Growth hormone-related genes from baboon (Papio hamadryas): Characterization, placental expression and evolutionary aspects.
ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is a complex physiological condition, and the growth hormone (GH)-related hormones produced in the placenta, which emerged during the evolution of primates, are thought to play an important metabolic role in pregnancy that is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify the genes and transcription products of the GH family in baboon (Papio hamadryas) and to assess these in relation to the evolution of this gene family. GH-related transcripts were amplified using total RNA from placental tissue, by reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three different GH-related transcripts were identified in baboon placental tissue, with two encoding chorionic somatomammotropins (CSH) and one the placental variant of GH (GH-2). The CSH transcripts showed some minor allelic variation, and a splice variant of CSH-C that retains its in-frame third intron. Gene sequences for GH-1 (probably representing the GH gene expressed primarily in the pituitary gland), GH-2 and the two CSHs were identified in the baboon genomic database, together with a CSH-related pseudogene. Phylogenetic analysis of the baboon GH-related sequences, together with those of a related Old World monkey, macaque, and ape outgroup (human), showed the equivalence of the genes in baboon and macaque, and revealed evidence for several episodes of rapid adaptive evolution. Many of the substitutions seen during the evolution of these placental proteins have occurred in the receptor-binding sites, especially site 2, contrasting with the strong conservation of the hydrophobic core.
Project description:In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals.We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas). We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT) coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284?bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR).The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney) of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene.
Project description:The human growth hormone/chorionic somatomammotropin (hGH/CSH) locus at 17q22-24, consisting of one pituitary-expressed postnatal (GH1) and four placenta-expressed genes (GH2, CSH1, CSH2, and CSHL1), is implicated in regulation of postnatal and intrauterine growth. A positive correlation has been reported between the offspring's birth weight and serum placental GH (coded by GH2) and placental lactogen (coded by CSH1, CSH2) levels in pregnant women.The objective of the study was the investigation of the hypothesis that the mRNA expression profile of placental hGH/CSH genes contributes to the determination of birth weight.We developed a sensitive, fluorescent-labeled semiquantitative RT-PCR assay coupled with gene-specific restriction analysis, capable of distinguishing alternative splice-products of individual placental hGH/CSH genes and quantification of their relative expression levels. The detailed profile of alternative transcripts of GH2, CSH1, CSH2, and CSHL1 genes in placenta from uncomplicated term pregnancies of the REPROMETA sample collection was addressed in association with the birth weight of newborns, grouped as appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 23), small for gestational age (SGA; n = 15), and large for gestational age (LGA; n = 34).The majority of pregnancies with SGA newborn showed down-regulation of the entire hGH/CSH cluster in placenta, whereas in the case of LGA, the expression of CSH1-1, CSH2-1, and CSHL1-4 mRNA transcripts in placenta was significantly increased compared with AGA newborns (P < 0.0001, P = 0.009, P = 0.002, respectively).The expression profile of placental hGH/CSH genes in placenta is altered in pregnancies accompanied by SGA and LGA compared with AGA newborns, and thus, it may directly affect the circulating fetal and maternal placental GH and placental lactogen levels.
Project description:Human and great ape milks contain a diverse array of milk oligosaccharides, but little is known about the milk oligosaccharides of other primates, and how they differ among taxa. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk of three species of Old World or catarrhine monkeys (Cercopithecidae: rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), toque macaque (Macaca sinica) and Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas)) and three of New World or platyrrhine monkeys (Cebidae: tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) and Bolivian squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis); Atelidae: mantled howler (Alouatta palliata)). The milks of these species contained 6-8% total sugar, most of which was lactose: the estimated ratio of oligosaccharides to lactose in Old World monkeys (1:4 to 1:6) was greater than in New World monkeys (1:12 to 1:23). The chemical structures of the oligosaccharides were determined mainly by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc) were found in the milk of the rhesus macaque, toque macaque, Hamadryas baboon and tufted capuchin, but oligosaccharides containing the type I unit (Gal(?1-3)GlcNAc), which have been found in human and many great ape milks, were absent from the milk of all species studied. Oligosaccharides containing Lewis x (Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]GlcNAc) and 3-fucosyl lactose (3-FL, Gal(?1-4)[Fuc(?1-3)]Glc) were found in the milk of the three cercopithecid monkey species, while 2-fucosyl lactose (5'-FL, Fuc(?1-2)Gal(?1-4)Glc) was absent from all species studied. All of these milks contained acidic oligosaccharides that had N-acetylneuraminic acid as part of their structures, but did not contain oligosaccharides that had N-glycolylneuraminic acid, in contrast to the milk or colostrum of great apes which contain both types of acidic oligosaccharides. Two GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides, lactose 3'-O-sulfate and lacto-N-novopentaose I (Gal(?1-3)[Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-6)]Gal(?1-4)Glc) were found only in the milk of rhesus macaque, hamadryas baboon and tufted capuchin, respectively. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the milk oligosaccharide patterns observed among these taxa represent wider phylogenetic trends among primates and how much variation occurs among individuals or species.
Project description:The human GH/CSH cluster consisting of one pituitary-expressed (GH1) and four placenta-expressed loci has been implicated in maternal metabolic adaptation to pregnancy, regulation of intrauterine and postnatal growth. We investigated how the mRNA expression profile of placental GH2, CSH1 and CSH2 genes and their alternative transcripts correlates with maternal pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GD). The expression of studied genes in PE placentas (n=17) compared to controls (n=17) exhibited a trend for reduced transcript levels. The alternative transcripts retaining intron 4, GH2-2 and CSH1-2 showed significantly reduced expression in PE cases without growth restriction (P=0.007, P=0.008, respectively). In maternal GD (n=23), a tendency of differential expression was detected only for the GH2 gene and in pregnancies with large-for-gestational-age newborns. Our results, together with those reported by others, are consistent with a pleiotropic effect of placental hGH/CSH genes at the maternal-fetal interface relating to the regulation of fetal growth and the risk of affected maternal metabolism.
Project description:Genital Alphapapillomavirus (αPV) infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted human infections worldwide. Women infected with the highly oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are at high risk for development of cervical cancer. Related oncogenic αPVs exist in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Here the authors identified 3 novel genital αPV types (PhPV1, PhPV2, PhPV3) by PCR in cervical samples from 6 of 15 (40%) wild-caught female Kenyan olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Eleven baboons had koilocytes in the cervix and vagina. Three baboons had dysplastic proliferative changes consistent with cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV1, 1 had moderate (CIN2, n = 1) and 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia. In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV2, 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia and the other had only koilocytes. Two baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV3 had koilocytes only. PhPV1 and PhPV2 were closely related to oncogenic macaque and human αPVs. These findings suggest that αPV-infected baboons may be useful animal models for the pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis of genital αPV neoplasia. Additionally, this discovery suggests that genital αPVs with oncogenic potential may infect a wider spectrum of non-human primate species than previously thought.
Project description:The olfactomedin-like domain (OLFML) is present in at least four families of proteins, including OLFML2A and OLFML2B, which are expressed in adult rat retina cells. However, no expression of their orthologous has ever been reported in human and baboon.The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of OLFML2A and OLFML2B in ocular tissues of baboons (Papio hamadryas) and humans, as a key to elucidate OLFML function in eye physiology.OLFML2A and OLFML2B cDNA detection in ocular tissues of these species was performed by RT-PCR. The amplicons were cloned and sequenced, phylogenetically analyzed and their proteins products were confirmed by immunofluorescence assays.OLFML2A and OLFML2B transcripts were found in human cornea, lens and retina and in baboon cornea, lens, iris and retina. The baboon OLFML2A and OLFML2B ORF sequences have 96% similarity with their human's orthologous. OLFML2A and OLFML2B evolution fits the hypothesis of purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis shows clear orthology in OLFML2A genes, while OLFML2B orthology is not clear.Expression of OLFML2A and OLFML2B in human and baboon ocular tissues, including their high similarity, make the baboon a powerful model to deduce the physiological and/or metabolic function of these proteins in the eye.
Project description:Searching for clues to the evolution of the primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLVs), which include the human and the simian T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV and STLV), we have identified another PTLV, which differs sufficiently from the known PTLV-I and PTLV-II types to be designated here PTLV-L. The virus was isolated from a wild-born baboon (Papio hamadryas) from Eritrea. In a cDNA library a 1802-bp-long fragment was identified that extends from the env region, including the complete transmembrane protein gene, to part of the tax/rex gene. Homologies at the nucleotide sequence level of PTLV-L, prototype simian T-lymphotropic virus-PH969, with HTLV-I and -II, respectively, were 62% and 64% overall, 65% and 70% in the env region, and 80% and 80% in the partial tax/rex sequence. In the 5' part of the pX region a significant homology was seen only with HTLV-II (52%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gene encoding the transmembrane protein indicates that PTLV-L represents a PTLV type with a long independent evolution, longer than any strain within the PTLV-I or PTLV-II groups. The finding of another PTLV type in African baboons is further evidence of the wide variety of PTLV found on this continent. Whether PTLV-L resembles PTLV-I and PTLV-II in the extension of its host range to other primates, including humans, remains to be seen.
Project description:A new partial cranium (UW 88-886) of the Plio-Pleistocene baboon Papio angusticeps from Malapa is identified, described and discussed. UW 88-886 represents the only non-hominin primate yet recovered from Malapa and is important both in the context of baboon evolution as well as South African hominin site biochronology. The new specimen may represent the first appearance of modern baboon anatomy and coincides almost perfectly with molecular divergence date estimates for the origin of the modern P. hamadryas radiation. The fact that the Malapa specimen is dated between ~2.026-2.36 million years ago (Ma) also has implications for the biochronology of other South African Plio-Pleistocene sites where P. angusticeps is found.