Single-molecule paleoenzymology probes the chemistry of resurrected enzymes.
ABSTRACT: It is possible to travel back in time at the molecular level by reconstructing proteins from extinct organisms. Here we report the reconstruction, based on sequence predicted by phylogenetic analysis, of seven Precambrian thioredoxin enzymes (Trx) dating back between ~1.4 and ~4 billion years (Gyr). The reconstructed enzymes are up to 32 °C more stable than modern enzymes, and the oldest show markedly higher activity than extant ones at pH 5. We probed the mechanisms of reduction of these enzymes using single-molecule force spectroscopy. From the force dependency of the rate of reduction of an engineered substrate, we conclude that ancient Trxs use chemical mechanisms of reduction similar to those of modern enzymes. Although Trx enzymes have maintained their reductase chemistry unchanged, they have adapted over 4 Gyr to the changes in temperature and ocean acidity that characterize the evolution of the global environment from ancient to modern Earth.
Project description:Thioredoxins (Trxs) are oxidoreductase enzymes, present in all organisms, that catalyze the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins. By applying a calibrated force to a substrate disulfide, the chemical mechanisms of Trx catalysis can be examined in detail at the single-molecule level. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to explore the chemical evolution of Trx catalysis by probing the chemistry of eight different Trx enzymes. All Trxs show a characteristic Michaelis-Menten mechanism that is detected when the disulfide bond is stretched at low forces, but at high forces, two different chemical behaviors distinguish bacterial-origin from eukaryotic-origin Trxs. Eukaryotic-origin Trxs reduce disulfide bonds through a single-electron transfer reaction (SET), whereas bacterial-origin Trxs show both nucleophilic substitution (S(N)2) and SET reactions. A computational analysis of Trx structures identifies the evolution of the binding groove as an important factor controlling the chemistry of Trx catalysis.
Project description:The chloroplast-localized cystathionine ?-synthase X (CBSX) proteins CBSX1 and CBSX2 have been proposed as modulators of thioredoxins (Trxs). In this study, the contribution of CBSX proteins to the redox regulation of thiol enzymes in the chloroplast Trx system was evaluated both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. The <i>in vitro</i> biochemical studies evaluated whether CBSX proteins alter the specificities of classical chloroplastic Trx <i>f</i> and Trx <i>m</i> for their target proteins. However, addition of CBSX proteins did not alter the specificities of Trx <i>f</i> and Trx <i>m</i> for disulfide bond reduction of the photosynthesis-related major thiol enzymes, FBPase, SBPase, and NADP-MDH. <i>In vivo</i> analysis showed that CBSX-deficient mutants grew similarly to wild type plants under continuous normal light conditions and that CBSX deficiency did not affect photo-reduction of photosynthesis-related thiol enzymes by Trx system at several light intensities. Although CBSX proteins have been suggested as modulators in the chloroplast Trx system, our results did not support this model, at least in the cases of FBPase, SBPase, and NADP-MDH in leaves. However, fresh weights of the <i>cbsx2</i> mutants were decreased under short day. Since Trxs regulate many proteins participating in various metabolic reactions in the chloroplast, CBSX proteins may function to regulate other chloroplast Trx target proteins, or serve as modulators in non-photosynthetic plastids of flowers. As a next stage, further investigations are required to understand the modulation of Trx-dependent redox regulation by plastidal CBSX proteins.
Project description:Redox regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to light. Extensive biochemical analyses in vitro have identified f-type thioredoxins (Trxs) as the most important catalysts for light-dependent reduction and activation of the enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle. However, the precise function of type f Trxs in vivo and their impact on plant growth are still poorly known. To address this issue we have generated an Arabidopsis thaliana double knock-out mutant, termed trxf1f2, devoid of both f1 and f2 Trxs. Despite the essential function previously proposed for f-type Trxs, the visible phenotype of the trxf1f2 double mutant was virtually indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under a long-day photoperiod. However, the Trx f-deficient plants showed growth inhibition under a short-day photoperiod which was not rescued at high light intensity. The absence of f-type Trxs led to significantly lower photosynthetic electron transport rates and higher levels of non-photochemical energy quenching. Notably, the Trx f null mutant suffered from a shortage of photosystem I electron acceptors and delayed activation of carbon dioxide fixation following a dark-light transition. Two redox-regulated Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and Rubisco activase, showed retarded and incomplete reduction in the double mutant upon illumination, compared with wild-type plants. These results show that the function of f-type Trxs in the rapid activation of carbon metabolism in response to light is not entirely compensated for by additional plastid redox systems, and suggest that these Trxs have an important role in the light adjustment of photosynthetic metabolism.
Project description:Protein disulfide reduction by thioredoxins (TRXs) controls the conformation of enzyme active sites and their multimeric complex formation. TRXs are small oxidoreductases that are broadly conserved in all living organisms. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, TRXs form a large multigenic family, and they have been classified in different types: f, m, x, y, and z types are chloroplastic, while o and h types are located in mitochondria and cytosol. In the model unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the TRX family contains seven types, with f- and h-types represented by two isozymes. Type-f TRXs interact specifically with targets in the chloroplast, controlling photosynthetic carbon fixation by the Calvin?Benson cycle. We solved the crystal structures of TRX f2 and TRX h1 from C. reinhardtii. The systematic comparison of their atomic features revealed a specific conserved electropositive crown around the active site of TRX f, complementary to the electronegative surface of their targets. We postulate that this surface provides specificity to each type of TRX.
Project description:Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d (^im) plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson-Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
Project description:Thioredoxins (TRXs) are key players within the complex response network of plants to environmental constraints. Here, the physiological implication of the plastidial y-type TRXs in Arabidopsis drought tolerance was examined. We previously showed that TRXs y1 and y2 have antioxidant functions, and here, the corresponding single and double mutant plants were studied in the context of water deprivation. TRX y mutant plants showed reduced stress tolerance in comparison with wild-type (WT) plants that correlated with an increase in their global protein oxidation levels. Furthermore, at the level of the main antioxidant metabolites, while glutathione pool size and redox state were similarly affected by drought stress in WT and trxy1y2 plants, ascorbate (AsA) became more quickly and strongly oxidized in mutant leaves. Monodehydroascorbate (MDA) is the primary product of AsA oxidation and NAD(P)H-MDA reductase (MDHAR) ensures its reduction. We found that the extractable leaf NADPH-dependent MDHAR activity was strongly activated by TRX y2. Moreover, activity of recombinant plastid Arabidopsis MDHAR isoform (MDHAR6) was specifically increased by reduced TRX y, and not by other plastidial TRXs. Overall, these results reveal a new function for y-type TRXs and highlight their role as major antioxidants in plastids and their importance in plant stress tolerance.
Project description:Possible target proteins of chloroplast thioredoxin (Trx) have been investigated in the stroma lysate of spinach chloroplasts. For that purpose, we immobilized a mutant of m-type Trx in which an internal cysteine at the active site was substituted with serine, on cyanogen bromide-activated resin. By using this resin, the target proteins in chloroplast were efficiently acquired when they formed the mixed-disulfide intermediates with the immobilized Trxs. We could acquire Rubisco activase (45 kDa) and 2-Cys-type peroxiredoxin (Prx), which were recently identified as targets of chloroplast Trxs. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and sedoheputulose 1,7-bisphosphatase, well-known thiol enzymes in the Calvin cycle, also were recognized among the collected proteins, suggesting the method is applicable for our purpose. Furthermore, four proteins were identified from a homology search of the NH(2)-terminal sequence of the acquired proteins: glutamine synthetase, a protein homologous to chloroplast cyclophilin, a homolog of Prx-Q, and the Rubisco small subunit. The Trx susceptibilities of the recombinant cyclophilin and Prx-Q of Arabidopsis thaliana were then examined. The method developed in the present study is thus applicable to investigate the various redox networks via Trxs and the related enzymes in the cell.
Project description:Sulfurtransferases (Strs) and thioredoxins (Trxs) are members of large protein families. Trxs are disulfide reductases and play an important role in redox-related cellular processes. They interact with a broad range of proteins. Strs catalyze the transfer of a sulfur atom from a suitable sulfur donor to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors in vitro, but the physiological roles of these enzymes are not well defined. Several studies in different organisms demonstrate protein-protein interactions of Strs with members of the Trx family. We are interested in investigating the specificity of the interaction between Str and Trx isoforms. In order to use the bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), several Str and Trx sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into the pUC-SPYNE and pUC-SPYCE split-YFP vectors, respectively. Each couple of plasmids containing the sequences for the putative interaction partners were transformed into Arabidopsis protoplasts and screened using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Compartment- and partner-specific interactions could be observed in transformed protoplasts. Replacement of cysteine residues in the redox-active site of Trxs abolished the interaction signal. Therefore, the redox site is not only involved in the redox reaction but also responsible for the interaction with partner proteins. Biochemical assays support a specific interaction among Strs and certain Trxs. Based on the results obtained, the interaction of Strs and Trxs indicates a role of Strs in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis.
Project description:All organisms contain thioredoxin (TRX), a regulatory thiol:disulfide protein that reduces disulfide bonds in target proteins. Unlike animals and yeast, plants contain numerous TRXs for which no function has been assigned in vivo. Recent in vitro proteomic approaches have opened the way to the identification of >100 TRX putative targets, but of which none of the numerous plant TRXs can be specifically associated. In contrast, in vivo methodologies, including classical yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) systems, failed to reveal the expected high number of TRX targets. Here, we developed a yeast strain named CY306 designed to identify TRX targets in vivo by a Y2H approach. CY306 contains a GAL4 reporter system but also carries deletions of endogenous genes encoding cytosolic TRXs (TRX1 and TRX2) that presumably compete with TRXs introduced as bait. We demonstrate here that, in the CY306 strain, yeast TRX1 and TRX2, as well as Arabidopsis TRX introduced as bait, interact with known TRX targets or putative partners such as yeast peroxiredoxins AHP1 and TSA1, whereas the same interactions cannot be detected in classical Y2H strains. Thanks to CY306, we also show that TRXs interact with the phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase MET16 through a conserved cysteine. Moreover, interactions visualized in CY306 are highly specific depending on the TRX and targets tested. CY306 constitutes a relevant genetic system to explore the TRX interactome in vivo and with high specificity, and opens new perspectives in the search for new TRX-interacting proteins by Y2H library screening in organisms with multiple TRXs.
Project description:Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous disulphide reductases that play important roles in the redox regulation of many cellular processes. However, some redox-independent functions, such as chaperone activity, have also been attributed to Trxs in recent years. The focus of our study is on the putative chaperone function of the well-described plastid Trxs f and m. To that end, the cDNA of both Trxs, designated as NtTrxf and NtTrxm, was isolated from Nicotiana tabacum plants. It was found that bacterially expressed tobacco Trx f and Trx m, in addition to their disulphide reductase activity, possessed chaperone-like properties. In vitro, Trx f and Trx m could both facilitate the reactivation of the cysteine-free form of chemically denatured glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (foldase chaperone activity) and prevent heat-induced malate dehydrogenase aggregation (holdase chaperone activity). Our results led us to infer that the disulphide reductase and foldase chaperone functions prevail when the proteins occur as monomers and the well-conserved non-active cysteine present in Trx f is critical for both functions. By contrast, the holdase chaperone activity of both Trxs depended on their oligomeric status: the proteins were functional only when they were associated with high molecular mass protein complexes. Because the oligomeric status of both Trxs was induced by salt and temperature, our data suggest that plastid Trxs could operate as molecular holdase chaperones upon oxidative stress, acting as a type of small stress protein.