Acoustic trauma increases cochlear and hair cell uptake of gentamicin.
ABSTRACT: Exposure to intense sound or high doses of aminoglycoside antibiotics can increase hearing thresholds, induce cochlear dysfunction, disrupt hair cell morphology and promote hair cell death, leading to permanent hearing loss. When the two insults are combined, synergistic ototoxicity occurs, exacerbating cochlear vulnerability to sound exposure. The underlying mechanism of this synergism remains unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sound exposure enhances the intra-cochlear trafficking of aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, leading to increased hair cell uptake of aminoglycosides and subsequent ototoxicity.Juvenile C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to moderate or intense sound levels, while fluorescently-conjugated or native gentamicin was administered concurrently or following sound exposure. Drug uptake was then examined in cochlear tissues by confocal microscopy.Prolonged sound exposure that induced temporary threshold shifts increased gentamicin uptake by cochlear hair cells, and increased gentamicin permeation across the strial blood-labyrinth barrier. Enhanced intra-cochlear trafficking and hair cell uptake of gentamicin also occurred when prolonged sound, and subsequent aminoglycoside exposure were temporally separated, confirming previous observations. Acute, concurrent sound exposure did not increase cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides.Prolonged, moderate sound exposures enhanced intra-cochlear aminoglycoside trafficking into the stria vascularis and hair cells. Changes in strial and/or hair cell physiology and integrity due to acoustic overstimulation could increase hair cell uptake of gentamicin, and may represent one mechanism of synergistic ototoxicity.
Project description:Aminoglycosides enter inner ear hair cells across their apical membranes via endocytosis, or through the mechanoelectrical transduction channels in vitro, suggesting that these drugs enter cochlear hair cells from endolymph to exert their cytotoxic effect. We used zebrafish to determine if fluorescently tagged gentamicin (GTTR) also enters hair cells via apically located calcium-sensitive cation channels and the cytotoxicity of GTTR to hair cells. We then examined the serum kinetics of GTTR following systemic injection in mice and which murine cochlear sites preferentially loaded with systemically administered GTTR over time by confocal microscopy. GTTR is taken up by, and is toxic to, wild-type zebrafish neuromast hair cells. Neuromast hair cell uptake of GTTR is attenuated by high concentrations of extracellular calcium or unconjugated gentamicin and is blocked in mariner mutant zebrafish, suggestive of entry via the apical mechanotransduction channel. In murine cochleae, GTTR is preferentially taken up by the stria vascularis compared to the spiral ligament, peaking 3 h after intra-peritoneal injection, following GTTR kinetics in serum. Strial marginal cells display greater intensity of GTTR fluorescence compared to intermediate and basal cells. Immunofluorescent detection of gentamicin in the cochlea also revealed widespread cellular labeling throughout the cochlea, with preferential labeling of marginal cells. Only GTTR fluorescence displayed increasing cytoplasmic intensity with increasing concentration, unlike the cytoplasmic intensity of fluorescence from immunolabeled gentamicin. These data suggest that systemically administered aminoglycosides are trafficked from strial capillaries into marginal cells and clear into endolymph. If so, this will facilitate electrophoretically driven aminoglycoside entry into hair cells from endolymph. Trans-strial trafficking of aminoglycosides from strial capillaries to marginal cells will be dependent on as-yet-unidentified mechanisms that convey these drugs across the intra-strial electrical barrier and into marginal cells.
Project description:Aminoglycoside antibiotics are essential for treating life-threatening bacterial infections, despite the risk of lifelong hearing loss. Infections induce inflammation and up-regulate expression of candidate aminoglycoside-permeant cation channels, including transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). Heterologous expression of TRPV1 facilitated cellular uptake of (fluorescently tagged) gentamicin that was enhanced by agonists, and diminished by antagonists, of TRPV1. Cochlear TRPV1 was immunolocalized near the apical membranes of sensory hair cells, adjacent supporting cells, and marginal cells in the stria vascularis. Exposure to immunostimulatory lipopolysaccharides, to simulate of bacterial infections, increased cochlear expression of TRPV1 and hair cell uptake of gentamicin. Lipopolysaccharide exposure exacerbated aminoglycoside-induced auditory threshold shifts and loss of cochlear hair cells in wild-type, but not in heterozygous Trpv1+/- or Trpv1 knockout, mice. Thus, TRPV1 facilitates cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides, and bacteriogenic stimulation upregulates TRPV1 expression to exacerbate cochleotoxicity. Furthermore, loss-of-function polymorphisms in Trpv1 can protect against immunogenic exacerbation of aminoglycoside-induced cochleotoxicity.
Project description:Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin could cause ototoxicity in mammalians, by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in sensory hair cells of the cochlea. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) is reported to alleviate oxidative stress and apoptosis, but its role in protecting aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss is unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis effect of NaHS in in vitro cultured House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells and isolated mouse cochlea. Results from cultured HEI-OC1 cells and cochlea consistently indicated that NaHS exhibited protective effects from gentamicin-induced ototoxicity, evident by maintained cell viability, hair cell number and cochlear morphology, reduced reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, as well as apoptosis activation of the intrinsic pathway. Moreover, in the isolated cochlear culture, NaHS was also demonstrated to protect the explant from gentamicin-induced mechanotransduction loss. Our study using multiple in vitro models revealed for the first time, the potential of NaHS as a therapeutic agent in protecting against aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.
Project description:Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause death of sensory hair cells. Research over the past decade has identified several key players in the intracellular cascade. However, the role of the extracellular environment in aminoglycoside ototoxicity has received comparatively little attention. The present study uses the zebrafish lateral line to demonstrate that extracellular calcium and magnesium ions modulate hair cell death from neomycin and gentamicin in vivo, with high levels of either divalent cation providing significant protection. Imaging experiments with fluorescently-tagged gentamicin show that drug uptake is reduced under high calcium conditions. Treating fish with the hair cell transduction blocker amiloride also reduces aminoglycoside uptake, preventing the toxicity, and experiments with variable calcium and amiloride concentrations suggest complementary effects between the two protectants. Elevated magnesium, in contrast, does not appear to significantly attenuate drug uptake, suggesting that the two divalent cations may protect hair cells from aminoglycoside damage through different mechanisms. These results provide additional evidence for calcium- and transduction-dependent aminoglycoside uptake. Divalent cations provided differential protection from neomycin and gentamicin, with high cation concentrations almost completely protecting hair cells from neomycin and acute gentamicin toxicity, but offering reduced protection from continuous (6 h) gentamicin exposure. These experiments lend further support to the hypothesis that aminoglycoside toxicity occurs via multiple pathways in a both a drug and time course-specific manner.
Project description:Cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses play an important role in sound encoding and neurotransmitter release. Previous reports show that both noise and aminoglycoside exposures lead to reduced numbers and morphologic changes of synaptic ribbons. In this work, we determined the distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and their role in the gentamicin-induced pathological changes of cochlear IHC ribbon synaptic elements. In normal mature mouse cochleae, the majority of NMDARs were distributed on the modiolar side of IHCs and close to the IHC nuclei region, while most of synaptic ribbons and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) were located on neural terminals closer to the IHC basal poles. After gentamicin exposure, the NMDARs increased and moved towards the IHC basal poles. At the same time, synaptic ribbons and AMPARs moved toward the IHC bundle poles on the afferent dendrites. The number of ribbon synapse decreased, and this was accompanied by increased auditory brainstem response thresholds and reduced wave I amplitudes. NMDAR antagonist MK801 treatment reduced the gentamicin-induced hearing loss and the pathological changes of IHC ribbon synapse, suggesting that NMDARs were involved in gentamicin-induced ototoxicity by regulating the number and distribution of IHC ribbon synapses.
Project description:Previous studies have reported that modification of histones alters aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. In this study, we investigated three FDA-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (vorinostat/SAHA, belinostat, and panobinostat) as protectants against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in murine cochlear explants and in vivo in both guinea pigs and CBA/J mice. Individually, all three HDAC inhibitors reduced gentamicin (GM)-induced hair cell loss in a dose-dependent fashion in explants. In vivo, however, treatment with SAHA attenuated neither GM-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in guinea pigs nor kanamycin (KM)-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in mice under chronic models of ototoxicity. These findings suggest that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor SAHA attenuates aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in an acute model, but not in chronic models, cautioning that one cannot rely solely on in vitro experiments to test the efficacy of otoprotectant compounds.
Project description:Aminoglycosides (AGs) are widely used antibiotics because of their low cost and high efficacy against gram-negative bacterial infection. However, AGs are ototoxic, causing the death of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Strategies aimed at developing or discovering agents that protect against aminoglycoside ototoxicity have focused on inhibiting apoptosis or more recently, on preventing antibiotic uptake by the hair cells. Recent screens for ototoprotective compounds using the larval zebrafish lateral line identified phenoxybenzamine as a potential protectant for aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. Here we used live imaging of FM1-43 uptake as a proxy for aminoglycoside entry, combined with hair-cell death assays to evaluate whether phenoxybenzamine can protect mammalian cochlear hair cells from the deleterious effects of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. We show that phenoxybenzamine can block FM1-43 entry into mammalian hair cells in a reversible and dose-dependent manner, but pre-incubation is required for maximal inhibition of entry. We observed differential effects of phenoxybenzamine on FM1-43 uptake in the two different types of cochlear hair cell in mammals, the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs). The requirement for pre-incubation and reversibility suggests an intracellular rather than an extracellular site of action for phenoxybenzamine. We also tested the efficacy of phenoxybenzamine as an otoprotective agent. In mouse cochlear explants the hair cell death resulting from 24 h exposure to neomycin was steeply dose-dependent, with 50% cell death occurring at ~230 ?M for both IHC and OHC. We used 250 ?M neomycin in subsequent hair-cell death assays. At 100 ?M with 1 h pre-incubation, phenoxybenzamine conferred significant protection to both IHCs and OHCs, however at higher concentrations phenoxybenzamine itself showed clear signs of ototoxicity and an additive toxic effect when combined with neomycin. These data do not support the use of phenoxybenzamine as a therapeutic agent in mammalian inner ear. Our findings do share parallels with the observations from the zebrafish lateral line model but they also highlight the necessity for validation in the mammalian system and the potential for differential effects on sensory hair cells from different species, in different systems and even between cells in the same organ.
Project description:Inner ear hair cell death leads to sensorineural hearing loss and can be a direct consequence of aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment. Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin are effective therapy for serious Gram-negative bacterial infections such as some forms of meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Aminoglycosides enter hair cells through mechanotransduction channels at the apical end of hair bundles and initiate intrinsic cell death cascades, but the precise cell signaling that leads to hair cell death is incompletely understood. Here, we examine the cell death pathways involved in aminoglycoside damage using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The zebrafish lateral line contains hair cell-bearing organs called neuromasts that are homologous to hair cells of the mammalian inner ear and represents an excellent model to study ototoxicity. Based on previous research demonstrating a role for p53, Bcl2 signaling, autophagy, and proteasomal degradation in aminoglycoside-damaged hair cells, we used the Cytoscape GeneMANIA Database to identify additional proteins that might play a role in neomycin or gentamicin ototoxicity. Our bioinformatics analysis identified the pro-survival proteins phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (Xiap) as potential mediators of gentamicin-induced hair cell damage. Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 or its downstream mediator protein kinase C facilitated gentamicin toxicity, as did Xiap mutation, suggesting that both PI3K and endogenous Xiap confer protection. Surprisingly, aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death was highly attenuated in wild type Tupfel long-fin (TL fish; the background strain for the Xiap mutant line) compared to wild type ?AB zebrafish. Pharmacologic manipulation of p53 suggested that the strain difference might result from decreased p53 in TL hair cells, allowing for increased hair cell survival. Overall, our studies identified additional steps in the cell death cascade triggered by aminoglycoside damage, suggesting possible drug targets to combat hearing loss resulting from aminoglycoside exposure.
Project description:Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity can have a major impact on patients' quality of life and social development problems. Oxidative stress affects normal physiologic functions and has been implicated in aminoglycoside-induced inner ear injury. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages DNA, lipids, and proteins in cells and induces their apoptosis. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a natural flavonol with a wide range of health benefits including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant effects; however, its effects and mechanism of action in auditory hair cells are not well understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant mechanism and anti-ototoxic potential of DHM using House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti (HEI-OC)1 auditory cells and cochlear explant cultures prepared from Kunming mice. We used gentamicin to establish aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity models. Histological and physiological analyses were carried out to determine DHM's pharmacological effects on gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Results showed DHM contributes to protecting cells from apoptotic cell death by inhibiting ROS accumulation. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that DHM exerted its otoprotective effects by up-regulating levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?-coactivator (PGC)-1? and Sirtuin (SIRT)3. And the role of PGC-1? and SIRT3 in the protective effects of DHM was evaluated by pharmacologic inhibition of these factors using SR-18292 and 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) pyridine, respectively, which indicated DHM's protective effect was dependent on activation of the PGC-1?/SIRT3 signaling. Our study is the first report to identify DHM as a potential otoprotective drug and provides a basis for the prevention and treatment of hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced oxidative damage to auditory hair cells.
Project description:Aminoglycosides like gentamicin are among the most commonly used antibiotics in clinical practice and are essential for treating life-threatening tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, aminoglycosides are also nephrotoxic and ototoxic. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear how aminoglycosides induce cell death in auditory sensory epithelia and subsequent deafness. Aminoglycosides bind to various intracellular molecules, such as RNA and phosphoinositides. We hypothesized that aminoglycosides, based on their tissue-specific susceptibility, also bind to intracellular proteins that play a role in drug-induced ototoxicity. By conjugating an aminoglycoside, gentamicin, to agarose beads and conducting a gentamicin-agarose pull-down assay, we have isolated gentamicin-binding proteins (GBPs) from immortalized cells of mouse organ of Corti, HEI-OC1. Mass spectrometry identified calreticulin (CRT) as a GBP. Immunofluorescence revealed that CRT expression is concentrated in strial marginal cells and hair cell stereocilia, primary locations of drug uptake and cytotoxicity in the cochlea. In HEI-OC1 cells treated with gentamicin, reduction of CRT expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced intracellular drug levels. CRT-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells as well as CRT siRNA-transfected wild-type MEFs also had reduced cell viability after gentamicin treatment. A pull-down assay using deletion mutants of CRT determined that the carboxyl C-domain of CRT binds to gentamicin. HeLa cells transfected with CRT C-domain deletion mutant construct were more susceptible to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity compared with cells transfected with full-length CRT or other deletion mutants. Therefore, we conclude that CRT binding to gentamicin is protective against gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity.