Common variants in a novel gene, FONG on chromosome 2q33.1 confer risk of osteoporosis in Japanese.
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass, decreased bone quality and increased predisposition to fracture. Genetic factors have been implicated in its etiology; however, the specific genes related to susceptibility to osteoporosis are not entirely known. To detect susceptibility genes for osteoporosis, we conducted a genome-wide association study in Japanese using ?270,000 SNPs in 1,747 subjects (190 cases and 1,557 controls) followed by multiple levels of replication of the association using a total of ?5,000 subjects (2,092 cases and 3,114 controls). Through these staged association studies followed by resequencing and linkage disequilibrium mapping, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs7605378 associated with osteoporosis. (combined P?=?1.51×10(-8), odds ratio?=?1.25). This SNP is in a previously unknown gene on chromosome 2q33.1, FONG. FONG is predicted to encode a 147 amino-acid protein with a formiminotransferase domain in its N-terminal (FTCD_N domain) and is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues including bone. Our findings would give a new insight into osteoporosis etiology and pathogenesis.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by a decreased bone mineral density that results in an increased risk of fragility fractures. Previous studies indicated that genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Polymorphisms of the FONG (FTCDNL1) gene (rs7605378) were reported to be associated with the risk of osteoporosis in a Japanese population. To assess whether polymorphisms of the FTCDNL1 gene contribute to the susceptibility and severity of osteoporosis in a Taiwanese population, 326 osteoporosis patients and 595 controls of a Taiwanese population were included in this study. Our results indicated that rs10203122 was significantly associated with osteoporosis susceptibility among female. Our findings provide evidence that rs10203122 in FTCDNL1 is associated with a susceptibility to osteoporosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) are degenerative retinal dystrophies leading to blindness. To identify new genes responsible for these diseases, we have studied one large non consanguineous French family with autosomal dominant (ad) CRD. METHODS: Family members underwent detailed ophthalmological examination. Linkage analysis using microsatellite markers and a whole-genome SNP analysis with the use of Affymetrix 250 K SNP chips were performed. Five candidate genes within the candidate region were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. RESULTS: We first excluded the involvement of known adRP and adCRD genes in the family by genotyping and linkage analysis. Then, we undertook a whole-genome scan on 22 individuals in the family. The analysis revealed a 41.3-Mb locus on position 2q24.2-2q33.1. This locus was confirmed by linkage analysis with specific markers of this region. The maximum LOD score was 2.86 at θ = 0 for this locus. Five candidate genes, CERKL, BBS5, KLHL23, NEUROD1, and SF3B1 within this locus, were not mutated. CONCLUSION: A novel locus for adCRD, named CORD12, has been mapped to chromosome 2q24.2-2q33.1 in a non consanguineous French family.
Project description:Previous genome-wide association studies did not show a consistent association between the BOLL gene (rs700651, 2q33.1) and intracranial aneurysm (IA) susceptibility. We aimed to perform an updated meta-analysis for the potential IA-susceptibility locus in large-scale multi-ethnic populations. We conducted a systematic review of studies identified by an electronic search from January 1990 to March 2019. The overall estimates of the "G" allele of rs700651, indicating IA susceptibility, were calculated under the fixed- and random-effect models using the inverse-variance method. Subsequent in silico function and cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) analyses were performed to evaluate biological functions and genotype-specific expressions in human tissues. We included 4513 IA patients and 13,506 controls from five studies with seven independent populations: three European-ancestry, three Japanese, and one Korean population. The overall result showed a genome-wide significance threshold between rs700651 and IA susceptibility after controlling for study heterogeneity (OR = 1.213, 95% CI: 1.135-1.296). Subsequent cis-eQTL analysis showed significant genome-wide expressions in three human tissues, i.e., testis (p = 8.04 × 10-15 for ANKRD44), tibial nerves (p = 3.18 × 10-10 for SF3B1), and thyroid glands (p = 4.61 × 10-9 for SF3B1). The rs700651 common variant of the 2q33.1 region may be involved in genetic mechanisms that increase the risk of IA and may play crucial roles in regulatory functions.
Project description:Recurrent deletions of 2q32q33 have recently been reported as a new microdeletion syndrome. Clinical features of this syndrome include severe mental retardation, growth retardation, dysmorphic features, thin and sparse hair, feeding difficulties and cleft or high palate. The commonly deleted region contains at least seven genes. Haploinsufficiency of one of these genes, SATB2, a DNA-binding protein that regulates gene expression, has been implicated as causative in the cleft or high palate of individuals with 2q32q33 microdeletion syndrome. In this study we describe three individuals with smaller microdeletions of this region, within 2q33.1. The deletions ranged in size from 173.1 kb to 185.2 kb and spanned part of SATB2. Review of clinical records showed similar clinical features among these individuals, including severe developmental delay and tooth abnormalities. Two of the individuals had behavioral problems. Only one of the subjects presented here had a cleft palate, suggesting reduced penetrance for this feature. Our results suggest that deletion of SATB2 is responsible for several of the clinical features associated with 2q32q33 microdeletion syndrome.
Project description:Caspases play a vital role during apoptosis. In addition to apoptosis, caspases play a role in cytokine gene induction and work to inhibit apoptosis. In order for individuals to thrive with useful tissue growth, the rate of cell growth and division must surpass the rate of cell division. It is well established that excessive cell death of embryonic cells is a vital process occurring before structural abnormalities, regardless of their nature. Here we describe a 13-month-old male patient with a 4.7Mb interstitial duplication of chromosome 2q33.1. This duplication was identified by chromosomal microarray (CMA) which is the first-tier clinical diagnostic test to identify copy number variants (CNVs) for patients with unexplained developmental delay or intellectual disability. This patient presents with global developmental delay, especially in speech, language, hypotonia, and bilateral simian creases. The duplicated region contains several disease-causing genes. We believe that the phenotype in this patient's case was likely related to the gain of caspase 8 and 10 genes.
This work focuses on the computational modelling of osteomyelitis, a bone pathology caused by bacteria infection (mostly Staphylococcus aureus). The infection alters the RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling dynamics that regulates osteoblasts and osteoclasts behaviour in bone remodelling, i.e. the resorption and mineralization activity. The infection rapidly leads to severe bone loss, necrosis of the affected portion, and it may even spread to other parts of the body. On the other hand, osteoporosis is not a bacterial infection but similarly is a defective bone pathology arising due to imbalances in the RANK/RANKL/OPG molecular pathway, and due to the progressive weakening of bone structure.
Since both osteoporosis and osteomyelitis cause loss of bone mass, we focused on comparing the dynamics of these diseases by means of computational models. Firstly, we performed meta-analysis on a gene expression data of normal, osteoporotic and osteomyelitis bone conditions. We mainly focused on RANKL/OPG signalling, the TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies and the NF-kB pathway. Using information from the gene expression data we estimated parameters for a novel model of osteoporosis and of osteomyelitis. Our models could be seen as a hybrid ODE and probabilistic verification modelling framework which aims at investigating the dynamics of the effects of the infection in bone remodelling. Finally we discuss different diagnostic estimators defined by formal verification techniques, in order to assess different bone pathologies (osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteomyelitis) in an effective way.
We present a modeling framework able to reproduce aspects of the different bone remodeling defective dynamics of osteomyelitis and osteoporosis. We report that the verification-based estimators are meaningful in the light of a feed forward between computational medicine and clinical bioinformatics
Model is encoded by Ruby and submitted and curated to BioModels by Ahmad Zyoud
Project description:Insufficient osteogenesis is greatly essential to osteoporosis. Bugu Shengsui Decoction, a compound formula for osteoporosis, has significant clinical effects in the treatment of osteoporosis. Yet the detailed mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we first evaluated the pharmacological effects of Bugu Shengsui Decoction on bone metabolism, bone mineral density, bone morphology and biomechanics in ovariectomized rats. It also clarified the promoting effect of Bugu Shengsui Decoction on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Based on the above results, we conducted quantitative proteomics research and a series of validation experiments, the results showed that PI3K-AKT signaling pathway and targets, such as Fn1, Col1a1, Col1a2, Col6a1, Col6a2, Col6a3, Rac1, Hsp90ab1, Hsp90b1, Ywhaz and Gnb2, were most relevant to the anti-osteoporosis efficacy of BGSSD. Summarily, our discoveries certify that Bugu Shengsui Decoction is an effective treatment for osteoporosis via PI3K-AKT.
Project description:The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the noninstitutionalized population aged 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 to 2010 US Census population counts to determine the total number of older US residents with osteoporosis and low bone mass. There were more than 99 million adults aged 50 years and older in the US in 2010. Based on an overall 10.3% prevalence of osteoporosis, we estimated that in 2010, 10.2 million older adults had osteoporosis. The overall low bone mass prevalence was 43.9%, from which we estimated that 43.4 million older adults had low bone mass. We estimated that 7.7 million non-Hispanic white, 0.5 million non-Hispanic black, and 0.6 million Mexican American adults had osteoporosis, and another 33.8, 2.9, and 2.0 million had low bone mass, respectively. When combined, osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine affected an estimated 53.6 million older US adults in 2010. Although most of the individuals with osteoporosis or low bone mass were non-Hispanic white women, a substantial number of men and women from other racial/ethnic groups also had osteoporotic BMD or low bone mass.
Project description:Osteoporosis presents as increased susceptibility to fractures due to bone loss and compromised bone microstructure. Osteoporosis mainly affects the elderly population, but it is increasingly recognized that compromised bone health with low bone mass and increased fractures may have its onset already in childhood. In such cases, genetic component is likely to contribute more than lifestyle factors to disease onset. During the last decade, our understanding of the genetic determinants of osteoporosis has significantly increased through family studies, candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies (GWASs). GWASs have led to identification of several genetic loci associated with osteoporosis. A valuable contribution to the research field has been made through studies involving families with childhood-onset rare bone diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome and various other skeletal dysplasias with reduced bone mass. Some genes involved in rare low bone mass diseases, such as LRP5 and WNT1, participate in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, and their discovery has underscored the importance of this pathway for normal skeletal health. The still continuing discovery of gene defects underlying various low bone mass phenotypes contributes to our understanding of normal bone metabolism and enables development of new therapies for osteoporosis.
Project description:Large-scale transcriptional profiling has enormous potential for discovery of osteoporosis susceptibility genes and for identification of the molecular mechanisms by which these genes and associated pathways regulate bone maintenance and turnover. A potential challenge in the use of this method for the discovery of osteoporosis genes is the difficulty of obtaining bone tissue samples from large numbers of individuals. In this study, we tested the applicability of using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived transcriptional profiles as a surrogate to cortical bone transcriptional profiles to address questions of skeletal genetics. We used a well-established and genetically well-characterized nonhuman primate model for human bone maintenance and turnover. We determined that a high degree of overlap exists in gene expression of cortical bone and PBMCs and that genes in both the osteoporosis-associated RANK Osteoclast and Estrogen Receptor Signaling pathways are highly expressed in PBMCs. Genes within the Wnt Signaling pathway, also implicated in osteoporosis pathobiology, are expressed in PBMCs, albeit to a lesser extent. These results are the first in an effort to comprehensively characterize the relationship between the PBMC transcriptome and bone – knowledge that is essential for maximizing the use of PBMCs to identify genes and signaling pathways relevant to osteoporosis pathogenesis. It is also a first step in identifying genes that correlate in a predictable manner between PBMCs and cortical bone from healthy and osteoporotic individuals, potentially allowing us to identify genes that could be used to diagnose osteoporosis prior to detectible bone loss and with easily obtained PBMCs. Overall design: Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cortical bone of a nonhuman primate model (Papio hamadryas ssp.) of bone maintenance and turnover. Both samples were taken from the same animal. Tissue from 15 animals was used for the study.