Structure, energetics, and dynamics of binding coactivator peptide to the human retinoid X receptor ? ligand binding domain complex with 9-cis-retinoic acid.
ABSTRACT: Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, which are activated by the potent agonist 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA). 9cRA binds to the ligand binding domain (LBD) of RXRs and recruits coactivator proteins for gene transcription. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, the binding of a 13-mer coactivator peptide, GRIP-1, to the hRXR?-LBD homodimer complex containing 9cRA (hRXR?-LBD:9cRA:GRIP-1) is reported between 20 and 37 °C. ?G is temperature independent (-8.5 kcal/mol), and GRIP-1 binding is driven by ?H (-9.2 kcal/mol) at 25 °C. ?C(p) is large and negative (-401 cal mol(-1) K(-1)). The crystal structure of hRXR?-LBD:9cRA:GRIP-1 is reported at 2.05 Å. When the structures of hRXR?-LBD:9cRA:GRIP-1 and hRXR?-LBD:9cRA ( 1FBY ) homodimers are compared, E453 and E456 on helix 12 bury and form ionic interactions with GRIP-1. R302 on helix 4 realigns to form new salt bridges to both E453 and E456. F277 (helix 3), F437 (helix 11), and F450 (helix 12) move toward the hydrophobic interior. The changes in the near-UV spectrum at 260 nm of the hRXR?-LBD:9cRA:GRIP-1 support this structural change. Helix 11 tilts toward helix 12 by ?1 Å, modifying the ring conformation of 9cRA. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectroscopy indicates GRIP-1 binding to hRXR?-LBD:9cRA significantly decreases the exchange rates for peptides containing helices 3 (F277), 4 (R302), 11 (F437), and 12 (E453, E456). The structural changes and loss of dynamics of the GRIP-1-bound structure are used to interpret the energetics of coactivator peptide binding to the agonist-bound hRXR?-LBD.
Project description:The structural mechanism of allosteric communication between retinoid X receptor (RXR) and its heterodimer partners remains controversial. As a first step towards addressing this question, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the GW1929-bound peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand-binding domain (LBD) with and without the 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA)-bound RXRalpha LBD. Sequence-specific 13C(alpha), 13C(beta), and 13CO resonance assignments have been established for over 95% of the 275 residues in the PPARgamma LBD monomer. The 1HN, 15N, and 13CO chemical shift perturbations induced by the RXRalpha LBD binding are located at not only the heterodimer interface that includes the C-terminal residue Y477 but also residues Y473 and K474 in the activation function-2 (AF-2) helix. This result suggests that 9cRA-bound RXRalpha can affect the PPARgamma AF-2 helix in solution and demonstrates that NMR is a powerful new tool for studying the mechanism of allosteric ligand activation in RXR heterodimers.
Project description:(2E,4E,6Z,8E)-8-(3',4'-Dihydro-1'(2'H)-naphthalen-1'-ylidene)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid, 9cUAB30, is a selective rexinoid that displays substantial chemopreventive capacity with little toxicity. 4-Methyl-UAB30, an analogue of 9cUAB30, is a potent RXR agonist but caused increased lipid biosynthesis unlike 9cUAB30. To evaluate how methyl substitution influenced potency and lipid biosynthesis, we synthesized four 9cUAB30 homologues with methyl substitutions at the 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-position of the tetralone ring. The syntheses and biological evaluations of these new analogues are reported here along with the X-ray crystal structures of each homologue bound to the ligand binding domain of hRXR?. We demonstrate that each homologue of 9cUAB30 is a more potent agonist, but only the 7-methyl-9cUAB30 caused severe hyperlipidemia in rats. On the basis of the X-ray crystal structures of these new rexinoids and bexarotene (Targretin) bound to hRXR?-LBD, we reveal that each rexinoid, which induced hyperlipidemia, had methyl groups that interacted with helix 7 residues of the LBD.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) plays important roles in gene expression regulation, sexual phenotype maintenance, and prostate cancer (PCa) development. The communications between the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) and its coactivator are critical to the activation of AR. It is still unclear how the ligand binding would affect the AR-coactivator interactions. In this work, the effects of the ligand binding on the AR-coactivator communications were explored by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results showed that the ligand binding regulates the residue interactions in the function site AF-2. The ligand-to-coactivator allosteric pathway, which involves the coactivator, helix 3 (H3), helix 4 (H4), the loop between H3 and H4 (L3), and helix 12 (H12), and ligands, was characterized. In addition, the interactions of residues on the function site BF-3, especially on the boundary of AF-2 and BF-3, are also affected by the ligands. The MM/GBSA free energy calculations demonstrated that the binding affinity between the coactivator and apo-AR is roughly weaker than those between the coactivator and antagonistic ARs but stronger than those between the coactivator and agonistic ARs. The results indicated that the long-range electrostatic interactions and the conformational entropies are the main factors affecting the binding free energies. In addition, the F876L mutation on AR-LBD affects the ligand-to-coactivator allosteric pathway, which could be the reason for point mutation induced tolerance for the antagonistic drugs such as enzalutamide. Our study would help to develop novel drug candidates against PCa.
Project description:The all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) isomer, 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA), activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) in vitro. RARs control multiple genes, whereas RXRs serve as partners for RARs and other nuclear receptors that regulate metabolism. Physiological function has not been determined for 9cRA, because it has not been detected in serum or multiple tissues with analytically validated assays. Here, we identify 9cRA in mouse pancreas by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and show that 9cRA decreases with feeding and after glucose dosing and varies inversely with serum insulin. 9cRA reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in mouse islets and in the rat ?-cell line 832/13 within 15 min by reducing glucose transporter type 2 (Glut2) and glucokinase (GK) activities. 9cRA also reduces Pdx-1 and HNF4? mRNA expression, ?8- and 80-fold, respectively: defects in Pdx-1 or HNF4? cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY4 and 1, respectively), as does a defective GK gene (MODY2). Pancreas ?-cells generate 9cRA, and mouse models of reduced ?-cell number, heterozygous Akita mice, and streptozotocin-treated mice have reduced 9cRA. 9cRA is abnormally high in glucose-intolerant mice, which have ?-cell hypertropy, including mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and ob/ob and db/db mice. These data establish 9cRA as a pancreas-specific autacoid with multiple mechanisms of action and provide unique insight into GSIS.
Project description:Crystal structures of holo vitamin D receptor (VDR) revealed a canonical conformation in which the ligand is entrapped in a hydrophobic cavity buried in the ligand-binding domain (LBD). The mousetrap model postulates that helix 12 is positioned away from the domain to expose the interior cavity. However, the extended form of helix 12 is likely due to artifacts during crystallization. In this study, we set out to investigate conformational dynamics of apo VDR using molecular dynamics simulation on microsecond timescale. Here we show the neighboring backbones of helix 2-helix 3n and beta strand 2-helix 6 of LBD, instead of the helix 12, undergo large-scale motion, possibly gating the entrance of ligand to the ligand binding domain. Docking analysis to the simulated open structure of VDR with the estimated free energy of -37.0?kJ/mol, would emphasise the role of H2-H3n and S2-H6 in facilitating the entrance of calcitriol to the LBD of VDR.
Project description:Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are obligate partners for several other nuclear receptors, and they play a key role in several signaling processes. Despite being a promiscuous heterodimer partner, this nuclear receptor is a target of therapeutic intervention through activation using selective RXR agonists (rexinoids). Agonist binding to RXR initiates a large conformational change in the receptor that allows for coactivator recruitment to its surface and enhanced transcription. Here we reveal the structural and dynamical changes produced when a coactivator peptide binds to the human RXR? ligand binding domain containing two clinically relevant rexinoids, Targretin and 9-cis-UAB30. Our results show that the structural changes are very similar for each rexinoid and similar to those for the pan-agonist 9-cis-retinoic acid. The four structural changes involve key residues on helix 3, helix 4, and helix 11 that move from a solvent-exposed environment to one that interacts extensively with helix 12. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry reveals that the dynamics of helices 3, 11, and 12 are significantly decreased when the two rexinoids are bound to the receptor. When the pan-agonist 9-cis-retinoic acid is bound to the receptor, only the dynamics of helices 3 and 11 are reduced. The four structural changes are conserved in all x-ray structures of the RXR ligand-binding domain in the presence of agonist and coactivator peptide. They serve as hallmarks for how RXR changes conformation and dynamics in the presence of agonist and coactivator to initiate signaling.
Project description:Development of acquired antihormone resistance exposes a vulnerability in breast cancer: estrogen-induced apoptosis. Triphenylethylenes (TPEs), which are structurally similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT), were used for mechanistic studies of estrogen-induced apoptosis. These TPEs all stimulate growth in MCF-7 cells, but unlike the planar estrogens they block estrogen-induced apoptosis in the long-term estrogen-deprived MCF7:5C cells. To define the conformation of the TPE:estrogen receptor (ER) complex, we employed a previously validated assay using the induction of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) mRNA in situ in MDA-MB 231 cells stably transfected with wild-type ER (MC2) or D351G ER mutant (JM6). The assays discriminate ligand fit in the ER based on the extremes of published crystallography of planar estrogens or TPE antiestrogens. We classified the conformation of planar estrogens or angular TPE complexes as "estrogen-like" or "antiestrogen-like" complexes, respectively. The TPE:ER complexes did not readily recruit the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC3) or ER to the PS2 promoter in MCF-7 and MCF7:5C cells, and molecular modeling showed that they prefer to bind to the ER in an antagonistic fashion, i.e., helix 12 not sealing the ligand binding domain (LBD) effectively, and therefore reduce critical SRC3 binding. The fully activated ER complex with helix 12 sealing the LBD is suggested to be the appropriate trigger to initiate rapid estrogen-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Hydroxyflutamide (HF), an active metabolite of the first generation antiandrogen flutamide, was used in clinic to treat prostate cancer targeting androgen receptor (AR). However, a drug resistance problem appears after about one year's treatment. AR T877A is the first mutation that was found to cause a resistance problem. Then W741C_T877A and F876L_T877A mutations were also reported to cause resistance to HF, while W741C and F876L single mutations cannot. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) method have been carried out to analyze the interaction mechanism between HF and wild-type (WT)/mutant ARs. The obtained results indicate that AR helix 12 (H12) plays a pivotal role in the resistance of HF. It can affect the coactivator binding site at the activation function 2 domain (AF2, surrounded by H3, H4, and H12). When H12 closes to the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) like a lid, the coactivator binding site can be formed to promote transcription. However, once H12 is opened to expose LBD, the coactivator binding site will be distorted, leading to invalid transcription. Moreover, per-residue free energy decomposition analyses indicate that N705, T877, and M895 are vital residues in the agonist/antagonist mechanism of HF.
Project description:Ligand-induced conformational perturbations in androgen receptor (AR) are important in coactivator recruitment and transactivation. However, molecular rearrangements in AR ligand-binding domain (AR-LBD) associated with agonist binding and their kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are poorly understood. We used steady-state second-derivative absorption and emission spectroscopy, pressure and temperature perturbations, and 4,4'-bis-anilinonaphthalene 8-sulfonate (bis-ANS) partitioning to determine the kinetics and thermodynamics of the conformational changes in AR-LBD after dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding. In presence of DHT, the second-derivative absorption spectrum showed a red shift and a change in peak-to-peak distance. Emission intensity increased upon DHT binding, and center of spectral mass was blue shifted, denoting conformational changes resulting in more hydrophobic environment for tyrosines and tryptophans within a more compact DHT-bound receptor. In pressure perturbation calorimetry, DHT-induced energetic stabilization increased the Gibbs free energy of unfolding to 8.4 +/- 1.3 kcal/mol from 3.5 +/- 1.6 kcal/mol. Bis-ANS partitioning studies revealed that upon DHT binding, AR-LBD underwent biphasic rearrangement with a high activation energy (13.4 kcal/mol). An initial, molten globule-like burst phase (k approximately 30 sec(-1)) with greater solvent accessibility was followed by rearrangement (k approximately 0.01 sec(-1)), leading to a more compact conformation than apo-AR-LBD. Molecular simulations demonstrated unique sensitivity of tyrosine and tryptophan residues during pressure unfolding with rearrangement of residues in the coactivator recruitment surfaces distant from the ligand-binding pocket. In conclusion, DHT binding leads to energetic stabilization of AR-LBD domain and substantial rearrangement of residues distant from the ligand-binding pocket. DHT binding to AR-LBD involves biphasic receptor rearrangement including population of a molten globule-like intermediate state.
Project description:The effect of retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonists on the conformational exchange of the RXR ligand-binding domain (LBD) remains poorly characterized. To address this question, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare the chemical shift perturbations induced by RXR antagonists and agonists on the RXRalpha LBD when partnered with itself as a homodimer and as the heterodimeric partner with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) LBD. Chemical shift mapping on the crystal structure showed that agonist binding abolished a line-broadening effect caused by a conformational exchange on backbone amide signals for residues in helix H3 and other regions of either the homo- or hetero-dimer, whereas binding of antagonists with similar binding affinities failed to do so. A lineshape analysis of a glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 NR box 2 coactivator peptide showed that the antagonists enhanced peptide binding to the RXRalpha LBD homodimer, but to a lesser extent than that enhanced by the agonists. This was further supported by a lineshape analysis of the RXR C-terminal residue, threonine 462 (T462) in the homodimer but not in the heterodimer. Contrary to the agonists, the antagonists failed to abolish a line-broadening effect caused by a conformational exchange on the T462 signal corresponding to the RXRalpha LBD-antagonist-peptide ternary complex. These results suggest that the antagonists lack the ability of the agonists to shift the equilibrium of multiple RXRalpha LBD conformations in favor of a compact state, and that a PPARgamma LBD-agonist complex can prevent the antagonist from enhancing the RXRalpha LBD-coactivator binding interaction.