Endothelial Jarid2/Jumonji is required for normal cardiac development and proper Notch1 expression.
ABSTRACT: Jarid2/Jumonji critically regulates developmental processes including cardiovascular development. Jarid2 knock-out mice exhibit cardiac defects including hypertrabeculation with noncompaction of the ventricular wall. However, molecular mechanisms underlying Jarid2-mediated cardiac development remain unknown. To determine the cardiac lineage-specific roles of Jarid2, we generated myocardial, epicardial, cardiac neural crest, or endothelial conditional Jarid2 knock-out mice using Cre-loxP technology. Only mice with an endothelial deletion of Jarid2 recapitulate phenotypic defects observed in whole body mutants including hypertrabeculation and noncompaction of the ventricle. To identify potential targets of Jarid2, combinatorial approaches using microarray and candidate gene analyses were employed on Jarid2 knock-out embryonic hearts. Whole body or endothelial deletion of Jarid2 leads to increased endocardial Notch1 expression in the developing ventricle, resulting in increased Notch1-dependent signaling to the adjacent myocardium. Using quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, Jarid2 was found to occupy a specific region on the endogenous Notch1 locus. We propose that failure to properly regulate Notch signaling in Jarid2 mutants likely leads to the defects in the developing ventricular chamber. The identification of Jarid2 as a potential regulator of Notch1 signaling has broad implications for many cellular processes including development, stem cell maintenance, and tumor formation.
Project description:Trabeculation and compaction of the embryonic myocardium are morphogenetic events crucial for the formation and function of the ventricular walls. Fkbp1a (FKBP12) is a ubiquitously expressed cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase. Fkbp1a-deficient mice develop ventricular hypertrabeculation and noncompaction. To determine the physiological function of Fkbp1a in regulating the intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways involved in ventricular trabeculation and compaction, we generated a series of Fkbp1a conditional knockouts. Surprisingly, cardiomyocyte-restricted ablation of Fkbp1a did not give rise to the ventricular developmental defect, whereas endothelial cell-restricted ablation of Fkbp1a recapitulated the ventricular hypertrabeculation and noncompaction observed in Fkbp1a systemically deficient mice, suggesting an important contribution of Fkbp1a within the developing endocardia in regulating the morphogenesis of ventricular trabeculation and compaction. Further analysis demonstrated that Fkbp1a is a novel negative modulator of activated Notch1. Activated Notch1 (N1ICD) was significantly upregulated in Fkbp1a-ablated endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of Fkbp1a significantly reduced the stability of N1ICD and direct inhibition of Notch signaling significantly reduced hypertrabeculation in Fkbp1a-deficient mice. Our findings suggest that Fkbp1a-mediated regulation of Notch1 plays an important role in intercellular communication between endocardium and myocardium, which is crucial in controlling the formation of the ventricular walls.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation is critical in normal cardiac development. We have demonstrated that the deletion of Jarid2 (Jumonji (Jmj) A/T-rich interaction domain 2) in mice results in cardiac malformations recapitulating human congenital cardiac disease and dysregulation of gene expression. However, the precise developmental and epigenetic functions of Jarid2 within the developing heart remain to be elucidated. Here, we determined the cardiac-specific functions of Jarid2 and the genetic networks regulated by Jarid2. Jarid2 was deleted using different cardiac-specific Cre mice. The deletion of Jarid2 by Nkx2.5-Cre mice (Jarid2Nkx) caused cardiac malformations including ventricular septal defects, thin myocardium, hypertrabeculation, and neonatal lethality. Jarid2Nkx mice exhibited elevated expression of neural genes, cardiac jelly, and other key factors including Isl1 and Bmp10 in the developing heart. By employing combinatorial genome-wide approaches and molecular analyses, we showed that Jarid2 in the myocardium regulates a subset of Jarid2 target gene expression and H3K27me3 enrichment during heart development. Specifically, Jarid2 was required for PRC2 occupancy and H3K27me3 at the Isl1 promoter locus, leading to the proper repression of Isl1 expression. In contrast, Jarid2 deletion in differentiated cardiomyocytes by cTnt-Cre mice caused no gross morphological defects or neonatal lethality. Thus, the early deletion of Jarid2 in cardiac progenitors, prior to the differentiation of cardiac progenitors into cardiomyocytes, results in morphogenetic defects manifested later in development. Our studies reveal that there is a critical window during early cardiac progenitor differentiation when Jarid2 is crucial to establish the epigenetic landscape at later stages of development.
Project description:Background. Noncompaction/hypertrabeculation left ventricle (NCM/HVM) is most commonly reported in one or more segments of left ventricle and sometimes both ventricles. In this case, we present noncompaction of all segments of right and left ventricle, in a young man with mental retardation. Case Presentation. A 19-year-old male was referred to us with sudden dyspnea at rest and chest discomfort. He was a known case of mental retardation. He was born full term with birth weight = 1250 grams. On physical examination. A systolic murmur (II/VI) at left sternal border was heard. ECG showed increased voltage in precordial lead and deep ST segment depression. Chest X-ray (CXR) was within normal limits. Transthoracic echocardiography showed situs solitus, D loop, normal connection of great vessels, noncompaction LV at all segments (noncompaction/compaction = 2.5/0.5) with moderate systolic dysfunction (LVEF = 40%), diastolic dysfunction grade II, normal RV size with mild systolic dysfunction and hypertrabeculation, mild tricuspid regurgitation (TR), and normal pulmonary artery systolic pressure. After injection of agitated saline some bubbles were passed from right to left through patent foramen oval (PFO). Conclusions. Extensive sinusoid formation and trabeculation of RV and nearby all LV segments and its association with mental retardation suggest presence of strong genetic background.
Project description:Myocardial noncompaction (NC) is a disorder of the embryonic endomyocardial morphogenesis frequently associated with congenital cardiac abnormalities. NC predominantly affects the left ventricle (LV). Right ventricle (RV) NC may occur in association with LV involvement or in isolation. A 47-year-old woman was admitted for atrial septal defect closure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed hypertrabeculation of the RV apex, consisting of multiple deep recesses with the entrance of blood flow in color Doppler imaging, suggestive of isolated RV hypertrabeculation/NC. The RV and right atrium (RA) were enlarged, and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was slightly increased. Our patient's associated abnormalities were atrial septal defect (superior sinus venosus type), anomalous connection of the right upper pulmonary vein to the junction of the superior vena cava and the RA, and large patent foramen ovale. Association between atrial septal defect and partial anomalous pulmonary vein connection and isolated hypertrabeculated/noncompacted RV should be considered by cardiologists.
Project description:Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is one of the most common forms of genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by excessive trabeculation and impaired myocardial compaction during fetal development. Patients with LVNC are at higher risk of developing left/right ventricular failure or both. Although the key regulators for cardiac chamber development are well studied, the role of semaphorin (Sema)/plexin signaling in this process remains poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of Plxnd1, a class-3 Sema receptor in endothelial cells, leads to severe cardiac chamber defects. They were characterized by excessive trabeculation and noncompaction similar to patients with LVNC. Loss of Plxnd1 results in decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteolytic genes, leading to excessive deposition of cardiac jelly. We demonstrate that Plxnd1 deficiency is associated with an increase in Notch1 expression and its downstream target genes. In addition, inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway partially rescues the excessive trabeculation and noncompaction phenotype present in Plxnd1 mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), one of PlexinD1's known ligands, is expressed in the developing heart and is required for myocardial compaction. Collectively, our study uncovers what we believe to be a previously undescribed role of the Sema3E/PlexinD1 signaling pathway in myocardial trabeculation and the compaction process.
Project description:Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is usually caused by autosomal dominant pathogenic mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric or sarcomere-associated cardiac muscle proteins. The disease mainly affects adults, although young children with severe HCM have also been reported. We describe four unrelated neonates with lethal cardiomyopathy, and performed molecular studies to identify the genetic defect. We also present a literature overview of reported patients with compound heterozygous or homozygous pathogenic MYBPC3 mutations and describe their clinical characteristics. All four children presented with feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, and dyspnea. They died from cardiac failure before age 13 weeks. Features of left ventricular noncompaction were diagnosed in three patients. In the fourth, hypertrabeculation was not a clear feature, but could not be excluded. All of them had septal defects. Two patients were compound heterozygotes for the pathogenic c.2373dup p.(Trp792fs) and c.2827C>T p.(Arg943*) mutations, and two were homozygous for the c.2373dup and c.2827C>T mutations. All patients with biallelic truncating pathogenic mutations in MYBPC3 reported so far (n=21) were diagnosed with severe cardiomyopathy and/or died within the first few months of life. In 62% (13/21), septal defects or a patent ductus arteriosus accompanied cardiomyopathy. In contrast to heterozygous pathogenic mutations, homozygous or compound heterozygous truncating pathogenic MYBPC3 mutations cause severe neonatal cardiomyopathy with features of left ventricular noncompaction and septal defects in approximately 60% of patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT) is a cardiac abnormality of unknown etiology which has been described in children as well as in adults with and without chromosomal aberrations. LVHT has been reported in association with various cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities like epilepsy and facial dysmorphism. CASE PRESENTATION: A unique combination of LVHT, atrial septal defect, pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic stenosis, epilepsy and minor facial anomalies is presented in a 5.5 years old girl. Microarray-based genomic hybridization (array-CGH) detected six previously not described copy number variants (CNVs) inherited from a clinically unaffected father and minimally affected mother, thus, most likely, not clinically significant but rare benign variants. CONCLUSIONS: Despite this complex phenotype de novo microdeletions or microduplications were not detected by array CGH. Further investigations, such as whole exome sequencing, could reveal point mutations and small indels as the possible cause.
Project description:The heart is a muscle with high energy demands. Hence, most patients with mitochondrial disease produced by defects in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system are susceptible to cardiac involvement. The presentation of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy includes hypertrophic, dilated and left ventricular noncompaction, but the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac impairment are unknown. One of the most frequent OXPHOS defects in humans frequently associated with cardiomyopathy is cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency caused by mutations in COX assembly factors such as Sco1 and Sco2. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the cardiomyopathy associated with Sco deficiency, we have heart specifically interfered scox expression, the single Drosophila Sco orthologue. Cardiac-specific knockdown of scox reduces fly lifespan, and it severely compromises heart function and structure, producing dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyocytes with low levels of scox have a significant reduction in COX activity and they undergo a metabolic switch from OXPHOS to glycolysis, mimicking the clinical features found in patients harbouring Sco mutations. The major cardiac defects observed are produced by a significant increase in apoptosis, which is dp53-dependent. Genetic and molecular evidence strongly suggest that dp53 is directly involved in the development of the cardiomyopathy induced by scox deficiency. Remarkably, apoptosis is enhanced in the muscle and liver of Sco2 knock-out mice, clearly suggesting that cell death is a key feature of the COX deficiencies produced by mutations in Sco genes in humans.
Project description:Barth syndrome is a rare, multisystem disorder caused by mutations in tafazzin that lead to cardiolipin deficiency and mitochondrial abnormalities. Patients most commonly develop an early-onset cardiomyopathy in infancy or fetal life.Knockdown of tafazzin (TAZKD) in a mouse model was induced from the start of gestation via a doxycycline-inducible shRNA transgenic approach. All liveborn TAZKD mice died within the neonatal period, and in vivo echocardiography revealed prenatal loss of TAZKD embryos at E12.5-14.5. TAZKD E13.5 embryos and newborn mice demonstrated significant tafazzin knockdown, and mass spectrometry analysis of hearts revealed abnormal cardiolipin profiles typical of Barth syndrome. Electron microscopy of TAZKD hearts demonstrated ultrastructural abnormalities in mitochondria at both E13.5 and newborn stages. Newborn TAZKD mice exhibited a significant reduction in total mitochondrial area, smaller size of individual mitochondria, reduced cristae density, and disruption of the normal parallel orientation between mitochondria and sarcomeres. Echocardiography of E13.5 and newborn TAZKD mice showed good systolic function, but early diastolic dysfunction was evident from an abnormal flow pattern in the dorsal aorta. Strikingly, histology of E13.5 and newborn TAZKD hearts showed myocardial thinning, hypertrabeculation and noncompaction, and defective ventricular septation. Altered cellular proliferation occurring within a narrow developmental window accompanied the myocardial hypertrabeculation-noncompaction.In this murine model, tafazzin deficiency leads to a unique developmental cardiomyopathy characterized by ventricular myocardial hypertrabeculation-noncompaction and early lethality. A central role of cardiolipin and mitochondrial functioning is strongly implicated in cardiomyocyte differentiation and myocardial patterning required for heart development. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:jah3-e000455 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.111.000455.).
Project description:Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSC) are a novel mesenchymal stem cell subpopulation derived from cardiac tissue, whichi are reported to be responsible for cardiac regeneration. Notch siganling is believed to aid in cardiac repair following myocardial injury.Here, we investigated the difference of protein cargo content among extracellular vesicles from wild type C-MSC, Notch1 knock out C-MSC and Notch1 activated C-MSC.