during mitotic entry, whereas a pool remains at the heterochromatic centromere region. The function of HP1 at mitotic centromeres remains largely elusive. Here, we show that double knockout (DKO) of HP1? and HP1? causes defective mitosis progression and weakened centromeric cohesion. While mutating the chromoshadow domain (CSD) prevents HP1? from protecting sister-chromatid cohesion, centromeric targeting of HP1? CSD alone is sufficient to rescue the cohesion defects in HP1 DKO cells. Interestingly, HP1-dependent cohesion protection requires Haspin, an antagonist of the cohesin-releasing factor Wapl. Moreover, HP1? CSD directly binds the N-terminal region of Haspin and facilitates its centromeric localization. The need for HP1 in cohesion protection can be bypassed by centromeric targeting of Haspin or inhibiting Wapl activity. Taken together, these results reveal a redundant role for HP1? and HP1? in the protection of centromeric cohesion through promoting Haspin localization at mitotic centromeres in mammalian cells.
Project description:Timely dissolution of sister-chromatid cohesion in mitosis ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. The complex of shugoshin and protein phosphatase 2A (SGO1-PP2A) protects cohesin at centromeres from premature removal by mitotic kinases and WAPL in prophase. Here we address the regulation and mechanism of human SGO1 in centromeric cohesion protection, and show that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-mediated, mitosis-specific phosphorylation of SGO1 activates its cohesion-protection function and enables its direct binding to cohesin. The phospho-SGO1-bound cohesin complex contains PP2A, PDS5 and hypophosphorylated sororin, but lacks WAPL. Expression of non-phosphorylatable sororin bypasses the requirement for SGO1-PP2A in centromeric cohesion. Thus, mitotic phosphorylation of SGO1 targets SGO1-PP2A to cohesin, promotes dephosphorylation of PDS5-bound sororin and protects centromeric cohesin from WAPL. PP2A-orchestrated, site-selective dephosphorylation of cohesin and its regulators underlies centromeric cohesion protection.
Project description:Proper sister chromatid cohesion is critical for maintaining genetic stability. San is a putative acetyltransferase that is important for sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster, but not in budding yeast. We showed that San is critical for sister chromatid cohesion in HeLa cells, suggesting that this mechanism may be conserved in metazoans. Furthermore, although a small fraction of San interacts with the NatA complex, San appears to mediate cohesion independently. San exhibits acetyltransferase activity in vitro, and its activity is required for sister chromatid cohesion in vivo. In the absence of San, Sgo1 localizes correctly throughout the cell cycle. However, cohesin is no longer detected at the mitotic centromeres. Furthermore, San localizes to the cytoplasm in interphase cells; thus, it may not gain access to chromosomes until mitosis. Moreover, in San-depleted cells, further depletion of Plk1 rescues the cohesion along the chromosome arms, but not at the centromeres. Collectively, San may be specifically required for the maintenance of the centromeric cohesion in mitosis.
Project description:Proper regulation of centromeric cohesion is required for faithful chromosome segregation that prevents chromosomal instability. Extensive studies have identified and established the conserved protein Shugoshin (Sgo1/2) as an essential protector for centromeric cohesion. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) protects centromeric cohesion at the molecular level. Targeting of Sgo1 to inner centromeres is required for its proper function of cohesion protection. We therefore discuss about the molecular mechanisms that install Sgo1 onto inner centromeres. At metaphase-to-anaphase transition, Sgo1 at inner centromeres needs to be disabled for the subsequent sister-chromatid segregation. A few recent studies suggest interesting models to explain how it is achieved. These models are discussed as well.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is directed to centromeres during mitosis via binding to H3T3ph and Sgo1. Whether and how heterochromatin protein 1? (HP1?) influences CPC localisation and function during mitotic entry is less clear. Here, we alter HP1? dynamics by fusing it to a CENP-B DNA-binding domain. Tethered HP1 strongly recruits the CPC, destabilising kinetochore-microtubule interactions and activating the spindle assembly checkpoint. During mitotic exit, the tethered HP1 traps active CPC at centromeres. These HP1-CPC clusters remain catalytically active throughout the subsequent cell cycle. We also detect interactions between endogenous HP1 and the CPC during G2 HP1? and HP1? cooperate to recruit the CPC to active foci in a CDK1-independent process. Live cell tracking with Fab fragments reveals that H3S10ph appears well before H3T3 is phosphorylated by Haspin kinase. Our results suggest that HP1 may concentrate and activate the CPC at centromeric heterochromatin in G2 before Aurora B-mediated phosphorylation of H3S10 releases HP1 from chromatin and allows pathways dependent on H3T3ph and Sgo1 to redirect the CPC to mitotic centromeres.
Project description:The different regulation of sister chromatid cohesion at centromeres and along chromosome arms is obvious during meiosis, because centromeric cohesion, but not arm cohesion, persists throughout anaphase of the first division. A protein required to protect centromeric cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage has been identified and named shugoshin (or Sgo1) after shugoshin ("guardian spirit" in Japanese). It has become apparent that shugoshin shows marginal homology with Drosophila Mei-S332 and several uncharacterized proteins in other eukaryotic organisms. Because Mei-S332 is a protein previously shown to be required for centromeric cohesion in meiosis, it is now established that shugoshin represents a conserved protein family defined as a centromeric protector of Rec8 cohesin complexes in meiosis. The regional difference of sister chromatid cohesion is also observed during mitosis in vertebrates; the cohesion is much more robust at the centromere at metaphase, where it antagonizes the pulling force of spindle microtubules that attach the kinetochores from opposite poles. The human shugoshin homologue (hSgo1) is required to protect the centromeric localization of the mitotic cohesin, Scc1, until metaphase. Bub1 plays a crucial role in the localization of shugoshin to centromeres in both fission yeast and humans.
Project description:Cohesion between sister chromatids is essential for their bi-orientation on mitotic spindles. It is mediated by a multisubunit complex called cohesin. In yeast, proteolytic cleavage of cohesin's alpha kleisin subunit at the onset of anaphase removes cohesin from both centromeres and chromosome arms and thus triggers sister chromatid separation. In animal cells, most cohesin is removed from chromosome arms during prophase via a separase-independent pathway involving phosphorylation of its Scc3-SA1/2 subunits. Cohesin at centromeres is refractory to this process and persists until metaphase, whereupon its alpha kleisin subunit is cleaved by separase, which is thought to trigger anaphase. What protects centromeric cohesin from the prophase pathway? Potential candidates are proteins, known as shugoshins, that are homologous to Drosophila MEI-S332 and yeast Sgo1 proteins, which prevent removal of meiotic cohesin complexes from centromeres at the first meiotic division. A vertebrate shugoshin-like protein associates with centromeres during prophase and disappears at the onset of anaphase. Its depletion by RNA interference causes HeLa cells to arrest in mitosis. Most chromosomes bi-orient on a metaphase plate, but precocious loss of centromeric cohesin from chromosomes is accompanied by loss of all sister chromatid cohesion, the departure of individual chromatids from the metaphase plate, and a permanent cell cycle arrest, presumably due to activation of the spindle checkpoint. Remarkably, expression of a version of Scc3-SA2 whose mitotic phosphorylation sites have been mutated to alanine alleviates the precocious loss of sister chromatid cohesion and the mitotic arrest of cells lacking shugoshin. These data suggest that shugoshin prevents phosphorylation of cohesin's Scc3-SA2 subunit at centromeres during mitosis. This ensures that cohesin persists at centromeres until activation of separase causes cleavage of its alpha kleisin subunit. Centromeric cohesion is one of the hallmarks of mitotic chromosomes. Our results imply that it is not an intrinsically stable property, because it can easily be destroyed by mitotic kinases, which are kept in check by shugoshin.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex protein INCENP is required in mitosis for chromosome condensation, spindle attachment and function, and cytokinesis. Here, we show that INCENP has an essential function in the specialized behavior of centromeres in meiosis. Mutations affecting Drosophila incenp profoundly affect chromosome segregation in both meiosis I and II, due, at least in part, to premature sister chromatid separation in meiosis I. INCENP binds to the cohesion protector protein MEI-S332, which is also an excellent in vitro substrate for Aurora B kinase. A MEI-S332 mutant that is only poorly phosphorylated by Aurora B is defective in localization to centromeres. These results implicate the chromosomal passenger complex in directly regulating MEI-S332 localization and, therefore, the control of sister chromatid cohesion in meiosis.