Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis.
ABSTRACT: The study aimed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Sixty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 25 healthy individuals took part in the study. Thirty patients (25 protocol completers) received CBTp in addition to standard care (SC); 30 patients (18 protocol completers) received SC only. All patients were assessed on symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical and neuropsychological function before and after CBTp. Symptoms and self-esteem improved to a greater extent in the CBTp+SC than SC control group. Greater pre-therapy coping ability and the self-reflectiveness dimension of cognitive insight at baseline predicted improvement in symptoms in the CBTp+SC group, but not the SC control group, explaining up to 21% of the variance in symptom improvement. Pre-therapy neuropsychological function, duration of illness, clinical insight and gender did not predict CBTp responsiveness. Being able to have a range of coping strategies and reflect on one's experiences while refraining from overconfidence in one's interpretations before therapy is conducive to better CBTp responsiveness.
Project description:This study investigated the clinical and neuropsychological correlates of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in schizophrenia, and explored whether ACC NAA concentration is sensitive to symptom change following cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Participants comprised 30 patients and 15 healthy controls who underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the ACC and were assessed on frontal lobe based neuropsychological tasks. Twenty-four (of 30) patients were followed-up; 11 subsequently received 8-9 months of CBTp in addition to standard care (CBTp+SC) and 13 received SC only. At baseline (i) NAA and Cr concentrations were lower in patients compared to controls, (ii) in patients, NAA concentration correlated inversely with positive symptoms and general psychopathology (positive symptoms explained 21% of the variance; total variance explained=25%) and Cho concentration correlated inversely with positive symptoms, and (iii) in controls, NAA concentration correlated positively with working and short-term memory and Cr concentration inversely with executive function. NAA concentration tended to increase in CBTp+SC patients at follow-up (n=7 with usable data) concomitant with improvement in positive symptoms. NAA concentration may be more closely associated with symptoms and symptom change than frontal lobe based neuropsychological function in schizophrenia, perhaps because the latter is relatively stable during the long-term illness course.
Project description:Little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and which specific processes are key in predicting favourable long-term outcomes. Following theoretical models of psychosis, this proof-of-concept study investigated whether the long-term recovery path of CBTp completers can be predicted by the neural changes in threat-based social affective processing that occur during CBTp. We followed up 22 participants who had undergone a social affective processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging along with self-report and clinician-administered symptom measures, before and after receiving CBTp. Monthly ratings of psychotic and affective symptoms were obtained retrospectively across 8 years since receiving CBTp, plus self-reported recovery at final follow-up. We investigated whether these long-term outcomes were predicted by CBTp-led changes in functional connections with dorsal prefrontal cortical and amygdala during the processing of threatening and prosocial facial affect. Although long-term psychotic symptoms were predicted by changes in prefrontal connections during prosocial facial affective processing, long-term affective symptoms were predicted by threat-related amygdalo-inferior parietal lobule connectivity. Greater increases in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex connectivity with amygdala following CBTp also predicted higher subjective ratings of recovery at long-term follow-up. These findings show that reorganisation occurring at the neural level following psychological therapy can predict the subsequent recovery path of people with psychosis across 8 years. This novel methodology shows promise for further studies with larger sample size, which are needed to better examine the sensitivity of psychobiological processes, in comparison to existing clinical measures, in predicting long-term outcomes.
Project description:Psychosis is conceptualized in a neurodevelopmental vulnerability-stress framework, and childhood trauma is one environmental factor that can lead to psychotic symptoms and the development of psychotic disorders. Higher rates of trauma are associated with higher psychosis risk and greater symptom frequency and severity, resulting in increased hospitalization rates and demand on outpatient primary care and mental health services. Despite an estimated 70% of individuals in the early stages of psychosis reporting a history of experiencing traumatic events, trauma effects (post-traumatic anxiety or depressive symptoms) are often overlooked in psychosis treatment and current interventions typically do not target commonly comorbid post-traumatic stress symptoms. We presented a protocol for Trauma-Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis (TI-CBTp), an approach to treating post-traumatic stress symptoms in the context of early psychosis care. We provided a brief summary of TI-CBTp as implemented in the context of Coordinated Specialty Care and presented preliminary data supporting the use of TI-CBTp in early psychosis care. The preliminary results suggest that individuals with comorbid psychosis and post-traumatic stress symptoms can be appropriately and safely treated using TI-CBTp within Coordinated Specialty Care.
Project description:Psychosis is often characterized by paranoia and poor social functioning. Neurally, there is evidence of functional dysconnectivity including abnormalities when processing facial affect. We sought to establish whether these abnormalities are resolved by cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp). The study involved 38 outpatients with one or more persistent positive psychotic symptoms, and 20 healthy participants. All participants completed an implicit facial affect processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, patients either continued to receive standard care only (SCO,n= 16) or received CBTp on top of standard care (+CBTp,n= 22), with fMRI repeated 6-8 months later. To examine the mechanisms underlying CBTp-led changes in threat processing and appraisal, functional connectivity during the social threat (angry faces) condition was assessed separately from left amygdala and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seeds. At baseline, patients, compared with healthy participants, showed greater amygdala connectivity with the insula and visual areas, but less connectivity with somatosensory areas. These differences normalized following CBTp and, compared with the SCO group, the +CBTp group showed greater increases in amygdala connectivity with DLPFC and inferior parietal lobule, with the latter correlating with improvement in positive symptoms. From the DLPFC seed, the +CBTp (compared with SCO) group showed significantly greater increase in DLPFC connectivity with other prefrontal regions including dorsal anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that CBTp strengthens connectivity between higher-order cognitive systems and those involved in threat and salience, potentially facilitating reappraisal.
Project description:Following baseline assessment, 166 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center who were experiencing both persistent positive symptoms of schizophrenia and impairments in functioning were randomized to 1 of 4 treatments for 9 months: (1) Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychosis (CBTp)-a therapy designed to identify and alter reasoning and appraisal biases that contribute to the formation and maintenance of positive symptoms, (2) Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT)-a treatment using environmental supports including signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established at weekly home visits to compensate for impairments in cognitive functioning and improve everyday functional outcomes, (3) Multi-modal Cognitive treatment-a combination of CBTp and CAT, and (4) Treatment as Usual. Data on symptoms and functional outcomes were obtained every 3 months. A mixed effects regression model with repeated measures using a 2 (CAT/no CAT) × 2 (CBT/no CBT) design indicated that functioning as measured by the Multnomah Community Ability Scale improved more in groups receiving CAT than other treatment groups. Auditory hallucinations and associated distress improved slightly more in groups receiving CAT. In this study, CBTp did not improve outcomes. Combining CAT with CBTp did not improve outcomes more than CAT alone.
Project description:Background:Study-level meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Limitations of conventional meta-analysis may be addressed using individual-participant-data (IPD). We aimed to determine a) whether results from IPD were consistent with study-level meta-analyses and b) whether demographic and clinical characteristics moderate treatment outcome. Methods:We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo and CENTRAL. Authors of RCTs comparing CBTp with other psychological interventions were contacted to obtain original databases. Hierarchical mixed effects models were used to examine efficacy for psychotic symptoms. Patient characteristics were investigated as moderators of symptoms at post-treatment. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for risk of bias, treatment format and study characteristics. Results:We included 14 of 23 eligible RCTs in IPD meta-analyses including 898 patients. Ten RCTs minimised risk of bias. There was no significant difference in efficacy between RCTs providing IPD and those not (p >0.05). CBTp was superior vs. other interventions for total psychotic symptoms and PANSS general symptoms. No demographic or clinical characteristics were robustly demonstrated as moderators of positive, negative, general or total psychotic symptoms at post-treatment. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that number of sessions moderated the impact of treatment assignment (CBTp or other therapies) on total psychotic symptoms (p = 0.02). Conclusions:IPD suggest that patient characteristics, including severity of psychotic symptoms, do not significantly influence treatment outcome in psychological interventions for psychosis while investing in sufficient dosage of CBTp is important. IPD provide roughly equivalent efficacy estimates to study-level data although significant benefit was not replicated for positive symptoms. We encourage authors to ensure IPD is accessible for future research.
Project description:The effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) on the core symptoms of schizophrenia has proven contentious, with current meta-analyses finding at most only small effects. However, it has been suggested that the effects of CBTp in areas other than psychotic symptoms are at least as important and potentially benefit from the intervention.We meta-analysed RCTs investigating the effectiveness of CBTp for functioning, distress and quality of life in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and related disorders. Data from 36 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) met our inclusion criteria- 27 assessing functioning (1579 participants); 8 for distress (465 participants); and 10 for quality of life (592 participants).The pooled effect size for functioning was small but significant for the end-of-trial (0.25: 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.33); however, this became non-significant at follow-up (0.10 [95%CI -0.07 to 0.26]). Although a small benefit of CBT was evident for reducing distress (0.37: 95%CI 0.05 to 0.69), this became nonsignificant when adjusted for possible publication bias (0.18: 95%CI -0.12 to 0.48). Finally, CBTp showed no benefit for improving quality of life (0.04: 95% CI: -0.12 to 0.19).CBTp has a small therapeutic effect on functioning at end-of-trial, although this benefit is not evident at follow-up. Although CBTp produced a small benefit on distress, this was subject to possible publication bias and became nonsignificant when adjusted. We found no evidence that CBTp increases quality of life post-intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:At least 40% of people with psychosis have persistent distressing symptoms despite optimal medication treatment. Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is the only NICE-recommended individual therapy for psychosis, with effects on symptoms, distress and quality of life. Yet <10% of service-users receive it and 94% of trusts struggle to provide it. Of those offered it, 22-43% refuse or do not attend. We have developed a new pre-CBTp informed choice intervention to address knowledge and attitudes that influence uptake and implementation and now want to test it in a feasibility trial. METHODS:The design is a two-arm, feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT), with 1:1 randomisation, stratified by participant group and site. Participants are 40 psychosis patients and 40 clinicians, who are ambivalent towards uptake or implementation of CBTp. Sites are community and inpatient services in Sussex and London. The intervention is a pre-CBT digital psychoeducation intervention designed to address identified knowledge and attitudinal barriers to uptake and implementation of CBTp, incorporating behaviour change mechanisms, and supported by animated introductory, patient and clinician stories. The comparator is the NHS choices website for CBT. The primary aim is to assess clinical feasibility (recruitment, randomisation, acceptability, use, delivery, outcome measurement, retention). A secondary aim is a preliminary evaluation of efficacy. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, post intervention, and one-month follow-up (blind to treatment arm). The primary efficacy outcome is likelihood of offering/taking up CBTp. Secondary outcomes include knowledge and attitudes towards CBTp, illness perceptions, empowerment, psychological wellbeing (patients only) and CBTp implementation (clinicians only). Use of the intervention and CBT behaviours during the follow-up period will be recorded and captured in a feedback questionnaire. Use, acceptability and experience of outcome assessment will be explored in qualitative interviews with participants (n?=?6 per group). The efficacy evaluation will report descriptive data, key model parameters and 95% highest probability density intervals in a Bayesian growth model. DISCUSSION:This is the first feasibility trial of a digital 'informed choice' decision aid for the implementation of CBTp. If the trial proves feasible and demonstrates preliminary evidence of efficacy, a large multi-site trial will be warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN53107879 . Registered prospectively on 2 August 2017.
Project description:Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) involves helping patients to understand and reframe threatening appraisals of their psychotic experiences to reduce distress and increase functioning. Whilst CBTp is effective for many, it is not effective for all patients and the factors predicting a good outcome remain poorly understood. Machine learning is a powerful approach that allows new predictors to be identified in a data-driven way, which can inform understanding of the mechanisms underlying therapeutic interventions, and ultimately make predictions about symptom improvement at the individual patient level. Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a social affect task during functional MRI. Multivariate pattern analysis assessed whether treatment response in those receiving CBTp (n?=?22) could be predicted by pre-therapy neural responses to facial affect that was either threat-related (ambiguous 'neutral' faces perceived as threatening in psychosis, in addition to angry and fearful faces) or prosocial (happy faces). The models predicted improvement in psychotic (r?=?0.63, p?=?0.003) and affective (r?=?0.31, p?=?0.05) symptoms following CBTp, but not in the treatment-as-usual group (n?=?16). Psychotic symptom improvement was predicted by neural responses to threat-related affect across sensorimotor and frontal-limbic regions, whereas affective symptom improvement was predicted by neural responses to fearful faces only as well as prosocial affect across sensorimotor and frontal regions. These findings suggest that CBTp most likely improves psychotic and affective symptoms in those endorsing more threatening appraisals and mood-congruent processing biases, respectively, which are explored and reframed as part of the therapy. This study improves our understanding of the neurobiology of treatment response and provides a foundation that will hopefully lead to greater precision and tailoring of the interventions offered to patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is offered to all patients with a psychosis diagnosis. However, only a minority of psychosis patients in England and Wales are offered CBTp. This is attributable, in part, to the resource-intensive nature of CBTp. One response to this problem has been the development of CBTp in brief formats that are targeted at a single symptom and the mechanisms that maintain distress. We have developed a brief form of CBTp for distressing voices and reported preliminary evidence for its effectiveness when delivered by highly trained therapists (clinical psychologists). This study will investigate the delivery of this intervention by a cost-effective workforce of assistant psychologists following a brief training and evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of conducting a future, definitive, randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS:This is a feasibility study for a pragmatic, three-arm, parallel-group, superiority 1:1:1 RCT comparing a Guided self-help CBT intervention for voices and treatment as usual (GiVE) to Supportive Counselling and treatment as usual (SC) to treatment as usual alone (TAU), recruiting across two sites, with blinded post-treatment and follow-up assessments. A process evaluation will quantitatively and qualitatively explore stakeholder experience. DISCUSSION:Expected outcomes will include an assessment of the feasibility of conducting a definitive RCT, and data to inform the calculation of its sample size. If evidence from a subsequent, fully powered RCT suggests that GiVE is clinically and cost-effective when delivered by briefly trained assistant psychologists, CBTp offered in these less resource-intensive forms has the potential to generate benefits for individual patients (reduced distress, enhanced recovery and enhanced quality of life), service-level patient benefit (increased access to evidence-based psychological therapies) and economic benefits to the NHS (in terms of the reduced use of mental health inpatient services). TRIAL REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN registration number: 16166070. Registered on 5 February 2019.