PKC? signaling is required for myoblast fusion by regulating the expression of caveolin-3 and ?1D integrin upstream focal adhesion kinase.
ABSTRACT: Fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to form multinucleated myofibers is an essential phase of skeletal myogenesis, which occurs during muscle development as well as during postnatal life for muscle growth, turnover, and regeneration. Many cell adhesion proteins, including integrins, have been shown to be important for myoblast fusion in vertebrates, and recently focal adhesion kinase (FAK), has been proposed as a key mediator of myoblast fusion. Here we focused on the possible role of PKC, the PKC isoform predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, in myoblast fusion. We found that the expression of PKC is strongly up-regulated following freeze injury-induced muscle regeneration, as well as during in vitro differentiation of satellite cells (SCs; the muscle stem cells). Using both PKC knockout and muscle-specific PKC dominant-negative mutant mouse models, we observed delayed body and muscle fiber growth during the first weeks of postnatal life, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. We also found that myofiber formation, during muscle regeneration after freeze injury, was markedly impaired in PKC mutant mice, as compared with WT. This phenotype was associated with reduced expression of the myogenic differentiation program executor, myogenin, but not with that of the SC marker Pax7. Indeed in vitro differentiation of primary muscle-derived SCs from PKC mutants resulted in the formation of thinner myotubes with reduced numbers of myonuclei and reduced fusion rate, when compared with WT cells. These effects were associated to reduced expression of the profusion genes caveolin-3 and ?1D integrin and to reduced activation/phosphorylation of their up-stream regulator FAK. Indeed the exogenous expression of a constitutively active mutant form of PKC in muscle cells induced FAK phosphorylation. Moreover pharmacologically mediated full inhibition of FAK activity led to similar fusion defects in both WT and PKC-null myoblasts. We thus propose that PKC signaling regulates myoblast fusion by regulating, at least in part, FAK activity, essential for profusion gene expression.
Project description:Skeletal muscle regeneration is mediated by satellite cells (SCs). Upon injury, SCs undergo self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation into myoblasts followed by myoblast fusion to form new myofibers. We previously showed that the heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulf1 and -2) repress FGF signaling to induce SC differentiation during muscle regeneration. Here, we identify a novel role of Sulfs in myoblast fusion using a skeletal muscle-specific Sulf double null (Sulf(SK)-DN) mouse. Regenerating Sulf(SK)-DN muscles exhibit reduced canonical Wnt signaling and elevated non-canonical Wnt signaling. In addition, we show that Sulfs are required to repress non-canonical Wnt signaling to promote myoblast fusion. Notably, skeletal muscle-relevant non-canonical Wnt ligands lack HS binding capacity, suggesting that Sulfs indirectly repress this pathway. Mechanistically, we show that Sulfs reduce the canonical Wnt-HS binding and regulate colocalization of the co-receptor LRP5 with caveolin3. Therefore, Sulfs may increase the bioavailability of canonical Wnts for Frizzled receptor and LRP5/6 interaction in lipid raft, which may in turn antagonize non-canonical Wnt signaling. Furthermore, changes in subcellular distribution of active focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are associated with the fusion defect of Sulf-deficient myoblasts and upon non-canonical Wnt treatment. Together, our findings uncover a critical role of Sulfs in myoblast fusion by promoting antagonizing canonical Wnt signaling activities against the noncanonical Wnt pathway during skeletal muscle regeneration.
Project description:An essential phase of skeletal myogenesis is the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to form multinucleated myotubes. Many cell adhesion proteins, including integrins, have been shown to be important for myoblast fusion in vertebrates, but the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate cell fusion remain mostly unknown. Here, we focused on the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an important nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in integrin signaling, as a potential mediator by which integrins may regulate myoblast fusion. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated mice in which the Fak gene was disrupted specifically in muscle stem cells ("satellite cells") and we found that this resulted in impaired myotube formation during muscle regeneration after injury. To examine the role of FAK in the fusion of myogenic cells, we examined the expression of FAK and the effects of FAK deletion on the differentiation of myoblasts in vitro. Differentiation of mouse primary myoblasts was accompanied by a rapid and transient increase of phosphorylated FAK. To investigate the requirement of FAK in myoblast fusion, we used two loss-of-function approaches (a dominant-negative inhibitor of FAK and FAK small interfering RNA [siRNA]). Inhibition of FAK resulted in markedly impaired fusion but did not inhibit other biochemical measures of myogenic differentiation, suggesting a specific role of FAK in the morphological changes of cell fusion as part of the differentiation program. To examine the mechanisms by which FAK may be regulating fusion, we used microarray analysis to identify the genes that failed to be normally regulated in cells that were fusion defective due to FAK inhibition. Several genes that have been implicated in myoblast fusion were aberrantly regulated during differentiation when FAK was inhibited. Intriguingly, the normal increases in the transcript of caveolin 3 as well as an integrin subunit, the beta1D isoform, were suppressed by FAK inhibition. We confirmed this also at the protein level and show that direct inhibition of beta1D subunit expression by siRNA inhibited myotube formation with a prominent effect on secondary fusion. These data suggest that FAK regulation of profusion genes, including caveolin 3 and the beta1D integrin subunit, is essential for morphological muscle differentiation.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease characterized by muscle wasting and chronic inflammation, leading to impaired satellite cells (SCs) function and exhaustion of their regenerative capacity. We previously showed that lack of PKC? in mdx mice, a mouse model of DMD, reduces muscle wasting and inflammation, and improves muscle regeneration and performance at early stages of the disease. In this study, we show that muscle regeneration is boosted, and fibrosis reduced in mdx?-/- mice, even at advanced stages of the disease. This phenotype was associated with a higher number of Pax7 positive cells in mdx?-/- muscle compared with mdx muscle, during the progression of the disease. Moreover, the expression level of Pax7 and Notch1, the pivotal regulators of SCs self-renewal, were upregulated in SCs isolated from mdx?-/- muscle compared with mdx derived SCs. Likewise, the expression of the Notch ligands Delta1 and Jagged1 was higher in mdx?-/- muscle compared with mdx. The expression level of Delta1 and Jagged1 was also higher in PKC?-/- muscle compared with WT muscle following acute injury. In addition, lack of PKC? prolonged the survival and sustained the differentiation of transplanted myogenic progenitors. Overall, our results suggest that lack of PKC? promotes muscle repair in dystrophic mice, supporting stem cells survival and maintenance through increased Delta-Notch signaling.
Project description:Myoblast fusion is an essential step in skeletal muscle development and regeneration. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) regulates cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Insulin-like growth factor 1 induces muscle hypertrophy via Nox4, but its function in myoblast fusion remains elusive. Here, we report a ROS-dependent role of Nox4 in myoblast differentiation. Regenerating muscle fibers after injury by cardiotoxin had a lower cross-sectional area in Nox4-knockout (KO) mice than myofibers in wild-type (WT) mice. Diameters and fusion index values of myotubes differentiated from Nox4-KO primary myoblasts were significantly lower than those of myotubes derived from WT myoblasts. However, no difference was observed in the differentiation index and expression of MyoD, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain 3 (MHC) between KO and WT myotubes. The decreased fusion index was also observed during differentiation of primary myoblasts and C2C12 cells with suppressed Nox4 expression. In contrast, in C2C12 cells overexpressing Nox4, the fusion index was increased, whereas the differentiation index and MHC and myogenin protein expression were not affected compared to control. Interestingly, the expression of myomaker (Tmem8c), a fusogenic protein that controls myoblast fusion, was reduced in Nox4-knockdown C2C12 cells. The myomaker expression level was proportional to the cellular ROS level, which was regulated by of Nox4 expression level. These results suggests that Nox4 contributes to myoblast fusion, possibly through the regulation of myomaker expression via ROS production, and that Nox4-dependent ROS may promote skeletal muscle regeneration and growth.
Project description:Adult muscle stem cells, satellite cells (SCs), endow skeletal muscle with tremendous regenerative capacity. Upon injury, SCs activate, proliferate, and migrate as myoblasts to the injury site where they become myocytes that fuse to form new muscle. How migration is regulated, though, remains largely unknown. Additionally, how migration and fusion, which both require dynamic rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, might be related is not well understood. c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is required for myogenic precursor cell migration into the limb for muscle development during embryogenesis. Using a genetic system to eliminate c-MET function specifically in adult mouse SCs, we found that c-MET was required for muscle regeneration in response to acute muscle injury. c-MET mutant myoblasts were defective in lamellipodia formation, had shorter ranges of migration, and migrated slower compared to control myoblasts. Surprisingly, c-MET was also required for efficient myocyte fusion, implicating c-MET in dual functions of regulating myoblast migration and myocyte fusion.
Project description:Myoblast fusion is essential for the formation of skeletal muscle myofibres. Studies have shown that phosphatidylserine is necessary for myoblast fusion, but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the phosphatidylserine receptor stabilin-2 acts as a membrane protein for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration. Stabilin-2 expression is induced during myogenic differentiation, and is regulated by calcineurin/NFAT signalling in myoblasts. Forced expression of stabilin-2 in myoblasts is associated with increased myotube formation, whereas deficiency of stabilin-2 results in the formation of small, thin myotubes. Stab2-deficient mice have myofibres with small cross-sectional area and few myonuclei and impaired muscle regeneration after injury. Importantly, myoblasts lacking stabilin-2 have reduced phosphatidylserine-dependent fusion. Collectively, our results show that stabilin-2 contributes to phosphatidylserine-dependent myoblast fusion and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism by which phosphatidylserine mediates myoblast fusion during muscle growth and regeneration.
Project description:Satellite cells are muscle resident stem cells and are responsible for muscle regeneration. In this study we investigate the involvement of PKC? during muscle stem cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe the identification of a previously unrecognized role for the PKC?-HMGA1 signaling axis in myoblast differentiation and regeneration processes.PKC? expression was modulated in the C2C12 cell line and primary murine satellite cells in vitro, as well as in an in vivo model of muscle regeneration. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and shRNA silencing techniques were used to determine the role of PKC? and HMGA1 in myogenic differentiation.PKC? expression increases and subsequently re-localizes to the nucleus during skeletal muscle cell differentiation. In the nucleus, PKC? blocks Hmga1 expression to promote Myogenin and Mrf4 accumulation and myoblast formation. Following in vivo muscle injury, PKC? accumulates in regenerating, centrally-nucleated myofibers. Pharmacological inhibition of PKC? impairs the expression of two crucial markers of muscle differentiation, namely MyoD and Myogenin, during injury induced muscle regeneration.This work identifies the PKC?-HMGA1 signaling axis as a positive regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Transmembrane proteins are vital for intercellular signalling and play important roles in the control of cell fate. However, their physiological functions and mechanisms of action in myogenesis and muscle disorders remain largely unexplored. It has been found that transmembrane protein 182 (TMEM182) is dramatically up-regulated during myogenesis, but its detailed functions remain unclear. This study aimed to analyse the function of TMEM182 during myogenesis and muscle regeneration.<h4>Methods</h4>RNA sequencing, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence approaches were used to analyse TMEM182 expression during myoblast differentiation. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the promoter region of the TMEM182 gene, and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to investigate the regulation TMEM182 transcription by MyoD. We used chickens and TMEM182-knockout mice as in vivo models to examine the function of TMEM182 in muscle growth and muscle regeneration. Chickens and mouse primary myoblasts were used to extend the findings to in vitro effects on myoblast differentiation and fusion. Co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to identify the interaction between TMEM182 and integrin beta 1 (ITGB1). The molecular mechanism by which TMEM182 regulates myogenesis and muscle regeneration was examined by Transwell migration, cell wound healing, adhesion, glutathione-S-transferse pull down, protein purification, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays.<h4>Results</h4>TMEM182 was specifically expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and was regulated at the transcriptional level by the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD1. Functionally, TMEM182 inhibited myoblast differentiation and fusion. The in vivo studies indicated that TMEM182 induced muscle fibre atrophy and delayed muscle regeneration. TMEM182 knockout in mice led to significant increases in body weight, muscle mass, muscle fibre number, and muscle fibre diameter. Skeletal muscle regeneration was accelerated in TMEM182-knockout mice. Furthermore, we revealed that the inhibitory roles of TMEM182 in skeletal muscle depend on ITGB1, an essential membrane receptor involved in cell adhesion and muscle formation. TMEM182 directly interacted with ITGB1, and this interaction required an extracellular hybrid domain of ITGB1 (aa 387-470) and a conserved region (aa 52-62) within the large extracellular loop of TMEM182. Mechanistically, TMEM182 modulated ITGB1 activation by coordinating the association between ITGB1 and laminin and regulating the intracellular signalling of ITGB1. Myogenic deletion of TMEM182 increased the binding activity of ITGB1 to laminin and induced the activation of the FAK-ERK and FAK-Akt signalling axes during myogenesis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data reveal that TMEM182 is a novel negative regulator of myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration.
Project description:We isolated and cultured satellite cells (SCs) from the longissimus dorsi muscles of 1-day-old male Landrace and Lantang piglets to compare the SC differentiation capacity in the two breeds. Lantang piglets yielded more (P < 0.05) SCs per gram of muscle than Landrace piglets (5.2 ± 0.9×104 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2×104). Transcription of the differentiation markers myogenin and myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I) in the longissimus dorsi muscle was higher in Lantang than Landrace piglets (P < 0.05). Protein levels of myogenin (P < 0.05), MyHC I (P < 0.05), and myogenic regulatory factor 4 (P = 0.07) were higher in Lantang than Landrace piglet SCs after 72 h of differentiation. Creatine kinase activity was higher in Lantang than Landrace piglet SCs after 24, 48, and 72 h of differentiation (P < 0.05), and there was a greater fusion index in Landrace piglet SCs after 72 h of differentiation. In addition, phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, S6K1, S6, and 4EBP1 was lower in Lantang than Landrace piglet SCs (P < 0.05). Thus differentiation was more extensive in Lantang than Landrace piglet SCs, but expression of the mTOR signaling pathway was lower in Lantang piglet SCs, suggesting mTOR signaling may inhibit myogenic differentiation. These findings reveal that mTOR signaling is a factor in myogenesis and imply that mTOR could potentially serve as an activator of myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration.
Project description:Myoblast fusion is fundamental for the development of multinucleated myofibers. Evolutionarily conserved proteins required for myoblast fusion include Rac1 and its activator Dock1. Here, we tested the functions of Elmo proteins, Dock1-interacting scaffolds, on myoblast fusion. When Elmo1-/- mice underwent muscle-specific Elmo2 genetic ablation, they exhibited severe myoblast fusion defects. A mutation in the Elmo2 gene that reduced signaling resulted in a decrease in myoblast fusion. Conversely, a mutation in Elmo2 promoting its open conformation increased myoblast fusion during development and in muscle regeneration. Finally, we showed that the dystrophic features of the Dysferlin-null mice, a model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, were reversed when expressing Elmo2 in an open conformation. These data provide direct evidence that the myoblast fusion process could be exploited for regenerative and therapeutic purposes. Overall design: Gene expression profiling by RNAseq for differentiated primary myoblasts isolated from wildtype (WT, N=3) and Elmo EID/EID (EID, N=2) mice.