Identification of a spliced gene from duck enteritis virus encoding a protein homologous to UL15 of herpes simplex virus 1.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In herpesviruses, UL15 homologue is a subunit of terminase complex responsible for cleavage and packaging of the viral genome into pre-assembled capsids. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV), the causative agent of duck viral enteritis (DVE), the genomic sequence was not completely determined until most recently. There is limited information of this putative spliced gene and its encoding protein. RESULTS: DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb) inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa), whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp) ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s) in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i.) and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein. CONCLUSIONS: DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15 are very similar to those of alphaherpesviruses and most similar to the genus Mardivirus. The UL15 and/or UL15.5 accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm during early times post-infection and then are translocated to the nucleus at late times.
Project description:BACKGROUND:pUL21 is a conserved protein of Alphaherpesvirinae that performs multiple important functions. The C-terminus of pUL21 in other members of this subfamily has RNA-binding ability; this domain contributes to pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde axonal transport in vitro and in vivo and participates in newly replicated viral DNA packaging and intracellular virus transport. However, knowledge regarding duck enteritis virus (DEV) pUL21 is limited. RESULTS:We verified that DEV UL21 is a ?2 gene that encodes a structural protein. Moreover, we observed that pUL21 localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm. DEV pUL21 interacted with pUL16 and formed a complex in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293?T cells and DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). These results were further confirmed by CO-IP assays. CONCLUSIONS:The DEV UL21 gene is a late gene, and pUL21 localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm. DEV UL21 is a virion component. In addition, pUL21 can interact with pUL16. These findings provide insight into the characteristics of UL21 and the interaction between pUL21 and its binding partner pUL16. Our study enhances the understanding of DEV pUL21.
Project description:The nucleotide sequences of eight open reading frames (ORFs) located at the 5' end of the unique long region of the duck enteritis virus (DEV) Clone-03 strain were determined. The genes identified were designated UL1, UL2, UL3, UL4, UL5, UL6 and UL7 homologues of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The DEV UL3.5 located between UL3 and UL4 had no homologue in the HSV-1. The arrangement and transcription orientation of the eight genes were collinear with their homologues in the HSV-1. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the alignments of the deduced amino acids of eight proteins with their homologues in 12 alpha-herpesviruses. In the UL1, UL3, UL3.5, UL5 and UL7 proteins trees, the branches were more closely related to the genus Mardivirus. However, the UL2, UL4, and UL6 proteins phylogenetic trees indicated a large distance from Mardivirus, indicating that the DEV evolved differently from other viruses in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and formed a single branch within this subfamily.
Project description:The UL49.5 gene of most herpesviruses is conserved and encodes glycoprotein N. However, the UL49.5 protein of duck enteritis virus (DEV) (pUL49.5) has not been reported. In the current study, the DEV pUL49.5 gene was first subjected to molecular characterization. To verify the predicted intracellular localization of gene expression, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-C1/pUL49.5 was constructed and used to transfect duck embryo fibroblasts. Next, the recombinant plasmid pDsRed1-N1/ glycoprotein M (gM) was produced and used for co-transfection with the pEGFP-C1/pUL49.5 plasmid to determine whether DEV pUL49.5 and gM (a conserved protein in herpesviruses) colocalize. DEV pUL49.5 was thought to be an envelope glycoprotein with a signal peptide and two transmembrane domains. This protein was also predicted to localize in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum with a probability of 66.7%. Images taken by a fluorescence microscope at different time points revealed that the DEV pUL49.5 and gM proteins were both expressed in the cytoplasm. Overlap of the two different fluorescence signals appeared 12 h after transfection and continued to persist until the end of the experiment. These data indicate a possible interaction between DEV pUL49.5 and gM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is little information regarding the duck enteritis virus (DEV) US10 gene and its molecular characterization. METHODS:Duck enteritis virus US10 was amplified and cloned into the recombinant vector pET32a(+). The recombinant US10 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells and used to immunize rabbits for the preparation of polyclonal antibodies. The harvested rabbit antiserum against DEV US10 was detected and analyzed by agar immunodiffusion. Using this antibody, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence analysis were used to analyze the expression level and subcellular localization of US10 in infected cells at different time points. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and pharmacological inhibition tests were used to ascertain the kinetic class of the US10 gene. A mass spectrometry-based strategy was used to identify US10 in purified DEV virions and quantify its abundance. RESULTS:The recombinant pET32a(+)/US10 protein was expressed as inclusion bodies, purified by gradient urea washing, and used to prepare specific antibodies. The results of qRT-PCR, western blotting, and pharmacological inhibition tests revealed that US10 is mainly transcribed in the late stage of viral replication. However, the presence of the DNA polymerase inhibitor ganciclovir and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocked transcription. Therefore, US10 is a ?2 (true late) gene. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that US10 proteins were initially diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm, but with the passage of time, they gradually relocated to a perinuclear region. The US10 protein was detected in purified DEV virions by mass spectrometry, but was not detected by western blotting, indicating that DEV US10 is a minor virion protein. CONCLUSIONS:The DEV US10 gene is a ?2 gene and the US10 protein is localized in the perinuclear region. DEV US10 is a virion component.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is an important herpesvirus pathogen of waterfowl associated with an acute, highly contagious lethal disease. Using a deep sequencing approach on RNA from infected chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures, we determined the global changes in the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles during DEV infection. In addition to the changes in the expression of a number of host miRNAs as a result of DEV infection, we identified several novel DEV-encoded miRNAs. Unlike most Mardivirus-encoded miRNAs, the majority of the DEV miRNAs were encoded within the unique long region of the viral genome. The precursors of DEV miR-D18 and miR-D19 overlapped with each other suggesting similarities to miRNA-offset RNAs, although only the DEV-miR-D18-3p was functional in reporter assays. Identification of these novel miRNAs will add to the growing list of virus-encoded miRNAs enabling the exploration of their roles in pathogenesis. Each microRNA is spotted on the array 6 times. We compared expression of duck enteritis virus (DEV)-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) with CEF control.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Most of the previous research work had focused on the epidemiology and prevention of duck enteritis virus (DEV). Whilst with the development of protocols in molecular biology, nowadays more and more information about the genes of DEV was reported. But little information about DEV UL53 gene and glycoprotein K(gK) was known except our reported data. RESULTS: In our paper, the fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR(FQ-RT-PCR) assay and nucleic acid inhibition test were used to study the transcription characteristic of the DEV UL53 gene. Except detecting the mRNA of DEV UL53 gene, the product gK encoded by UL53 gene was detected through the expression kinetics of UL53 gene by the purified rabbit anti-UL53 protein polyclonal antibodies. Western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assays were used to detect gK. From the results of these experiments, the UL53 gene and gK were respectively identified as a late gene and a really late protein. On the other hand, the indirect immunofluorescence assay provided another information that the intracellular localization of DEV gK was mainly distributed in cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: By way of conclusions, we conceded that DEV UL53 gene is a really late gene, which is coincident with properties of UL53 homologs from other herpesvirus, such as ILTV(Infectious Laryngotracheitis virus) and HSV-1(Herpes simplex virus type 1). The properties of intracellular localization about gK protein provided a foundation for further functional analysis and further studies will be focused on constructing of the UL53 gene DEV mutant.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The function and kinetics of some herpsvirus UL16 gene have been reported. But there was no any report of duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL16 gene. FINDINGS: The kinetics of DEV UL16 gene was examined in DEV CHv infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) by establishment of real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) and western-blotting. In this study, UL16 mRNA was transcript at a low level from 0-18 h post-infection (p.i), and peaked at 36 h p.i. It can't be detected in the presence of acyclovir (ACV). Besides, western-blotting analysis showed that UL16 gene expressed as an apparent 40-KDa in DEV infected cell lysate from 12 h p.i, and rose to peak level at 48 h p.i consistent with the qRT-PCR result. CONCLUSIONS: These results provided the first evidence of the kinetics of DEV UL16 gene. DEV UL16 gene was a late gene and dependent on viral DNA synthesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) has become the benchmark for detection and quantification of target gene expression level and been utilized increasingly in detection of viral load and therapy monitoring. The dynamic transcription variation of duck enteritis virus UL55 gene during the life cycle of duck enteritis virus in infected cells has not been reported yet. RESULTS: The newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene was amplified and cloned into pMD18-T vector after digestion to generate a recombinant plasmid pMD18-T/UL55 for the establishment of qRT-PCR as standard DNA. The results of agarose gel electrophoresis and melting curve analysis demonstrated the primers we designed for qRT-PCR were specific and available. We used β-actin as a reference gene for normalization and established two standard curves based on pMD18-T/UL55 and pMD18-T/β-actin successfully. Based on that, the transcriptional analysis of DEV UL55 gene was performed, and the result suggested the expression of UL55 mRNA was at a low level from 0 to 8 h post-infection(p.i.), then accumulated quickly since 12 h p.i. and peaked at 36 h p.i., it can be detected till 60 h p.i.. Nucleic acid inhibition test was carried out for analyzing a temporal regulation condition of DEV UL55 gene, result revealed that it was sensitive to ganciclovir. Synthesis procedures of DEV UL55 gene can be inhibited by ganciclovir. CONCLUSIONS: The method we established in this paper can provide quantitative values reflecting the amounts of measured mRNA in samples. It's available for detection and quantification, also can be used in DEV diagnosis. The DEV UL55 gene was produced most abundantly during the late phase of replication in DEV-infected cells and the transcription of it depended on the synthesized DNA. DEV UL55 gene is a γ2 gene which occurs last and have a strict requirement for viral DNA synthesis.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) belongs to the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and information on the DEV UL41 gene is limited.The DEV UL41 gene was cloned into the pET32a(+) vector and expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. Antiserum was raised against a bacterially expressed UL41-His fusion protein for further experiments. Transcription was quantified and UL41 protein expression levels were determined in DEV-infected cells at different time points by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. DEV virions were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify protein content. We confirmed the DEV UL41 gene kinetic class using a pharmacological test. IFA was used to analyze the intracellular localization of pUL41.The recombinant expression plasmid, pET-32a(+)-UL41, which highly expresses a 76.0 kDa fusion protein, was constructed and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) after induction with 0.2 mM IPTG at 30 °C for 10 h, generating a specific mouse anti-UL41 protein polyclonal antibody. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses revealed that the UL41 transcript number peaked at 36 hpi, and peak protein expression occurred at 48 hpi. The pharmacological test showed that UL41 was a γ2 gene. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that pUL41 was a virion component. IFA results revealed that pUL41 was localized throughout DEV-infected cells but only localized to the cytoplasm of transfected cells. DEV pUL47 translocated pUL41 to the nuclei of DEF cells; this translocation was dependent on predicted pUL47 NLS signals (40-50 aa and 768-777 aa).DEV UL41 is a γ2 gene that encodes a virion structural protein, pUL41 localizes throughout DEV-infected cells but only localizes to the cytoplasm of transfected cells. pUL41 cannot autonomously localize to the nucleus, as this nuclear localization is dependent on predicted DEV pUL47 NLS signals (40-50 aa and 768-777 aa).
Project description:BACKGROUND: At present, alphaherpesviruses gI gene and its encoding protein have been extensively studied. It is likely that gI protein and its homolog play similar roles in virions direct cell-to-cell spread of alphaherpesviruses. But, little is known about the characteristics of DEV gI gene. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV gI protein. RESULTS: The special 1221-bp fragment containing complete open reading frame(ORF) of duck enteritis virus(DEV) gI gene was extracted from plasmid pMD18-T-gI, and then cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+), resulting in pET-32a(+)-gI. After being confirmed by PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and sequencing, pET-32a(+)-gI was transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3) competent cells for overexpression. DEV gI gene was successfully expressed by the addition of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG). SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI molecular weight was about 61 kDa. Subsequently, the expressed product was applied to generate specific antibody against gI protein. The specificity of the rabbit immuneserum was confirmed by its ability to react with the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI. In addition, real time-PCR was used to determine the the levels of the mRNA transcripts of gI gene, the results showed that the DEV gI gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of infection. Furthermore, indirect immunofluorescence(IIF) was established to study the gI protein expression and localization in DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs), the results confirmed that the protein was expressed and located in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, intensively. CONCLUSIONS: The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector of DEV gI gene was constructed successfully. The gI protein was successfully expressed by E.coli BL21(DE3) and maintained its antigenicity very well. The basic information of the transcription and intracellular localization of gI gene were presented, that would be helpful to assess the possible role of DEV gI gene. The research will provide useful clues for further functional analysis of DEV gI gene.