Sequential synthesis and methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine promote lipid droplet biosynthesis and stability in tissue culture and in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Triacylglycerols are stored in eukaryotic cells within lipid droplets (LD). The LD core is enwrapped by a phospholipid monolayer with phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a minor component. We demonstrate that the onset of LD formation is characterized by a change in cellular PC, PE, and phosphatidylserine (PS). With induction of differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes, the cellular PC/PE ratio decreased concomitant with LD formation, with the most pronounced decline between confluency and day 5. The mRNA for PS synthase-1 (forms PS from PC) and PS decarboxylase (forms PE from PS) increased after day 5. Activity and protein of PE N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which produces PC by methylation of PE, are absent in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts but were induced at day 5. High fat challenge induced PEMT expression in mouse adipose tissue. PE, produced via PS decarboxylase, was the preferred substrate for methylation to PC. A PEMT-GFP fusion protein decorated the periphery of LD. PEMT knockdown in 3T3-L1 adipocytes correlated with increased basal triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Pemt(-/-) mice developed desensitization against adenosine-mediated inhibition of basal hydrolysis in adipose tissue, and adipocyte hypotrophy was observed in Pemt(-/-) animals on a high fat diet. Knock-out of PEMT in adipose tissue down-regulated PS synthase-1 mRNA, suggesting coordination between PE supply and converting pathways during LD biosynthesis. We conclude that two consecutive processes not previously related to LD biogenesis, (i) PE production via PS and (ii) PE conversion via PEMT, are implicated in LD formation and stability.
Project description:The reversible association of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase ? (CCT?) with membranes regulates the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the CDP-choline (Kennedy) pathway. Based on results with insect CCT homologues, translocation of nuclear CCT? onto cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) is proposed to stimulate the synthesis of PC that is required for LD biogenesis and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage. We examined whether this regulatory mechanism applied to LD biogenesis in mammalian cells. During 3T3-L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation, CCT? expression and PC synthesis was induced. In 3T3-L1 cells, CCT? translocated from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope and cytosol but did not associate with LDs. The enzyme also remained in the nucleus during human adipocyte differentiation. RNAi silencing in 3T3-L1 cells showed that CCT? regulated LD size but did not affect TAG storage or adipogenesis. LD biogenesis in nonadipocyte cell lines treated with oleate also promoted CCT? translocation to the nuclear envelope and/or cytoplasm but not LDs. In rat intestinal epithelial cells, CCT? silencing increased LD size, but LD number and TAG deposition were decreased due to oleate-induced cytotoxicity. We conclude that CCT? increases PC synthesis for LD biogenesis by translocation to the nuclear envelope and not cytoplasmic LDs.
Project description:When 3T3-L1 fibroblasts differentiate to adipocytes, the specific activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) increases about 25-fold in parallel with its intracellular protein concentration. The increase in PC protein concentration is accompanied by a 9-10-fold increase in the relative abundance of 4.2 kb PC mRNA measured by Northern-blot analysis using a cDNA probe encoding a segment of the PC gene of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) alone and together with insulin on levels of cellular protein, PC activity, PC protein and on the relative abundance of PC mRNA were examined in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes exposed to cAMP for 24 h exhibited a 25% decrease in cellular protein and marked decreases in enzyme activity (88%) and PC mRNA abundance (98%) compared with untreated adipocyte controls. After 48 h of exposure to cAMP, PC activity and PC mRNA diminished to levels approaching their detection limits. When exposed to medium containing cAMP plus insulin, adipocyte enzyme activity and PC mRNA declined more slowly during the first 24 h exposure (about 20% decrease) but after 48 h fell to values comparable with those of adipocytes exposed to cAMP alone. Despite these decreases in enzyme activity, the PC protein content of adipocytes treated with cAMP alone or cAMP plus insulin are nearly identical with that of control adipocytes. The inactivation of PC in cAMP-treated adipocytes does not involve loss of the prosthetic group from the holoenzyme. Cross-linking experiments suggest that the spatial arrangement of protomers in inactive PC may differ from that in the active tetrameric enzyme. Data presented suggest that, in addition to inducing inactivation, cAMP may also regulate adipocyte PC by decreasing transcription of the PC gene and/or enhancing the rate of degradation of PC mRNA.
Project description:Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) has been thought to be a critical factor that assists adipogenesis. During adipogenesis SREBP-1 stimulates lipogenic gene expression, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) enhances perilipin (plin) gene expression, resulting in generating lipid droplets (LDs) to store triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipocytes. Plin coats adipocyte LDs and protects them from lipolysis. Here we show in white adipose tissue (WAT) of plin-/- mice that nuclear active SREBP-1 and its target gene expression, but not nuclear SREBP-2, significantly decreased on attenuated LD formation. When plin-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) differentiated into adipocytes, attenuated LDs were formed and nuclear SREBP-1 decreased, but enforced plin expression restored them to their original state. Since LDs are largely derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), alterations in the ER cholesterol content were investigated during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The ER cholesterol greatly reduced in differentiated adipocytes. The ER cholesterol level in plin-/- WAT was significantly higher than that of wild-type mice, suggesting that increased LD formation caused a change in ER environment along with a decrease in cholesterol. When GFP-SREBP-1 fusion proteins were exogenously expressed in 3T3-L1 cells, a mutant protein lacking the S1P cleavage site was poorly processed during adipogenesis, providing evidence of the increased canonical pathway for SREBP processing in which SREBP-1 is activated by two cleavage enzymes in the Golgi. Therefore, LD biogenesis may create the ER microenvironment favorable for SREBP-1 activation. We describe the novel interplay between LD formation and SREBP-1 activation through a positive feedback loop.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:New-onset diabetes and concomitant weight loss occurring several months before the clinical presentation of pancreatic cancer (PC) appear to be paraneoplastic phenomena caused by tumour-secreted products. Our recent findings have shown exosomal adrenomedullin (AM) is important in development of diabetes in PC. Adipose tissue lipolysis might explain early onset weight loss in PC. We hypothesise that lipolysis-inducing cargo is carried in exosomes shed by PC and is responsible for the paraneoplastic effects. Therefore, in this study we investigate if exosomes secreted by PC induce lipolysis in adipocytes and explore the role of AM in PC-exosomes as the mediator of this lipolysis. DESIGN:Exosomes from patient-derived cell lines and from plasma of patients with PC and non-PC controls were isolated and characterised. Differentiated murine (3T3-L1) and human adipocytes were exposed to these exosomes to study lipolysis. Glycerol assay and western blotting were used to study lipolysis. Duolink Assay was used to study AM and adrenomedullin receptor (ADMR) interaction in adipocytes treated with exosomes. RESULTS:In murine and human adipocytes, we found that both AM and PC-exosomes promoted lipolysis, which was abrogated by ADMR blockade. AM interacted with its receptor on the adipocytes, activated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases and promoted lipolysis by phosphorylating hormone-sensitive lipase. PKH67-labelled PC-exosomes were readily internalised into adipocytes and involved both caveolin and macropinocytosis as possible mechanisms for endocytosis. CONCLUSIONS:PC-secreted exosomes induce lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue; exosomal AM is a candidate mediator of this effect.
Project description:Because hyperhomocysteinemia can occur in cholesterol gallstone disease, we hypothesized that this may result from trimethylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which partakes in biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) hypersecretion during cholesterol cholelithogenesis. We fed murine strains C57L/J, C57BL/6J, SWR/J, AKR/J, PE N-methyltransferase (PEMT) knockout (KO), PEMT heterozygous (HET), and wildtype (WT) mice a cholesterol/cholic acid lithogenic diet (LD) for up to 56 days and documented biliary lipid phase transitions and secretion rates. We quantified plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and vitamin B12 in plasma and liver, as well as biliary tHcy and cysteine secretion rates. Rate-limiting enzyme activities of PC synthesis, PEMT and cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (PCT), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) were measured in liver homogenates. Other potential sources of plasma tHcy, glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) and guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT), were assayed by gene expression. Plasma tHcy and PEMT activities became elevated during cholelithogenesis in gallstone-susceptible C57L, C57BL/6, and SWR mice but not in the gallstone-resistant AKR mice. Persisting in C57L mice, which exhibit the greatest Lith gene burden, these increases were accompanied by elevated hepatic SAM/SAH ratios and augmented biliary tHcy secretion rates. Counter-regulation included remethylation of Hcy to methionine concurrent with decreased folate and vitamin B12 levels and Hcy transsulfuration to cysteine. Concomitantly, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr), betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (Bhmt), and cystathionine-?-synthase (Cbs) were up-regulated, but Gnmt and Gamt genes were down-regulated. PEMT KO and HET mice displayed biliary lipid secretion rates and high gallstone prevalence rates similar to WT mice without any elevation in plasma tHcy levels.This work implicates up-regulation of PC synthesis by the PEMT pathway as a source of elevated plasma and bile tHcy during cholesterol cholelithogenesis.
Project description:We have investigated whether the growth requirement of keratinocytes for ethanolamine is due to defective synthesis of ethanolamine phosphoacylglycerols (EPG) via decarboxylation of serine phosphoacylglycerols. Proliferating keratinocytes readily incorporated [3H]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and [3H]serine into phosphatidylserine (PS) and PE. Non-proliferating keratinocytes in ethanolamine-free medium incorporated [3H]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine (PC), PS and PE in decreasing order of label incorporated. The order of decreasing incorporation of glycerol after addition of ethanolamine to the medium was PC > PE > PS. Incubation of non-proliferating keratinocytes with [3H]serine resulted in incorporation of label into PS and PE. The extent of incorporation of [3H]serine into PS in non-proliferating keratinocytes was not less than that in proliferating cells. Addition of ethanolamine to the medium of non-proliferating keratinocytes did not change the quantity of label incorporated into PS, but resulted in a decrease of label incorporated into PE. When cells were prelabelled overnight with [3H]serine and subsequently incubated in medium containing ethanolamine, the loss of label from PS was inhibited relative to that of control cells incubated in medium without ethanolamine. The activity of PS decarboxylase activity in keratinocyte mitochondria was inhibited by phosphoethanolamine and PE, but not by ethanolamine or CDP-ethanolamine. Both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes incorporated [3H]serine into ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids. Taken together, the above results suggest that (1) both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes are able to synthesize PE and ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids from serine, and therefore the ethanolamine-requirement of the cells is not due to a defective decarboxylase pathway; (2) any inability of the decarboxylase pathway to meet cellular EPG requirement is not due to decreased synthesis of serine phospholipids; (3) synthesis of PE via decarboxylation, the major route in nonproliferating keratinocytes, appears to decrease when ethanolamine is made available and the CDP-ethanolamine pathway is functioning; (4) phosphoethanolamine and increased PE produced from the CDP-ethanolamine pathway may inhibit PS decarboxylase activity in the cells and provide a means of coordinating the synthesis of PE by the two pathways to prevent excess production.
Project description:Obesity is an epidemic matter increasing risk for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. We recently examined the association between visceral fat adiposity and gene expression profile of peripheral blood cells in human subjects. In a series of studies, Opa (Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity-associated)-interacting protein 5 (OIP5) was nominated as a molecule of unknown function in adipocytes and thus the present study was performed to investigate the role of OIP5 in obesity. Adenovirus overexpressing Oip5 (Ad-Oip5) was generated and infected to 3T3-L1 cells stably expressing Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR-3T3-L1) and to mouse subcutaneous fat. For a knockdown experiment, siRNA against Oip5 (Oip5-siRNA) was introduced into 3T3-L1 cells. Proliferation of adipose cells was measured by BrdU uptake, EdU-staining, and cell count. Significant increase of Oip5 mRNA level was observed in obese white adipose tissues and such increase was detected in both mature adipocytes fraction and stromal vascular cell fraction. Ad-Oip5-infected CAR-3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes proliferated rapidly, while a significant reduction of proliferation was observed in Oip5-siRNA-introduced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Fat weight and number of adipocytes were significantly increased in Ad-Oip5-administered fat tissues. Oip5 promotes proliferation of pre- and mature-adipocytes and contributes adipose hyperplasia. Increase of Oip5 may associate with development of obesity.
Project description:Objective:Transcriptional regulatory elements in the ameloblastin (AMBN) promoter indicate that adipogenesis may influence its expression. The objective here was to investigate if AMBN is expressed in adipose tissue, and have a role during differentiation of adipocytes. Design:AMBN expression was examined in adipose tissue and adipocytes by real-time PCR and ELISA. Distribution of ameloblastin was investigated by immunofluorescence in sections of human subcutaneous adipose tissue. The effect of recombinant proteins resembling AMBN and its processed products on proliferation of primary human pre-adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 cell lines was measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The effect on adipocyte differentiation was evaluated by the expression profile of the adipogenic markers PPARγ and leptin, and the content of lipids droplets (Oil-Red-O staining). Results:AMBN was found to be expressed in human adipose tissue, human primary adipocytes, and in 3T3-L1 cells. The C-terminus of the AMBN protein and a 45 bp shorter splice variant was identified in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. The expression of AMBN was found to increase four-fold during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Administration of recombinant AMBN reduced the proliferation, and enhanced the expression of PPARγ and leptin in 3T3-L1 and human pre-adipocytes, respectively. Conclusions:The AMBN C-terminus variant was identified in adipocytes. This variant may be encoded from a short splice variant. Increased expression of AMBN during adipogenesis and its effect on adipogenic factors suggests that AMBN also has a role in adipocyte development.
Project description:Peanut sprouts (PS), which are germinated peanut seeds, have recently been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects. However, the underlying mechanisms by which PS modulates lipid metabolism are largely unknown. To address this question, serial doses of PS extract (PSE) were added to 3T3-L1 cells during adipocyte differentiation. PSE (25 µg/mL) significantly attenuated adipogenesis by inhibiting lipid accumulation in addition to reducing the level of adipogenic protein and gene expression with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Other adipocyte cell models such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts C3H10T1/2 and primary adipocytes also confirmed the anti-adipogenic properties of PSE. Next, we investigated whether PSE attenuated lipid accumulation in mature adipocytes. We found that PSE significantly suppressed lipogenic gene expression, while fatty acid (FA) oxidation genes were upregulated. Augmentation of FA oxidation by PSE in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes was confirmed via a radiolabeled-FA oxidation rate experiment by measuring the conversion of [³H]-oleic acid (OA) to [³H]-H₂O. Furthermore, PSE enhanced the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR), especially maximal respiration, and beige adipocyte formation in adipocytes. In summary, PSE was effective in reducing lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation involved in AMPK and mitochondrial activation.
Project description:We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.