Comparative lipidomics of azole sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans reveals unexpected diversity in molecular lipid imprints.
ABSTRACT: Although transcriptome and proteome approaches have been applied to determine the regulatory circuitry behind multidrug resistance (MDR) in Candida, its lipidome remains poorly characterized. Lipids do acclimatize to the development of MDR in Candida, but exactly how the acclimatization is achieved is poorly understood. In the present study, we have used a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based shotgun approach and analyzed the lipidome of genetically matched clinical azole-sensitive (AS) and -resistant (AR) isolates of C. albicans. By comparing the lipid profiling of matched isolates, we have identified major classes of lipids and determined more than 200 individual molecular lipid species among these major classes. The lipidome analysis has been statistically validated by principal component analysis. Although each AR isolate was similar with regard to displaying a high MIC to drugs, they had a distinct lipid imprint. There were some significant commonalities in the lipid profiles of these pairs, including molecular lipid species ranging from monounsaturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphoglycerides. Consistent fluctuation in phosphatidyl serine, mannosylinositolphosphorylceramides, and sterol esters levels indicated their compensatory role in maintaining lipid homeostasis among most AR isolates. Notably, overexpression of either CaCdr1p or CaMdr1p efflux pump proteins led to a different lipidomic response among AR isolates. This study clearly establishes the versatility of lipid metabolism in handling azole stress among various matched AR isolates. This comprehensive lipidomic approach will serve as a resource for assessing strategies aimed at disrupting the functions of Candida lipids, particularly the functional interactions between lipids and MDR determinants.
Project description:Prolonged usage of antifungal azoles which target enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis invariably leads to the development of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in Candida albicans. We had earlier shown that membrane lipids and their fluidity are closely linked to the MDR phenomenon. In one of our recent studies involving comparative lipidomics between azole susceptible (AS) and azole resistant (AR) matched pair clinical isolates of C. albicans, we could not see consistent differences in the lipid profiles of AS and AR strains because they came from different patients and so in this study, we have used genetically related variant recovered from the same patient collected over a period of 2-years. During this time, the levels of fluconazole (FLC) resistance of the strain increased by over 200-fold. By comparing the lipid profiles of select isolates, we were able to observe gradual and statistically significant changes in several lipid classes, particularly in plasma membrane microdomain specific lipids such as mannosylinositolphosphorylceramides and ergosterol, and in a mitochondrial specific phosphoglyceride, phosphatidyl glycerol. Superimposed with these quantitative and qualitative changes in the lipid profiles, were simultaneous changes at the molecular lipid species levels which again coincided with the development of resistance to FLC. Reverse transcriptase-PCR of the key genes of the lipid metabolism validated lipidomic picture. Taken together, this study illustrates how the gradual corrective changes in Candida lipidome correspond to the development of FLC tolerance. Our study also shows a first instance of the mitochondrial membrane dysfunction and defective cell wall (CW) in clinical AR isolates of C. albicans, and provides evidence of a cross-talk between mitochondrial lipid homeostasis, CW integrity and azole tolerance.
Project description:Lipids are most adaptable molecules that acclimatize to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The precise molecular mechanism of this acclimatization achieved in <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> (MTB) remains elusive. Although lipids of MTB have been characterized to some details, a comparable resource does not exist between drug sensitive (DS) and resistant (DR) strains of MTB. Here, by employing high-throughput mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach, we attempted to analyze the differential lipidome profile of DS and DR MTB clinical isolates. We analyzed three major classes of lipids viz fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids and their respective subclasses. Notably, we observed differential fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids as evident from increased mycolic acids phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol, cardiolipin and triacylglycerides abundance, respectively, which are crucial for MTB virulence and pathogenicity. Considering the fact that 30% of the MTB genome codes for lipid, this comprehensive lipidomic approach unravels extensive lipid alterations in DS and DR that will serve as a resource for identifying biomarkers aimed at disrupting the functions of MTB lipids responsible for MDR acquisition in MTB.
Project description:The lipid composition of human skin is essential for its function; however the simultaneous quantification of a wide range of stratum corneum (SC) and sebaceous lipids is not trivial. We developed and validated a quantitative high-throughput shotgun mass spectrometry-based platform for lipid analysis of tape-stripped SC skin samples. It features coverage of 16 lipid classes; total quantification to the level of individual lipid molecules; high reproducibility and high-throughput capabilities. With this method we conducted a large lipidomic survey of 268 human SC samples, where we investigated the relationship between sampling depth and lipid composition, lipidome variability in samples from 14 different sampling sites on the human body and finally, we assessed the impact of age and sex on lipidome variability in 104 healthy subjects. We found sebaceous lipids to constitute an abundant component of the SC lipidome as they diffuse into the topmost SC layers forming a gradient. Lipidomic variability with respect to sampling depth, site and subject is considerable, and mainly accredited to sebaceous lipids, while stratum corneum lipids vary less. This stresses the importance of sampling design and the role of sebaceous lipids in skin studies.
Project description:Comparative analysis of genome wide binding profile of Ncb2 in azole sensitive (AS, Gu4) and azole resistant (AR, Gu5) clinical isolates of Candida albicans. The goal was to study the role of Ncb2 in acquisition of drug resistance by comparing the binding profiles of Ncb2 in both the isolates. Overall design: Agilent two-color ChIP on chip experiment, Organism: Candida Albicans , Agilent Candida Albicans COC_4X180K chip on ChIP AMADID: 038045 designed by Genotypic Technology Private Limited.
Project description:Ncb2, the ? subunit of NC2 complex, a heterodimeric regulator of transcription was earlier shown to be involved in the activated transcription of CDR1 gene in azole resistant isolate (AR) of Candida albicans. This study examines its genome-wide role by profiling Ncb2 occupancy between genetically matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and AR clinical isolates. A comparison of Ncb2 recruitment between the two isolates displayed that 29 genes had higher promoter occupancy of Ncb2 in the AR isolate. Additionally, a host of genes exhibited exclusive occupancy of Ncb2 at promoters of either AR or AS isolate. The analysis also divulged new actors of multi-drug resistance, whose transcription was activated owing to the differential occupancy of Ncb2. The conditional, sequence-specific positional escape of Ncb2 from the core promoter in AS isolate and its preferential recruitment to the core promoter of certain genes in AR isolates was most noteworthy means of transcription regulation. Together, we show that positional rearrangement of Ncb2 resulting in either activation or repression of gene expression in response to drug-induced stress, represents a novel regulatory mechanism that opens new opportunities for therapeutic intervention to prevent development of drug tolerance in C. albicans cells.
Project description:We have shown earlier that fluconazole (FLC) stress induces global changes in the lipidome of Candida albicans in clinically adapted isolates. However, several laboratories have developed adapted in vitro FLC resistant strains of C. albicans to study azole resistance mechanisms. This study aimed to identify the lipid changes associated with FLC resistance in these in vitro adapted isolates. Using comparative lipidomics and principal component and discriminant analyses, we observed gradual changes in several lipid classes and molecular species upon FLC exposure of in vitro resistant C. albicans strains. Although the lipid imprint of FLC in vitro resistant isolates was very distinct from that of clinical isolates of C. albicans, the overall changes in lipid class compositions were similar in both cases. For example, an increased sterol content and depleted sphingolipid levels were the salient features of FLC resistance in both conditions. Taken together, it appears that the overall cellular lipid homeostasis is a critical factor in the observed FLC resistance and in handling FLC stress in both clinical and laboratory situations. The new observations reported herein have implications for more efficacious antifungal drug development as well as understanding host-infectious agent interactions in postgenomics microbiology practice.
Project description:Lipidomics of human blood plasma is an emerging biomarker discovery approach that compares lipid profiles under pathological and physiologically normal conditions, but how a healthy lipidome varies within the population is poorly understood. By quantifying 281 molecular species from 27 major lipid classes in the plasma of 71 healthy young Caucasians whose 35 clinical blood test and anthropometric indices matched the medical norm, we provided a comprehensive, expandable and clinically relevant resource of reference molar concentrations of individual lipids. We established that gender is a major lipidomic factor, whose impact is strongly enhanced by hormonal contraceptives and mediated by sex hormone-binding globulin. In lipidomics epidemiological studies should avoid mixed-gender cohorts and females taking hormonal contraceptives should be considered as a separate sub-cohort. Within a gender-restricted cohort lipidomics revealed a compositional signature that indicates the predisposition towards an early development of metabolic syndrome in ca. 25% of healthy male individuals suggesting a healthy plasma lipidome as resource for early biomarker discovery.
Project description:Platelet integrity and function critically depend on lipid composition. However, the lipid inventory in platelets was hitherto not quantified. Here, we examined the lipidome of murine platelets using lipid-category tailored protocols on a quantitative lipidomics platform. We could show that the platelet lipidome comprises almost 400 lipid species and covers a concentration range of 7 orders of magnitude. A systematic comparison of the lipidomics network in resting and activated murine platelets, validated in human platelets, revealed that <20% of the platelet lipidome is changed upon activation, involving mainly lipids containing arachidonic acid. Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (Smpd1) deficiency resulted in a very specific modulation of the platelet lipidome with an order of magnitude upregulation of lysosphingomyelin (SPC), and subsequent modification of platelet activation and thrombus formation. In conclusion, this first comprehensive quantitative lipidomic analysis of platelets sheds light on novel mechanisms important for platelet function, and has therefore the potential to open novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in storing excess fat and its composition reflects the history of person's lifestyle and metabolic health. Broad profiling of lipids with mass spectrometry has potential for uncovering new knowledge on the pathology of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and other related conditions. Here, we developed a lipidomic method for analyzing human subcutaneous adipose biopsies. We applied the method to four body areas to understand the differences in lipid composition between these areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Adipose tissue biopsies from 10 participants were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sample preparation optimization included the optimization of the lipid extraction, the sample amount and the sample dilution factor to detect lipids in an appropriate concentration range. Lipidomic analyses were performed for adipose tissue collected from the abdomen, breast, thigh and lower back. Differences in lipid levels between tissues were visualized with heatmaps. RESULTS:Lipidomic analysis on human adipose biopsies lead to the identification of 186lipids in 2 mg of sample. Technical variation of the lipid-class specific internal standards were below 5%, thus indicating acceptable repeatability. Triacylglycerols were highly represented in the adipose tissue samples, and lipids from 13 lipid classes were identified. Long polyunsaturated triacylglycerols in higher levels in thigh (q<0.05), when compared with the abdomen, breast and lower back, indicating that the lipidome was area-specific. CONCLUSION:The method presented here is suitable for the analysis of lipid profiles in 2 mg of adipose tissue. The amount of fat across the body is important for health but we argue that also the distribution and the particular profile of the lipidome may be relevant for metabolic outcomes. We suggest that the method presented in this paper could be useful for detecting such aberrations.
Project description:While being the third leading cause of candidemia worldwide, numerous studies have shown severe clonal outbreaks due to fluconazole-resistant (FLCR) <i>Candida parapsilosis</i> isolates associated with fluconazole therapeutic failure (FTF) with enhanced mortality. More recently, multidrug resistant (MDR) <i>C. parapsilosis</i> blood isolates have also been identified that are resistant to both azole and echinocandin drugs. Amphotericin B (AMB) resistance is rarely reported among <i>C. parapsilosis</i> isolates and proper management of bloodstream infections due to FLZR and MDR isolates requires prompt action at the time of outbreak. Therefore, using a well-established <i>Galleria mellonella</i> model, we assessed whether (a) laboratory-based findings on azole or echinocandin (micafungin) resistance in <i>C. parapsilosis</i> lead to therapeutic failure, (b) LAMB could serve as an efficient salvage treatment option, and (c) distinct mutations in <i>ERG11</i> impact mortality. Our in vivo data confirm fluconazole inefficacy against FLCR <i>C. parapsilosis</i> isolates carrying Y132F, Y132F + K143R, Y132F + G307A, and G307A + G458S in Erg11p, while LAMB proved to be an efficacious accessible option against both FLCR and MDR <i>C. parapsilosis</i> isolates. Moreover, positive correlation of in vitro and in vivo data further highlights the utility of <i>G. melonella</i> as a reliable model to investigate azole and polyene drug efficacy.