Cloning and functional analysis of spliced isoforms of human nuclear factor I-X: interference with transcriptional activation by NFI/CTF in a cell-type specific manner.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies of the epithelial specificity of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) enhancer pointed out an important role of nuclear factor I (NFI). In epithelial cells, NFI proteins are derived from the NFI-C gene and referred to as NFI/CTF. In contrast, fibroblasts, where the enhancer is inactive, express high levels of NFI from the NFI-X gene. To compare NFI-C and NFI-X derived transcription factors, we cloned and functionally investigated two differentially spliced forms of NFI-X from human fibroblasts. NFI-X1 has 95% homology with a transcript previously identified in hamster liver cells. NFI-X2, a spliced variant, misses 41 amino acids of the proline-rich activation domain. NFI-X expression, examined by Northern blots, shows strong cell-type specific variation in comparison with NFI/CTF. While the transcriptional activation domain of NFI-X2, functionally tested as GAL4-fusion protein in epithelial and fibroblast cells, activates transcription from promoter as well as enhancer position similar to NFI/CTF-1, the activation domain of NFI-X1 fails to activate transcription from enhancer position. In Drosophila cells, void of endogenous NFI proteins, full length NFI/CTF-1 and NFI-X2 activate a reporter construct containing only NFI sites as well as the NFI dependent HPV-16 enhancer. In contrast, NFI-X1 fails to activate the HPV-16 enhancer. Furthermore, overexpression of NFI-X1 in epithelial cells down-regulates the HPV-16 enhancer. Our findings suggest that the family of NFI transcription factors should not be viewed as constitutive activators, but rather, that NFI-C and NFI-X have divergent functions after binding in promoter or enhancer position. This property, combined with the differential expression of NFI-X, can achieve cell-type specificity of NFI dependent promoters and enhancers.
Project description:The transcription of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is mediated by the viral enhancer. Epithelial cell-specific activation is achieved by the cooperative interaction of apparently ubiquitous transcriptional factors. One of them, nuclear factor I (NFI), binds seven sites within the HPV-16 enhancer. Point mutations on enhancer fragments, which retain epithelial cell specificity, verify the functional contribution of NFI. In band shift experiments, the epithelial cell-derived NFI proteins CTF-1, CTF-2, and CTF-3 form a characteristic pattern of heterodimeric complexes which are observed in all epithelial cells tested. Divergence from this pattern in fibroblasts, liver cells, and lymphoid cells correlates with the lack of HPV-16 enhancer activation. The HPV-16 enhancer can be activated by CTF-1 in SL-2 cells, which lack NFI-like proteins. However, exogenous CTF-1 fails to overcome the inactivity of the viral enhancer in fibroblasts. Western immunoblot and supershift analysis shows that exogenously introduced CTF-1 proteins form different heterodimer complexes with the given subset of endogenous NFI proteins in epithelial or fibroblast cells. Polymerase chain reaction analysis and cDNA library screens identified the endogenous fibroblast type NFI as NFI-X, an NFI family member originally cloned from hamster liver cells. The strict correlation between the activation or lack of activation of the HPV-16 enhancer and cell-specific subsets of NFI proteins argues for the pivotal role of NFI binding sites in the epithelial cell-specific function of the viral enhancer.
Project description:NFI/CTF is a family of polypeptides involved in stimulating the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication and the activation of transcription driven by RNA polymerase II. Several naturally occurring NFI/CTF variants display distinctive transactivation activities in vivo. To define more precisely the role of the NFI/CTF family in regulating gene expression, we cloned the splice variant CTF5, analyzed transcriptional activation patterns in a yeast transcription assay, and compared it with other CTF proteins. CTF5, which lacks exons 9 and 10 including a CTD-like motif essential for transcriptional activation by full-length CTF1, enhances transcription to a greater extent than CTF1. In addition, CTF5 is even more active than CTF7, which lacks exons 7-9. These findings indicate that CTF proteins formed by differential splicing display a much broader range of transcriptional activities as observed previously.
Project description:The activity of the nuclear factor I/CCAAT transcription factor (NFI/CTF) is negatively regulated by oxidative stress. The addition of relatively high (millimolar) H(2)O(2) concentrations inactivates cellular NFI DNA-binding activity whereas lower concentrations can repress NFI/CTF transactivating function. We have investigated the mechanism of this regulation using Gal4 fusion proteins and transfection assays. We show that micromolar H(2)O(2) concentrations repress the transactivating domain of NFI/CTF in a dose-dependent manner and are less or not active on other transcription factors' transactivating domains. Studies using deletions and point mutations pointed to the critical role of Cys-427. Indeed, when this cysteine is mutated into a serine, the repression by H(2)O(2) is totally blunted. Mutation of other cysteine, serine and tyrosine residues within the transactivating domain had no clear effect on the repression by H(2)O(2). Finally, treatment of cells with the thiol-alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide leads to a decrease in the transactivating function, which is dependent on Cys-427. This study shows that transactivating domains of transcription factors can constitute very sensitive targets of oxidative stress and highlights the critical role of these domains.
Project description:We report a method for high throughput mapping of transcriptional enhancers, genomic regulatory regions that activate lineage-specific transcription. Since tissue-specific enhancers are bound by the transcriptional co-activator p300, we developed murine knock-in alleles that permit Cre-dependent, lineage-specific p300 in vivo biotinylation and high affinity pulldown on immobilized streptavidin. Subsequent next generation sequencing of p300-bound genomic DNA identified lineage-specific enhancers. By driving this system with lineage-specific Cre transgenes, we mapped enhancers active in embryonic endothelial cells/blood or skeletal muscle. Analysis of these enhancer sequences identified new transcription factor heterodimer motifs that likely regulate transcription in these lineages. Furthermore, we identified candidate enhancers that regulate adult heart- or lung- specific endothelial cell specialization. Overall design: ES_p300_bioChIP x2, E12.5 forebrain_p300bioChIP x2 and H3K27Ac ChIP x2, E12.5 heart_p300bioChIP x2 and H3K27Ac ChIP x2, E11.5_embryo_p300_bioChIP x3, E11.5_Tie2Cre_EC_p300-bioChIP x3, E13.5_Myf5Cre_muscle prognitors_p300-bioChIP x3, adult_heart_p300-bioChIP x2, adult heart_lung_p300-bioChIP x3, adult_heart_EC_p300-bioChIP x3, adult_lung_EC_p300-bioChIP x3, E12.5 Cardiomyocyte_ATAC-seq x2, E10.5_Tie2Cre-TRAP x1
Project description:Transcription factors of the nuclear factor 1 (NFI) family regulate normal brain development in vertebrates. However, multiple splice variants of four NFI isoforms exist, and their biological functions have yet to be elucidated. Here, we cloned and analyzed human NFI-X3, a novel splice variant of the nfix gene, which contains a unique transcriptional activation (TA) domain completely conserved in primates. In contrast to previously cloned NFI-X1, overexpression of NFI-X3 potently activates NFI reporters, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) reporter, in astrocytes and glioma cells. The GAL4 fusion protein containing the TA domain of NFI-X3 strongly activates the GAL4 reporter, whereas the TA domain of NFI-X1 is ineffective. The expression of NFI-X3 is dramatically up-regulated during the differentiation of neural progenitors to astrocytes and precedes the expression of astrocyte markers, such as GFAP and SPARCL1 (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteines-like 1). Overexpression of NFI-X3 dramatically up-regulates GFAP and SPARCL1 expression in glioma cells, whereas the knockdown of NFI-X3 diminishes the expression of both GFAP and SPARCL1 in astrocytes. Although activation of astrocyte-specific genes involves DNA demethylation and subsequent increase of histone acetylation, NFI-X3 activates GFAP expression, in part, by inducing alterations in the nucleosome architecture that lead to the increased recruitment of RNA polymerase II.
Project description:Background:Dunaliella salina can produce glycerol under salt stress, and this production can quickly adapt to changes in external salt concentration. Notably, glycerol is an ideal energy source. In recent years, it has been reported that the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade pathway plays an important role in regulating salt stress, and in Dunaliella tertiolecta DtMAPK can regulate glycerol synthesis under salt stress. Therefore, it is highly important to study the relationship between the MAPK cascade pathway and salt stress in D. salina and modify it to increase the production of glycerol. Results:In our study, we identified and analysed the alternative splicing of DsMEK1 (DsMEK1-X1, DsMEK1-X2) from the unicellular green alga D. salina. DsMEK1-X1 and DsMEK1-X2 were both localized in the cytoplasm. qRT-PCR assays showed that DsMEK1-X2 was induced by salt stress. Overexpression of DsMEK1-X2 revealed a higher increase rate of glycerol production compared to the control and DsMEK1-X1-oe under salt stress. Under salt stress, the expression of DsGPDH2/3/5/6 increased in DsMEK1-X2-oe strains compared to the control. This finding indicated that DsMEK1-X2 was involved in the regulation of DsGPDH expression and glycerol overexpression under salt stress. Overexpression of DsMEK1-X1 increased the proline content and reduced the MDA content under salt stress, and DsMEK1-X1 was able to regulate oxidative stress; thus, we hypothesized that DsMEK1-X1 could reduce oxidative damage under salt stress. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that DsMEK1-X2 could interact with DsMAPKKK1/2/3/9/10/17 and DsMAPK1; however, DsMEK1-X1 interacted with neither upstream MAPKKK nor downstream MAPK. DsMEK1-X2-oe transgenic lines increased the expression of DsMAPKKK1/3/10/17 and DsMAPK1, and DsMEK1-X2-RNAi lines decreased the expression of DsMAPKKK2/10/17. DsMEK1-X1-oe transgenic lines did not exhibit increased gene expression, except for DsMAPKKK9. Conclusion:Our findings demonstrate that DsMEK1-X1 and DsMEK1-X2 can respond to salt stress by two different pathways. The DsMEK1-X1 response to salt stress reduces oxidative damage; however, the DsMAPKKK1/2/3/9/10/17-DsMEK1-X2-DsMAPK1 cascade is involved in the regulation of DsGPDH expression and thus glycerol synthesis under salt stress.
Project description:Entelegyne spiders rarely show fusions yielding neo-Y chromosomes, which M. J. D. White attributed to a constraint in spiders, namely their proximal chiasma localization acting to upset meiotic segregation in males with fusions. Of the 75 taxa of Habronattus and outgroups studied, 47 have X1 X2 0 sex chromosomes in males, 10 have X1 X2 Y, 15 have X1 X2 X3 Y, 2 have X0, and one has both X1 X2 0 and X1 X2 X3 Y. Chromosome numbers and behavior suggest neo-Ys formed by an autosome-X fusion to make X1 X2 Y, with a second fusion to an autosome to make X1 X2 X3 Y. Phylogeny shows at least 8-15 gains (or possibly some losses) of neo-Y (i.e., X-autosome fusions), a remarkable number for such a small clade. In contrast to the many X-autosome fusions, at most one autosome-autosome fusion is indicated. Origins of neo-Y are correlated significantly with distal localization of chiasmata, supporting White's hypothesis that evolution of neo-Y systems is facilitated by looser pairing (distal chiasmata) at meiosis. However, an alternative (or contributing) explanation for the correlation is that X-autosome fusions were selected to permit isolation of male-favored alleles to the neo-Y chromosome, aided by distal chiasmata limiting recombination. This intralocus sexual conflict hypothesis could explain both the many X-autosome fusions, and the stunning complexity of male Habronattus courtship displays.
Project description:Calcium antagonists play an important role in clinical practice. However, most of them have serious side effects. We have synthesized a series of novel calcium antagonists, quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of haloperidol with N-p-methoxybenzyl (X1), N-m-methoxybenzyl (X2) and N-o-methoxybenzyl (X3) groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of these novel calcium antagonists, especially the vasodilation activity and cardiac side-effects. The possible working mechanisms of these haloperidol derivatives were also explored.Novel calcium antagonists were synthesized by amination. Compounds were screened for their activity of vasodilation on isolated thoracic aortic ring of rats. Their cardiac side effects were explored. The patch-clamp, confocal laser microscopy and the computer-fitting molecular docking experiments were employed to investigate the possible working mechanisms of these calcium antagonists.The novel calcium antagonists, X1, X2 and X3 showed stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect than that of classical calcium antagonists. They blocked L-type calcium channels with an potent effect order of X1 > X2 > X3. Consistently, X1, X2 and X3 interacted with different regions of Ca2+-CaM-CaV1.2 with an affinity order of X1 > X2 > X3.The new halopedidol derivatives X1, X2 and X3 are novel calcium antagonists with stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect. They could have wide clinical application.
Project description:Interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8), the archetypal member of the CXC chemokine subfamily, stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis by activating receptors CXCR1/IL8RA and CXCR2/IL8RB. Previous mutational studies have implicated both the N-terminal and third extracellular loop (E3) regions of these receptors in binding to IL-8. To investigate the interactions of these receptor elements with IL-8, we have constructed soluble proteins in which the N-terminal and E3 elements of either CXCR1 or CXCR2 are juxtaposed on a soluble scaffold protein; these are termed CROSS-N(X1)E3(X1) and CROSS-N(X2)E3(X2), respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to compare the IL-8 binding properties of the receptor mimics to those of control proteins containing only the N-terminal or E3 receptor element. CROSS-N(X2)E3(X2) bound to monomeric IL-8 with the same affinity and induced the same chemical shift changes as the control protein containing only the N-terminal element of CXCR2, indicating that the E3 element of CXCR2 did not contribute to IL-8 binding. In contrast, CROSS-N(X1)E3(X1) bound to IL-8 with ~10-fold increased affinity and induced different chemical shift changes compared to the control protein containing only the N-terminal element of CXCR1, suggesting that the E3 region of CXCR1 was interacting with IL-8. However, a chimeric protein containing the N-terminal region of CXCR1 and the E3 region of CXCR2 (CROSS-N(X1)E3(X2)) bound to IL-8 with thermodynamic properties and induced chemical shift changes indistinguishable from those of CROSS-N(X1)E3(X1) and substantially different from those of CROSS-N(X2)E3(X2). These results indicate that the N-terminal and E3 regions of CXCR1 interact synergistically to achieve optimal binding interactions with IL-8.
Project description:Activins regulate numerous processes including inflammation and are synthesized as precursors consisting of a long N-terminal pro-region and a mature protein. Genomic human databases currently list three activin A (Act A) variants termed X1, X2 and X3. The X3 variant is the shortest, lacks N-terminal segments present in X1 and X2, and has been the focus of most past literature. Here, we asked whether these variants are expressed by human cells and tissues and what structural features are contained within their pro-regions. Human monocytic-like cells THP1 and U937 expressed X1 and X2 variants after exposure to phorbol ester or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, while X2 transcripts were present in placenta. Expression vectors encoding full length X2 or X3 variants resulted in production and secretion of biologically active Act A from cultured cells. Previous studies reported a putative HS-binding domain (HBD) in the X3 pro-region. Here, we identified a novel HBD with consensus HS-binding motifs near the N-terminal end of X1 and X2 pro-regions. Peptides encompassing this new domain interacted with substrate-bound HS with nanomolar affinity, while peptides from putative X3 HBD did not. In good agreement, full length X2 pro-region interacted with heparin-agarose, while the X3 pro-region did not. In sum, our study reveals that Act A variants are expressed by inflammatory cells and placenta and yield biological activity. The high affinity HBD in X1 and X2 pro-region and its absence in X3 could greatly influence overall Act A distribution, availability and activity in physiological and pathological circumstances.